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Elision

Elision is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker to pronounce. Sometimes, sounds may be elided for euphonic effect.

In English, elision is often unintentional, giving a result that may in some cases be impressionistically described as "slurred" or "muted." Often, however, the elision is deliberate, as in the use of contractions.

In French, elision is mandatory in certain contexts, as in the clause C'est la vie (elided from *ce est la vie).

An example of deliberate elision occurs in Latin poetry as a stylistic device. Under certain circumstances, such as one word ending in a vowel and the following word beginning in a vowel, the words may be elided together. Elision was a common device in the works of Catullus. For example, the opening line of Catullus 3 is: Lugete, O Veneres Cupidinesque, but would be read as Lugeto Veneres Cupidinesque.

A synonym for elision is syncope, though the latter term is most often associated with the elision of vowels between consonants (e.g., Latin tabula Spanish tabla). Another form of elision is apheresis, which means elision at the beginning of a word (generally of an unstressed vowel).

Some morphemes take the form of elision. See disfix.

The opposite of elision is epenthesis, whereby sounds are inserted into a word to ease pronunciation.

A special form of elision called ecthlipsis is used in Latin poetry when a word ending in the letter "m" is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, e.g., "...et mutam nequiquam adloquerer cinerem." = "...et mutam nequiquadloquerer cinerem." - Catullus 101.

The omission of a word from a phrase or sentence is not elision but ellipsis or, more accurately, elliptical construction.

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Written representation

Even though the effort that it takes to pronounce a word does not hold any influence in writing, a word or phrase may be spelled the same as it is spoken, for example, in poetry or in the script for a theatre play, in order to show the actual speech of a character. It may also be used in an attempt to transcribe non-standard speech. Also, some kinds of elision (as well as other phonological devices) are commonly used in poetry in order to preserve a particular rhythm.

In some languages employing the Latin alphabet, such as English, the omitted letters in a contraction are replaced by an apostrophe (e.g., isn't for is not). Greek, which uses its own alphabet, marks elision in the same way.

Examples

English

Examples of elision in English:

comfortable: (rhotic English), (non-rhotic English)
fifth:
laboratory: (American English), (British English)
temperature: ,
vegetable: ,
family:
him:
going to:

Most elision in English is not mandatory, but is used in common practice and even sometimes in more formal speech. This applies to nearly all the examples in the above table. However, this type of elision is never shown in writing; the words are written the same whether or not the speaker would elide them.

Other examples, such as "him" and "going to" shown above, are generally only used in fast or informal speech. They are still generally written as is, unless the writer is intending to show the dialect or speech patterns of the speaker in which case they would write "'im" and "gonna".

The third type of elision is in common contractions, such as "can't", "isn't", or "I'm". The apostrophes represent the sounds that are removed, and are not spoken but help the reader to understand that it is a contraction and not a word of its own. These contractions used to be written out when transcribed (i.e. "cannot", "is not", "I am") even if they were pronounced as a contraction, but nowadays that is no longer the case and are always written as a contraction so long as they are spoken that way. However, they are by no means mandatory and a speaker or writer may choose to keep the words distinct rather than contract them either as a stylistic choice, when using formal register, to make meaning clearer to children or non-native English speakers, or to emphasize a word within the contraction (e.g. "I am going!")

French

Elision of unstressed vowels (usually []) is common in the French language, and in some cases must be indicated orthographically with an apostrophe. For further information about final vowel elision, see Elision (French).

Elision of vowel and consonant sounds was also an important phenomenon in the phonetic evolution of French. For example, s following a vowel and preceding another consonant regularly elided, with compensatory lengthening of the vowel.

  • Latin hospit le Old French (h)ostel Modern French h tel
  • Latin spatha Old French espee Modern French p e
  • Latin schola Old French escola Modern French cole

German

Nouns and adjectives that end with unstressed "el" or "er" have the "e" elided when they are declined or a suffix follows. ex. teuer becomes teure, teuren, etc., and Himmel + -isch becomes himmlisch.

The final "e" of a noun is also elided when another noun or suffix is concatenated onto it. ex. Strafe + Gesetzbuch becomes Strafgesetzbuch.

In both of the above cases the "e" represents a schwa.

Irish

Elision is found in the Ulster dialect of Irish, particularly in final position. Iontach, for example, while pronounced ['i:nt x] in the Conamara dialect, is pronounced ['int ] in Ulster. n is also elided when it begins intervocalic consonant clusters. Anr is pronounced ar ; muintir is pronounced muitir.

Japanese

Elision is extremely common in the pronunciation of the Japanese language. In general, a high vowel ( or ) that appears in a low-pitched syllable between two voiceless consonants is devoiced, and often deleted outright. However, unlike French or English, Japanese does not often show elision in writing. The process is purely phonetic, and varies considerably depending on the dialect or level of formality. A few examples (slightly exaggerated; apostrophes added to indicate elision):

Matsushita-san wa imasu ka? ("Is Mr. Matsushita in?")
Pronounced: matsush'tasanwa imas'ka
roku, shichi, hachi ("six, seven, eight")
Pronounced: rok', shich', hach'
Shitsurei shimasu ("Excuse me")
Pronounced: sh'ts'reishimas'

Gender roles also influence elision in Japanese. It is considered masculine to elide, especially the final u of the polite verb forms (-masu, desu), whereas women are traditionally encouraged to do the opposite. However, excessive elision is generally viewed as basilectic, and inadequate elision is seen as overly fussy or old-fashioned. Some nonstandard dialects, such as Satsuma-ben, are known for their extensive elision.

Malayalam

Dropping of sounds in connected speech (as Elision) is very common in this south Indian language (of the state of Kerala). Native Malayalam speakers are very much used to it.

Examples:

  • entha becomes ntha
  • ippol becomes ippo

Spanish

The change of Latin into the Romance languages included a significant amount of elision, especially syncope (loss of medial vowels). In Spanish, for example, we have:

  • tabla from Latin tabula
  • isla from Latin insula (through *isula)
  • alma from Latin anima (with dissimilation of -nm- to -lm-)
  • hembra from Latin femina (with lenition of f- to h-, dissimilation of -mn- to -mr- and then epenthesis of -mr- to -mbr-'

In addition, speakers often employ crasis or elision between two words to avoid a hiatus caused by vowels – the choice of which to use depends upon whether or not the vowels are identical.

Tamil

Tamil has a set of rules for elision. They are categorised into classes based on the phoneme where elision occurs.

Class name Phoneme
Kutriyalukaram u
Kutriyalikaram i
Aiykaarakkurukkam ai
Oukaarakkurukkam au
Aaythakkurukkam the special character akh
Makarakkurukkam m

Finnish

The consonant in the partitive case ending -ta elides when surrounded by two short vowels except when the first of the two vowels involved is paragoge (added to the stem). Otherwise, it stays. For example, katto+ta kattoa, ranta+ta rantaa, but ty +t ty t (not a short vowel), mies+ta miest (consonant stem), jousi+ta jousta (paragogic i on a consonant stem).

Welsh

Elision is a major feature of Welsh, found commonly in verb forms, as in the following examples:

  • Ydych chi'n (chi yn) hoffi'r (hoffi yr) coffi? (Do you like the coffee?)
  • Ble mae'r (mae yr) dre? (Where is the town?)
  • Rydw i'n (i yn) darllen. (I am reading)

See also

References

Notes

General references

  • Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195583786

External links

ar: ( ) br:Koazhadur (yezhoniezh) bg: ca:Elisi cs:Elize de:Elision es:Elisi n eo:Elizio fr: lision gl:Elisi n gan: io:Eliziono it:Elisione nl:Elisie ja: pl:Elizja pt:Elis o ro:Eliziune ru: ( ) fi:Elisio sv:Elision uk: wa:Spotchaedje des voyales do prum p zh:






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