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Brigadier general

Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops (four battalions). In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general.

In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, which is often considered to not be a general-officer rank, but is usually equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank.

The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or simply a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. An alternative rank of "brigade general" was first used in the French revolutionary armies.

In the first quarter of the 20th century, British and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; in the 1920s this practice changed to the use of brigadier, which is not classed as a general officer.

Brazil and a few countries uses major general as the equivalent of brigadier general. Some of these countries then generally use a rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks.

The naval equivalent is usually commodore.[1]

Contents


Insignia

Army insignia

File:Australian-Army-BRIGGEN.gif |Australian Army:
(until 1922)
Brigadier general File:Army-BEL-OF-06.svg |Belgium:
G n ral de brigade /
Brigadegeneraal File:CDN-Army-BGen-Shoulder.svg |Canadian Forces:
Brigadier general /
Brigadier-g n ral File:EgyptianArmyInsignia-BrigadierGeneral.svg|Egyptian Armed Forces:
Brigadier General
(Arabic: ) Image:ES-Army-OF6.gif |Estonia:
Brigaadikindral Image:OF06 Heer.png |Germany:
Brigadegeneral Bundeswehr Image:Army-GRE-OF-06.svg |Greece:

(Taxiarchos) Image:17dand rt bornok.png |Hungary:
Dand rt bornok

Image:IT-Army-OF6.svg |Italy:
Generale di brigata (Brigadiere generale) Image:Lebarmybrigenrank.png |Lebanese Armed Forces:
Amid
(Arabic: ) Image:19 - Brigadeiro-general.svg|Portuguese Army:
Brigadeiro-general Image:RO-Army-OF6.png |Romania:
General de brigad File:Kov - brigadni general.GIF |Serbia:
/ Brigadni general File:SWE-Army-OF6a.png |Swedish Army:
Brigadgeneral File:UK-Army-OF6-shoulder (former).svg|British Army:
(until 1920)
Brigadier general File:Army-USA-OF-06.svg|U.S. Army:
Brigadier general File:Nl-landmacht-brigade_generaal.svg|Netherlands:
Brigadegeneraal

Air Force insignia

This gallery displays Air Force brigadier general insignia if they are different from the Army brigadier general insignia. (They usually are.)
Note that in many Commonwealth countries, the equivalent air force rank is Air Commodore (and in the Netherlands, it is simply Commodore). Image:RDAF Brig Gen.svg |Denmark File:French Air Force-g n ral de brigade a rienne.svg|France:
g n ral de brigade a rienne Image:Hellenic Air Force OF-6.svg |Greece:
Image:17dand rt bornok.png |Hungary:
Dand rt bornok Image:IT-Airforce-OF-7.png |Italy:
Generale di Brigata Aerea Image:General Brygady Lotnicze.svg |Poland Image:Brigadeiro t.jpg |Portugal:
Brigadeiro-general Image:RO-Airforce-OF-6s.PNG |Romania:
General de flotil aerian Image:Vpvo - brigadni general.GIF |Serbia:
/ Brigadni general Image:Gb-ea.svg |Spain Image:US Air Force O7 shoulderboard.svg|U.S. Air Force:
Brigadier General Image:Nl-luchtmacht-commodore.svg |Netherlands:
Commodore

Brigadier general ranks by country

Argentina

The rank of brigadier general (with some local variations) is used in the Argentine Air Force and unlike other armed forces of the World, the rank of brigadier general is actually the highest rank in the Air Force. This is due to the use of the rank of brigadier and its derivatives to designate all general officers in the Air Force: brigadier (lowest general officer) brigadier-major (middle) and brigadier-general (highest). The rank of brigadier general is reserved for the Chief General Staff of the Air Force, as well as the Chief of the Joint General Staff if he should be an Air Force officer.

The Argentine Army does not use the rank of brigadier-general, instead using the brigade general ( ) which in turn is the lowest general officer before Divisional General ( ) and Lieutenant General ( ). See also Argentine Army officer rank insignia..

Australia

In the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, the rank of brigadier general was always temporary and held only while the officer was posted to a particular task, typically the command of a brigade. When posted elsewhere, the rank would be relinquished and the former rank resumed. This policy prevented an accumulation of high-ranking general officers brought about by the relatively high turnover of brigade commanders. Brigadier general was also used as an honorary rank on retirement. The rank insignia was like that of the current major general, but without the star/pip[2] - example.

As in the United Kingdom, the rank was later replaced by brigadier. Hence, prior to 1922, a "brigadier general" was a "general officer"; subsequently, brigadiers were not "generals"; this is shown by the rank insignia being like that of a colonel, but with an extra (third) star/pip[2] - example.

(See also Australian Army officer rank insignia and List of Australian generals and brigadiers.)

Bangladesh

The rank was known as brigadier in conformity with the rank structure of the Commonwealth Nations prior to 2001 in the Bangladesh Army. It is the lowest ranking general officer between the ranks of Colonel and Major General.

The Bangladesh Army introduced the rank of brigadier general in 2001, however the grade stayed equivalent to Brigadier . Brigadier General is equivalent to commodore of the Bangladesh Navy and air commodore of the Bangladesh Air Force. It is still more popularly called brigadier (one-star general).

Belgium

The Belgian Army uses the rank of g n ral de brigade (French) and brigadegeneraal (Dutch). However, in this small military there are no permanent promotions to this rank, and it is only awarded as a temporary promotion to a full colonel who assumes a post requiring the rank, notably in an international context (e.g. as Military Attach in a major embassy).

Brazil

Brigadier General is the lowest rank amongst general officers of the Brazilian army. They wear two stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In the Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star ranks are known as Brigadeiro (Brigadier), Major-Brigadeiro (Major-Brigadier) and Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar (Lieutenant-Air-Brigadier) respectively. See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information.

Canada

In the Canadian Forces, the rank of brigadier-general (BGen) (brigadier-g n ral or bg n in French) is an Army or Air Force rank equal to a commodore of the Navy. A brigadier-general is the lowest rank of General Officer, the Army and Air Force equivalent of a Naval commodore. A brigadier-general is senior to a colonel or naval captain, and junior to a major-general or rear admiral.

The rank title "brigadier-general" is still used notwithstanding that brigades in the army are now commanded by colonels. Until the late 1990s brigades were commanded by brigadier-generals. In the air force context, brigadier-generals used to command air force "Groups" until these bodies were abolished in the late 1990s.

The rank insignia for a brigadier-general is a single gold maple leaf beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress jacket, and on slip-ons on other uniforms. The service dress jacket also features a wide strip of gold braid around the cuff. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves; the air force wedge cap features gold braid on the edges of the ear flaps. The cap insignia for a general officer is a modified version of the Canadian Forces insignia; the collar insignia (Army generals only) is two crossed sabres. Some brigadier-generals, by nature of holding a branch-specific appointment, may continue to wear the insignia of their personnel branch; for example, the chaplain-general wears the general officer's cap insignia with the collar insignia of the Chaplain Branch,[3] while the surgeon-general continues to wear the cap and collar insignia of the Canadian Forces Medical Service.[4]

File:CDN-Army-BGen-Shoulder.svg|Dress uniform tunic Image:Army slip-on BGen.png|Uniform shirts Image:CADPAT temperate BGen.png|CADPAT uniform Image:CADPAT arid BGen.png|arid-region CADPAT uniform

File:CDN-Air Force-BGen-Shoulder.svg|Dress uniform tunic Image:Air Force slip-on BGen.png|Uniform shirts Image:Air Force olive BGen.png|CADPAT uniform

Brigadier-generals are initially addressed verbally as "General" and name; thereafter by subordinates as "Sir" or "Ma'am" in English or "mon g n ral" in French. They are normally entitled to staff cars.

Note: Before unification in 1968 of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Army, and the Royal Canadian Navy, rank structure and insignia followed the British pattern. In army usage, the term "brigadier" was used to denote what is now known as a brigadier-general while the air force used the rank of Air Commodore.

China

Chinese rank of (Da-Xiao ) or Senior Colonel is a direct equivalent of a brigadier. It ranks above colonel (Shang-Xiao ) and below major general (Shao-Jiang ). A brigadier is commonly in command of a division (Shi ) or a brigade (Lu ). Divisional commanders are seldom general officers.

Colombia

Insignia of a Colombian brigadier general

The rank of brigadier general is the first general officer rank in the Fuerzas Militares,[5] and the National Police.[6]

Estonia

In the Estonian military, the rank is called Brigaadikindral.

France

France uses the rank of "brigade general" (g n ral de brigade). It formerly used the historic rank, until 1793, of brigadier des arm es ("brigadier of the armies"). The rank contrasts with the French sub-officer rank of brigadier. As with all French general officers, a French brigade general is titled "general" without any implication that he is an army general; for instance General De Gaulle never rose higher than brigade general.

Until 1793, a rank of brigadier des arm es ("brigadier of the armies") existed in the French Army, which could be described as a senior colonel or junior brigade commander. The normal brigade command rank was field marshal (mar chal de camp) (which elsewhere is a more senior rank). A "brigadier of the armies" wore one-star and a "field marshal" wore two stars. During the French Revolution, the revolutionaries' drive to rationalise the state led to a change in the system of ranks. The rank of "brigadier of the armies" was abolished and the normal brigade command rank, field marshal, was replaced by brigade general. The rank of brigade general inherited the two stars of the rank of field marshal, explaining the absence since 1793 of a French rank with only one star.

Nowadays, a French g n ral de brigade generally commands a brigade, which is the biggest permanent formation in the French army. The rank can also be awarded in an honorary fashion to retiring colonels. The insignias are two stars, worn on the shoulder are at the sleeve of the uniform, depending on the dress. Two different kepis are issued : the service kepi sports the two-starts, while the formal kepi features a large band of oak leaves (the kepi of a division general has two smaller such bands).

Charles de Gaulle, held the rank of brigade general. He was given a temporary promotion to this rank in May 1940 as commander of the 4th Armoured Reserve Division (4 me division cuirass e de r serve). However his authority as head of the Free French really came from being the only cabinet member outside occupied France, not from his military rank. As a reminder of his war position, he refused any further promotion. Image:Army-FRA-OF-06.svg|Rank insignia of French Army a g n ral de brigade and French Air Force g n ral de brigade a rienne Image:De Gaulle-OWI.jpg|Brigade General Charles de Gaulle, wearing the formal kepi. File:G n ral brigade gend.svg|Rank insignia of Gendarmerie a g n ral de brigade Image:Insigne g n ral de brigade.png|Rank insignia of French Foreign Legion g n ral de brigade, who commands the entire French Foreign Legion. Image:general_de_brigade_p1040627.jpg|A French g n ral de brigade

Germany

The equivalent modern German rank is brigadegeneral. The concept of a brigadier general rank is relatively new, as prior to 1945 the lowest German general officer rank was generalmajor, which was often considered equivalent to brigadier general in other armies. Image:OF06 Heer.png Image:Bundeswehr-OF-6-BG.png

Greece

Hungary

In Hungary the brigadier general is a relatively new military rank used from 1992. The army and the air force insignia are not different.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, brigadir jenderal (abbreviated as "brigjen") is the fourth highest rank and the lowest general rank both in Polri and TNI. The insignia is a gold star.

Iran

The equivalent rank for brigadier general in the Iranian army and air force is called sar-tip-dovom. It is above the rank of sar-hang (colonel) and below the rank of sar-tip (major general).

Notice that Iranian Revolutionary Guards also use this rank. The difference is in salutation. One refers an army or air force brigadier general as "amir sar-tip", while a revolutionary guard general is referred to as "sardar sar-tip".

As an unwritten rule which makes major general the highest Iranian military rank, and therefore a brigadier general is considered to be second highest rank of the Iranian military. It is normally the rank of the commander of the air force and (as a commodore, the equivalent rank) the Navy.

Israel

In the Israel Defense Forces, the rank of brigadier general is called tat aluf and is the third highest rank, below aluf (major general) and rav aluf (lieutenant general or general), and above aluf mishne (colonel).

Jordan

In the Jordanian military, the rank of brigadier general is known as amid, and it is higher than colonel (akeed) and lower than major general (liwa).

South Korea

The rank of brigadier general is known in South Korea as junjang (; hanja: )[7] and is a direct equivalent to the United States one-star rank, with very similar insignia. The military of North Korea does not technically maintain a brigadier general rank, but the rank of senior colonel ( , taejwa) which is above colonel ( , sangjwa) and below major general ( , Sojang) is the effective equivalent.

Burma (Myanmar)

The rank of brigadier general is known in Burma as bo mhu gyoke and is often the deputy commander of one of Burma's Regional Military Commands, commander of the light infantry division (LID) or Military Operation Commands. In civil service, a brigadier general often holds the office of deputy minister or director general of certain ministries.

Mexico

In Mexico, brigade general is the rank below divisional general and, confusingly, the rank above brigadier general. A Mexican brigade general wears as rank insignia the arms of Mexico above two stars. (A Mexican brigadier general wears the arms of Mexico above one star.)

Pakistan

The Pakistan Army has followed the British Army rank system since independence from the British Empire in 1947. However, the crown in the ranks has been replaced with a star and crescent, which symbolizes the sovereignty of the Government of Pakistan.

Brigadier general or brigadier, is an equivalent rank to commodore in the Pakistan Navy and air commodore in the Pakistan Air Force. In Pakistan Army and Marines, some officers have been promoted to brigadier general while others are promoted as brigadier. However, brigadier or brigadier general are equivalent to each other. In the Pakistan Defense Forces, a brigadier (or brigadier-general) is a one-star rank general officer and are considered as one of the high-ranking military officers in Pakistan Armed Forces. Brigadiers or brigadier generals in Pakistan army, are the General Officer Commanding of the brigades which consists of approximately 3000 5000 men and women. Like other armies, brigadier rank is higher than colonel and but subordinated to two-star major generals.

Poland

Prior to 2002, the Polish rank of genera brygady was equivalent to both the ranks of major general and brigadier general.

Portugal

In the Portuguese Army and Air Force, brigadeiro-general is a temporary general rank for the colonels that have to exercise a special command. It is the equivalent of the commodore rank in the Portuguese Navy.

The rank was reintroduced in 1999. Before that, simply as brigadeiro, it existed from 1707 to 1864 and again from 1929 to 1947, not being considered a general rank. From 1947 to 1999, brigadeiro become the two-star general rank in the Portuguese Army. As two-star rank, it was substituted by the rank of major-general in 1999.

Spain

In the Spanish Army and Spanish Air Force, general de brigada is the lowest rank of general officers. Its equivalent in the Navy is contraalmirante.

Sweden

In the Swedish Army and Swedish Air Force, brigadgeneral is the lowest rank of general officers. Its equivalent in the Navy is flottiljamiral.

Turkey

In the Turkish Army and the Turkish Air Force, the equivalent rank is tu general (the Turkish Navy equivalent would be tu amiral). The name is derived from tugay, the Turkish word for a brigade. Both tugay and tu - as military terms may owe their origins to the older Turkish word tu , meaning horsetail, which was used as a symbol of authority and rank in Ottoman and pre-Ottoman times.

United Kingdom

Brigadier-general was formerly a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines, and briefly in the Royal Air Force.

It first appeared in the army in the reign of James II,[8] but did not exist in the Royal Marines until 1913.[9] In the 1740s the substantive rank of brigadier-general was suppressed,[10] and thereafter brigadier-general was a temporary rank only, bestowed on a colonel or lieutenant-colonel (or on a colonel commandant in the marines) for the duration of a specific command.

It was abolished in both the army and the marines in 1922, being replaced in the army by the grade of colonel commandant (which already existed in the marines). Colonel commandant was in turn replaced by the grade of brigadier in the army in 1928, and at some time between World War II and 1957 in the marines.[11][12]

From its formation on 1 April 1918 until 31 July 1919, the Royal Air Force maintained the rank of brigadier general. It was superseded by the rank of air commodore on the following day.

The insignia for the rank was a crossed sword and baton on its own; higher grades of general at the time and still consist of this device with the addition of a star, crown or both for a full general.

Brigadier is the highest field officer rank (hence absence of the word "general"), whereas brigadier-general was the lowest general officer rank. However, the two ranks are considered equal.

The equivalent naval rank is commodore and the equivalent air force rank is air commodore.

United States

President Zachary Taylor was a Brigadier General

See also

  • British Army officer rank insignia
  • Comparative military ranks
  • History of Russian military ranks
  • Military unit
  • NATO Air Force officers
  • NATO Army officers
  • U.S. Army officer rank insignia
  • United Kingdom and United States military ranks compared
  • Wiktionary definition of General.

References and notes

ar: ( ) be: bg: bs:Brigadni general ca:General de Brigada cs:Brig dn gener l da:Brigadegeneral de:Brigadegeneral et:Brigaadikindral el: eo:Brigada generalo fa: fr:G n ral de brigade ga:Briog idire-ghinear l hr:Brigadni general id:Brigadir Jenderal it:Generale di brigata he: jv:Brigadir J ndral lt:Brigados generolas nl:Brigadegeneraal ja: no:Brigadegeneral nn:Brigadegeneral pl:Genera pt:General de brigada ro:General de brigad ru: simple:Brigadier General sk:Brig dny gener l sl:Brigadni general sr: sv:Brigadgeneral tr:Tu general uk: vi:Chu n t ng zh:






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