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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as , , , and in some languages. Dentals are primarily distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge, as in English (see Alveolar consonant), due to the acoustic similarity of the sounds and the fact that in the Roman alphabet they are generally written using the same symbols (t, d, n, and so on).

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the diacritic for dental consonant is

Contents


Dentals cross-linguistically

For many languages, such as Albanian, Irish or Russian, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that velarized consonants (such as Albanian ) tend to be dental or denti-alveolar while non-velarized consonants tend to be retracted to an alveolar position.[1]

Sanskrit, Hindi and all other Indic languages have an entire set of dental stops which occur phonemically as voiced and voiceless, and with or without aspiration. The nasal also exists in these languages, but is quite alveolar and apical in articulation. To the Indian speaker, the alveolar and of English sound more like the corresponding retroflex consonants of his own language than like the dentals.

Spanish and are laminal denti-alveolar[2] while and are prototypically alveolar but assimilate to the place of articulation of a following consonant. Likewise, Italian , , , are denti-alveolar (, , , and respectively) and and become denti-alveolar before a following dental consonant.[3]

Although denti-alveolar consonants are often described as dental, it is the rear-most point of contact that is most relevant, for this is what defines the maximum acoustic space of resonance and will give a consonant its characteristic sound.[4] In the case of French, the rear-most contact is alveolar or sometimes slightly pre-alveolar.

Dental consonants in the world's languages

Dental/denti-alveolar consonants as transcribed by the International Phonetic Alphabet include:

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
n + bridge below
n + bridge below
dental nasal Russian 'bank'
t + bridge below
t + bridge below
voiceless dental stop Finnish tutti [ 'pacifier'
d + bridge below
d + bridge below
voiced dental stop Arabic 'religion'
voiceless dental sibilant fricative Polish kosa 'scythe'
voiced dental sibilant fricative Polish koza 'goat'
Greek small letter theta
Greek small letter theta
voiceless dental nonsibilant fricative
(also often called "interdental")
English thing 'thing'
Latin small letter eth
Latin small letter eth
voiced dental nonsibilant fricative
(also often called "interdental")
English this 'this'
 + down tack below
+ down tack below
dental approximant Spanish codo 'elbow'
l + bridge below
l + bridge below
dental lateral approximant Spanish alto 'tall'
 + bridge below
+ bridge below
dental flap Spanish harto 'fed up'
r + bridge below
r + bridge below
dental trill Hungarian r 'to carve'
t + bridge below + modifier letter apostrophe
t + bridge below + modifier letter apostrophe
dental ejective
 + bridge below
+ bridge below
voiced dental implosive
Latin letter dental click
Latin letter dental click
dental click release Xhosa uk cola 'to grind fine'

See also

References

Bibliography

af:Dentaal ar: bn: bg: bar:Dental br:Kensonenn dent ca:Dental cs:Dent ln souhl ska cy:Cytsain ddeintiol de:Dental es:Consonante dental eo:Dentalo fr:Consonne dentale gv:Corockle feeacklagh ko: id:Konsonan gigi it:Consonante dentale he: jv:Konsonan untu lv:Dent ls l dzskanis lmo:Cunsunanta dentala hu:Dent lis hang mk: ml: ms:Konsonan gigi nl:Dentaal ja: no:Dentaler pl:Sp g oska z bowa pt:Consoante dental ro:Consoan dental ru: simple:Dental consonant sr: fi:Dentaali sv:Dental konsonant uk: vec:Interdental zh:






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