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Eudicots

The Eudicots, Eudicotidae or Eudicotyledons are a monophyletic ground (clade or evolutionarily related group) of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-Magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicotyledons from earlier, less specialized, dicotyledons.[1] The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons" as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicotyledons and have characters of the dicotyledons. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted as the do not refer to a monophyletic group.

The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen, or forms derived from it. These pollen have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants (that is the gymnosperms, the monocots and the paleodicots) produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus. The name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists in order to avoid confusion with the dicots, a non-monophyletic group (Judd & Olmstead 2004).

A large number of familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants, lumber trees, and ornamentals. Some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not, cabbage and other members of the its family, apple, buttercup, maple and macadamia.

The name eudicots (plural) is used in the APG system, of 1998, and APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a clade, a monophyletic group, which includes most of the (former) dicotyledons.

Subdivisions

The eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots.[2] Basal eudicots is an informal name for a paraphyletic group. The core eudicots are a monophyletic group.[3]

A second study has suggested that the core eudicots can be divided into two clades - Pentapetalae - comprising all core eudicots except Gunnerales - and Gunnerales.[4]

Pentapetalae can be then divided into three clades:

  • (i) a "superrosid" clade consisting of Rosidae, Vitaceae and Saxifragales
  • (ii) a "superasterid" clade consisting of Berberidopsidales, Santalales, Caryophyllales and Asteridae
  • (iii) Dilleniaceae

Within the core eudicots, the largest groups are the "rosids" (core group with the prefix "eu ") and the "asterids" (core group with the prefix "eu ").

  • eudicots :
  • core eudicots :
  • rosids :
  • eurosids I
  • eurosids II
  • asterids :
  • euasterids I
  • euasterids II

In more detail, within each clade some unplaced families and orders (unplaced genera are not mentioned):

  • clade eudicots
  • family Buxaceae [+ family Didymelaceae]
  • family Sabiaceae
  • family Trochodendraceae [+ family Tetracentraceae]
  • order Ranunculales
  • order Proteales
  • clade core eudicots
  • family Aextoxicaceae
  • family Berberidopsidaceae
  • family Dilleniaceae
  • order Gunnerales
  • order Caryophyllales
  • order Saxifragales
  • order Santalales
  • clade rosids
  • family Aphloiaceae
  • family Geissolomataceae
  • family Ixerbaceae
  • family Picramniaceae
  • family Strassburgeriaceae
  • family Vitaceae
  • order Crossosomatales
  • order Geraniales
  • order Myrtales
  • clade eurosids I
  • family Zygophyllaceae [+ family Krameriaceae]
  • family Huaceae
  • order Celastrales
  • order Malpighiales
  • order Oxalidales
  • order Fabales
  • order Rosales
  • order Cucurbitales
  • order Fagales
  • clade eurosids II
  • family Tapisciaceae
  • order Brassicales
  • order Malvales
  • order Sapindales
  • clade asterids
  • order Cornales
  • order Ericales
  • clade euasterids I
  • family Boraginaceae
  • family Icacinaceae
  • family Oncothecaceae
  • family Vahliaceae
  • order Garryales
  • order Solanales
  • order Gentianales
  • order Lamiales
  • clade euasterids II
  • family Bruniaceae
  • family Columelliaceae [+ family Desfontainiaceae]
  • family Eremosynaceae
  • family Escalloniaceae
  • family Paracryphiaceae
  • family Polyosmaceae
  • family Sphenostemonacae
  • family Tribelaceae
  • order Aquifoliales
  • order Apiales
  • order Dipsacales
  • order Asterales

Note : + .... = optional, as a segregate of the previous family.

References

  1. Worberg A, Quandt D, Barniske A-M, L hne C, Hilu KW, Borsch T (2007) Phylogeny of basal eudicots: insights from non-coding and rapidly evolving DNA. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 7 (1), 55-77.
  2. Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Peter K. Endress, and Mark W. Chase. Phylogeny and Evolution of Angiosperms. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA. (2005).
  3. Moore MJ, Soltis PS, Bell CD, Burleigh JG, Soltis DE (2010) Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
  • Doyle, J. A. & Hotton, C. L. Diversification of early angiosperm pollen in a cladistic context. pp. 169 195 in Pollen and Spores. Patterns of Diversification (eds Blackmore, S. & Barnes, S. H.) (Clarendon, Oxford, 1991).
  • (full text )
  • Eudicots in Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006.

External links

ca:Eudicotiled nia cs:Vy dvoud lo n cy:Ewdicot de:Dreifurchenpollen-Zweikeimbl ttrige es:Eudicotyledoneae eo:Verdukotiledonaj fa: fr:Dicotyl dones vraies gv:Eudicotyledonae ko: hsb:Rosopsida id:Eudikotil it:Eudicotiledoni la:Eudicotyledones lb:Rosopsida hu:Val di k tszik ek mk: ml: ms:Eudikot nl:'Nieuwe' tweezaadlobbigen ja: no:Egentlige tofr bladede planter oc:Eudicotiledon as pl:Rosopsida pt:Eudicotiled neas qu:Kimsa khata sisayuq ru: fi:Rosopsida sv:Trikolpater uk: vi:Th c v t hai l m m th t s zh:






Source: Wikipedia | The above article is available under the GNU FDL. | Edit this article



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