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Bengal tiger

The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a tiger subspecies native to the Indian subcontinent that in 2010 has been classified as endangered by IUCN. The total population is estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals with a decreasing trend, and none of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within the Bengal tiger's range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 adult individuals.[1]

The Bengal tiger is the most numerous tiger subspecies with populations estimated at 1,520 1,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 124 229 in Nepal and 67 81 in Bhutan.[2][3][4][5]

Bengal is traditionally fixed as the typical locality for the binomial Panthera tigris, to which the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the Bengal tiger in 1929 under the trinomial Panthera tigris tigris.[6][7]

Contents


Characteristics

A Bengal tiger in the Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black; the belly and the interior parts of the limbs is white, and the tail is orange with black rings.

Male Bengal tigers had a total length, including the tail, from , while females range from .[8] Tails are long, and height at the shoulders is .[9] The head and body length of three males captured in Nagarahole National Park ranged from , with a tail length of , while a single female measured , with a tail length of .[10] The average weight of males is , while that of females is .[11]

Males captured in Chitwan National Park in the early 1970s had an average weight of ranging from , and that of the females was ranging from .[12] Males from the northern India are as large as Siberian tigers with a greatest length of skull of .[13]

A white Bengal tiger at the Cougar Mountain Zoological Park. The white tiger is a recessive mutant of the Bengal tiger, which was reported in the wild from time to time in Assam, Bengal, Bihar and especially from the former State of Rewa. There is only one fully authenticated case of a true albino tiger, and none of black tigers, with the possible exception of one dead specimen examined in Chittagong in 1846.[14]

Records

Two tigers shot in Kumaon and near Oude at the end of the 19th century allegedly measured more than . But at the time, sportsmen had not yet adopted a correct system of measurement, some measuring between pegs and others round the curves.[15]

In the beginning of the 20th century, a male Bengal tiger was shot in central India with a head and body length of measured between pegs, of chest girth, a shoulder height of and a tail of just , perhaps bitten off by a rival male. This specimen could not be weighed, but it was calculated to weigh no less than .[16]

A heavy male weighing was shot in northern India in the 1930s.[17] The heaviest known tiger was a huge male killed in 1967 that weighed and measured in total length between the pegs, and over curves. This specimen is on exhibition in the Mammals Hall of the Smithsonian Institution.[18] In 1980 and 1984, scientists captured and tagged two male tigers in Chitwan National Park that weighed more than .[19]

Genetic ancestry

Bengal tigers are defined by three distinct mitochondrial nucleotide sites and 12 unique microsatellite alleles. The pattern of genetic variation in the Bengal tiger corresponds to the premise that they arrived in India approximately 12,000 years ago.[20] This recent history of tigers in the Indian subcontinent is consistent with the lack of tiger fossils from India prior to the late Pleistocene and the absence of tigers from Sri Lanka, which was separated from the subcontinent by rising sea levels in the early Holocene.[21]

Distribution and habitat

A Bengal tigress with her cubs at the Bandhavgarh National Park, India In 1982, a sub-fossil right middle phalanx was found in a prehistoric midden near Kuruwita in Sri Lanka, which is dated to about 16,500 ybp and tentatively considered to be of a tiger. Tigers appear to have arrived in Sri Lanka during a pluvial period during which sea levels were depressed, evidently prior to the last glacial maximum about 20,000 years ago.[22] In 1929, the British taxonomist Pocock assumed that tigers arrived in southern India too late to colonize Ceylon, which earlier had been connected to India by a land bridge.[23]

In the Indian subcontinent, tigers inhabit tropical moist evergreen forests, tropical dry forests, tropical and subtropical moist deciduous forests, mangroves, subtropical and temperate upland forests, and alluvial grasslands. Latter tiger habitat once covered a huge swath of grassland and riverine and moist semi-deciduous forests along the major river system of the Gangetic and Brahmaputra plains, but has now been largely converted to agriculture or severely degraded. Today, the best examples of this habitat type are limitated to a few blocks at the base of the outer foothills of the Himalayas including the Tiger Conservation Units (TCUs) Rajaji-Corbett, Bardia-Banke, and the transboundary TCUs Chitwan-Parsa-Valmiki, Dudhwa-Kailali and Sukla Phanta-Kishanpur. Tiger densities in these blocks are high, in part a response to the extraordinary biomass of ungulate prey.[24]

India

A Bengal tiger in Ranthambhore National Park, India In the past, Indian censuses of wild tigers relied on the individual identification of footprints known as pug marks a method that has been criticized as deficient and inaccurate.[25]

Good tiger habitats in subtropical and temperate upland forests include the Tiger Conservation Units (TCUs) Manas-Namdapha. TCUs in tropical dry forest include Hazaribagh National Park, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kanha-Indravati corridor, Orissa dry forests, Panna National Park, Melghat Tiger Reserve and Ratapani Tiger Reserve. The TCUs in tropical moist deciduous forest are probably some of the most productive habitats for tigers and their prey, and include Kaziranga-Meghalaya, Kanha-Pench, Simlipal and Indravati Tiger Reserves. The TCUs in tropical moist evergreen forests represent the less common tiger habitats, being largely limited to the upland areas and wetter parts of the Western Ghats, and include the Tiger Reserves of Periyar, Kalakad-Mundathurai, Bandipur and Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary.[24]

The methodology used during the tiger census of 2008 extrapolates site-specific densities of tigers, their co-predators and prey derived from camera trap and sign surveys using GIS. Based on the result of these surveys, the total tiger population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age. The following six landscape complexes comprising several ecological landscapes were surveyed across India based on current tiger occupancy and potential for connectivity:[26]

  • in the Shivaliks Gangetic flood plain landscape there are six populations with an estimated population size of 259 to 335 individuals occupying of forested habitats, which are located in Rajaji and Corbett national parks, in the connected habitats of Dudhwa-Kheri-Pilibhit, in Suhelwa Tiger Reserve, in Sohagi Barwa Sanctuary and in Valmiki National Park;
  • in the Central Indian highlands there are 17 populations with an estimated population size of 437 to 661 individuals occupying of forested habitats, which are located in the landscapes of Kanha-Pench, Satpura-Melghat, Sanjay-Palamau, Navegaon-Indravati; isolated populations are supported in the tiger reserves of Bandhavgarh, Tadoba, Simlipal and the national parks of Panna, Ranthambore Kuno Palpur Madhav and Saranda;
  • in the Eastern Ghats landscape there is a single population with an estimated population size of 49 to 57 individuals occupying of habitat in three separate forest blocks located in the Srivenkateshwara National Park, Nagarjunasagar Tiger Reserve and the adjacent proposed Gundla Brahmeshwara National Park, and forest patches in the tehsils of Kanigiri, Baduel, Udayagiri and Giddalur;
  • in the Western Ghats landscape there are seven populations with an estimated population size of 336 to 487 individuals occupying forest in three major landscape units;
  • in the Brahmaputra flood plains and north-eastern hills tigers occupy in several patchy and fragmented forests;
  • in the Indian Sundarbans tigers occupy about of mangrove forest.

In May 2008, forest officials spotted 14 tiger cubs in Rajasthan's Ranthambore National Park.[27] In June 2008, a tiger from Ranthambore was relocated to Sariska Tiger Reserve, where all tigers had fallen victim to poachers and human encroachments since 2005.[28]

Nepal

The tiger population in the Terai of Nepal is split into three isolated subpopulations that are separated by cultivation and densely settled habitat. The largest population lives in Chitwan National Park and in the adjacent Parsa Wildlife Reserve encompassing an area of of prime lowland forest. To the west, the Chitwan population is isolated from the one in Bardia National Park and adjacent unprotected habitat further west, extending to within of the Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve, which harbours the smallest population.[29] The bottleneck between the Chitwan/Parsa and Bardia/Sukla Phanta metapopulations is situated just north of the town of Butwal.

As of 2009, an estimated 121 breeding tigers lived in Nepal.[30] By 2010, the number of adult tigers has reached 155.[4] A survey conducted from December 2009 to March 2010 indicates that 125 adult tigers live in Chitwan National Park and its border areas covering .[31]

Bangladesh

As of 2004, population estimates in Bangladesh ranged from 200 to 419, mostly in the Sunderbans.[32][33] This region is the only mangrove habitat in this bioregion, where tigers survive, swimming between islands in the delta to hunt prey.[24] Bangladesh's Forest Department is raising mangrove plantations supplying forage for spotted deer. Since 2001, afforestation has continued on a small scale in newly accreted lands and islands of the Sundarbans.[3] From October 2005 to January 2007, the first camera-trap survey was conducted across six sites in the Bangladesh Sundarbans to estimate tiger population density. The average of these six sites provided an estimate of 3.7 tigers per . Since the Bangladesh Sundarbans is an area of it was inferred that the total tiger population comprised approximately 200 individuals.[34]

Bhutan

As of 2005, the population in Bhutan is estimated at 67 81 individuals.[5] Tigers occur from an altitude of in the subtropical Himalayan foothills in the south along the border with India to over in the temperate forests in the north, and are known from 17 of 18 districts. Their stronghold appears to be the central belt of the country ranging in altitude between , between the Mo River in the west and the Kulong River in the east.[35] In 2010, camera traps recorded a pair of tigers at altitudes of . The male was recorded scent-marking, and the female can also be seen to be lactating, confirming that the pair are living within their own territory, and strongly suggesting they are breeding at that altitude.[36]

Ecology and behaviour

A male and female Bengal tiger interact with each other. The basic social unit of the tiger is the elemental one of mother and offspring. Adult animals congregate only on an ad hoc and transitory basis when special conditions permit, such as plentiful supply of food. Otherwise they lead solitary lives, hunting individually for the dispersed forest and tall grassland animals, upon which they prey. They establish and maintain home ranges. Resident adults of either sex tend to confine their movements to a definite area of habitat within which they satisfy their needs, and in the case of tigresses, those of their growing cubs. Besides providing the requirements of an adequate food supply, sufficient water and shelter, and a modicum of peace and seclusion, this location must make it possible for the resident to maintain contact with other tigers, especially those of the opposite sex. Those sharing the same ground are well aware of each other s movements and activities.[14]

In the Panna Tiger Reserve an adult radio-collared male tiger moved between locations on successive days in winter, and in summer. His home range was about in summer and in winter. Included in his home range were the much smaller home ranges of two females, a tigress with cubs and a sub-adult tigress. They occupied home ranges of .[37]

The home ranges occupied by adult male residents tend to be mutually exclusive, even though one of these residents may tolerate a transient or sub-adult male at least for a time. A male tiger keeps a large territory in order to include the home ranges of several females within its bounds, so that he may maintain mating rights with them. Spacing among females is less complete. Typically there is partial overlap with neighbouring female residents. They tend to have core areas, which are more exclusive, at least for most of the time. Home ranges of both males and females are not stable. The shift or alteration of a home range by one animal is correlated with a shift of another. Shifts from less suitable habitat to better ones are made by animals that are already resident. New animals become residents only as vacancies occur when a former resident moves out or dies. There are more places for resident females than for resident males.[14]

During seven years of camera trapping, tracking, and observational data in Chitwan National Park, 6 to 9 breeding tigers, 2 to 16 non-breeding tigers, and 6 to 20 young tigers of less than one year of age were detected in the study area of . One of the resident females left her territory to one of her female offspring and took over an adjoining area by displacing another female; and a displaced female managed to re-establish herself in a neighboring territory made vacant by the death of the resident. Of 11 resident females, 7 were still alive at the end of the study period, 2 disappeared after losing their territories to rivals, and 2 died. The initial loss of two resident males and subsequent take over of their home ranges by new males caused social instability for two years. Of 4 resident males, 1 was still alive and 3 were displaced by rivals. Five litters of cubs were killed by infanticide, 2 litters died because they were too young to fend for themselves when their mothers died. One juvenile tiger was presumed dead after being photographed with severe injuries from a deer snare. The remaining young lived long enough to reach dispersal age, 2 of them becoming residents in the study area.[38]

Hunting and diet

Tigers are carnivores. They prefer hunting large ungulates such as chital, sambar, gaur, and to a lesser extent also barasingha, water buffalo, nilgai, serow and takin. Among the medium-sized prey species they frequently kill wild boar, and occasionally hog deer, muntjac and Gray langur. Small prey species such as porcupines, hares and peafowl form a very small part in their diet. Due to the encroachment of humans into their habitat, they also prey on domestic livestock.[39][40][41][42][43]

In most cases, tigers approach their victim from the side or behind from as close a distance as possible and grasp the prey's throat to kill it. Then they drag the carcass into cover, occasionally over several hundred meters, to consume it. The nature of the tiger's hunting method and prey availability results in a "feast or famine" feeding style: they often consume of meat at one time.[8]

Bengal tigers have been known to take other predators, such as leopards, wolves, jackals, foxes, crocodiles, Asiatic black bears, sloth bears, and dholes as prey, although these predators are not typically a part of their diet. Adult elephants and rhinoceroses are too large to be successfully tackled by tigers, but such extraordinarily rare events have been recorded. The Indian hunter and naturalist Jim Corbett described an incident in which two tigers fought and killed a large bull elephant. If injured, old or weak, or their normal prey is becoming scarce, they may even attack humans and become man-eaters.[44]

Reproduction and lifecycle

Tiger with a cub in Bandhavgarh National Park The tiger in India has no definite mating and birth seasons. Most young are born in December and April.[45] Young have also been found in March, May, October and November.[46] In the 1960s, certain aspects of tiger behaviour at Kanha National Park indicated that the peak of sexual activity was from November to about February, with some mating probably occurring throughout the year.[47]

Males reach maturity at 4 5 years of age, and females at 3 4 years. A tigress comes into heat at intervals of about 3 9 weeks, and is receptive for 3 6 days. After a gestation period of 104 106 days, 1 4 cubs are born in a shelter situated in tall grass, thick bush or in caves. Newborn cubs weigh and they have a thick wooly fur that is shed after 3.5 5 months. Their eyes and ears are closed. Their milk teeth start to erupt at about 2 3 weeks after birth, and are slowly replaced by permanent dentition from 8.5 9.5 weeks of age onwards. They suckle for 3 6 months, and begin to eat small amounts of solid food at about 2 months of age. At this time, they follow their mother on her hunting expeditions and begin to take part in hunting at 5 6 months of age. At the age of 2 3 years, they slowly start to separate from the family group and become transient looking out for an area, where they can establish their own territory. Young males move further away from their mother's territory than young females. Once the family group has split, the mother comes into heat again.[8]

Threats

Over the past century tiger numbers have fallen dramatically, with a decreasing population trend. None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within the Bengal tiger range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 individuals. Habitat losses and the extremely large-scale incidences of poaching are serious threats to the species' survival.[1]

The challenge in the Western Ghats forest complex in western South India, an area of stretching across several protected areas is that people literally live on top of the wildlife. The Save the Tiger Fund Council estimates that 7,500 landless people live illegally inside the boundaries of the Nagarhole National Park in southwestern India. A voluntary if controversial resettlement is underway with the aid of the Karnataka Tiger Conservation Project led by K. Ullas Karanth of the Wildlife Conservation Society.

A 2007 report by UNESCO, "Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage" has stated that an anthropogenic 45-cm rise in sea level, likely by the end of the 21st century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, combined with other forms of anthropogenic stress on the Sundarbans, could lead to the destruction of 75% of the Sundarbans mangroves. The Forest Rights Act passed by the Indian government in 2006 grants some of India's most impoverished communities the right to own and live in the forests, which likely brings them into conflict with wildlife and under-resourced, under-trained, ill-equipped forest department staff. In the past, evidence showed that humans and tigers cannot co-exist.[48]

Poaching

The most significant immediate threat to the existence of wild tiger populations is the illegal trade in poached skins and body parts between India, Nepal and China. The governments of these countries have failed to implement adequate enforcement response, and wildlife crime remained a low priority in terms of political commitment and investment for years. There are well-organised gangs of professional poachers, who move from place to place and set up camp in vulnerable areas. Skins are rough-cured in the field and handed over to dealers, who send them for further treatment to Indian tanning centres. Buyers choose the skins from dealers or tanneries and smuggle them through a complex interlinking network to markets outside India, mainly in China. Other factors contributing to their loss are urbanization and revenge killing. Farmers blame tigers for killing cattle and shoot them. Their skins and body parts may however become a part of the illegal trade.[49]

The illicit demand for bones and body parts from wild tigers for use in Traditional Chinese medicine is the reason for the unrelenting poaching pressure on tigers on the Indian subcontinent. For at least a thousand years, tiger bones have been an ingredient in traditional medicines that are prescribed as a muscle strengthener and treatment for rheumatism and body pain.[50]

Between 1994 and 2009, the Wildlife Protection Society of India has documented 893 cases of tigers killed in India, which is just a fraction of the actual poaching and trade in tiger parts during those years.[51]

In 2006, India's Sariska Tiger Reserve lost all of its 26 tigers, mostly to poaching.[52] In 2007, police in Allahabad raided a meeting of suspected poachers, traders and couriers. One of the arrested persons was the biggest buyer of tiger parts in India who used to sell them off to the Chinese traditional medicinal market, using women from a nomadic tribe as couriers.[53] In 2009, none of the 24 tigers residing in the Panna Tiger Reserve were left due to excessive poaching.[54] In November 2011, two tigers were found dead in Maharashtra: a male tiger was trapped and killed in a wire snare; a tigress died of electrocution after chewing at an electric cable supplying power to a water pump; another tigress was found dead in Kanha Tiger Reserve landscape poisoning is suspected to be the cause of her death.[55]

Human-tiger conflict

The Indian subcontinent has served as a stage for intense human and tiger confrontations. The region affording habitat where tigers have achieved their highest densities is also one which has housed one of the most concentrated and rapidly expanding human populations. At the beginning of the 19th century tigers were so numerous it seemed to be a question as to whether man or tiger would survive. It became the official policy to encourage the killing of tigers as rapidly as possible, rewards being paid for their destruction in many localities. The United Provinces supported large numbers of tigers in the submontane Terai region, where man-eating had been uncommon. In the latter half of the 19th century, marauding tigers began to take a toll of human life. These animals were pushed into marginal habitat, where tigers had formerly not been known, or where they existed only in very low density, by an expanding population of more vigorous animals that occupied the prime habitat in the lowlands, where there was high prey density and good habitat for reproduction. The dispersers had no where else to go, since the prime habitat was bordered in the south by cultivation. They are thought to have followed back the herds of domestic livestock that wintered in the plains when they returned to the hills in the spring, and then being left without prey when the herds dispersed back to their respective villages. These tigers were the old, the young and the disabled. All suffered from some disability, mainly caused either by gunshot wounds or porcupine quills.[56]

In the Sundarbans, 10 out 13 man-eaters recorded in the 1970s were males, and they accounted for 86% of the victims. These man-eaters have been grouped into the confirmed or dedicated ones who go hunting especially for human prey; and the opportunistic ones, who do not search for humans but will, if they encounter a man, attack, kill and devour him. In areas where opportunistic man-eaters were found, the killing of humans was correlated with their availability, most victims being claimed during the honey gathering season.[57] Tigers in the Sunderbans presumably attacked humans who entered their territories in search of wood, honey or fish, thus causing them to defend their territories. The number of tiger attacks on humans may be higher outside suitable areas for tigers, where numerous humans are present but which contain little wild prey for tigers.[58] Between 1999 and 2001, the highest concentration of tigers attacks on people occurred in the northern and western boundaries of the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Most people were attacked in the mornings while collecting fuel wood, timber, or other raw materials, or while fishing.[59]

In Nepal, the incidence of man-eating tigers has been only sporadic. In Chitwan National Park no cases have been recorded prior to 1980. In the following few years, 13 persons have been killed and eaten in the park and its environs. In the majority of cases, man-eating appeared to have been related to an intra-specific competition among male tigers.[56]

Conservation efforts

A Bengal tiger captured in Karnataka, India. An area of special interest lies in the Terai Arc Landscape in the Himalayan foothills of northern India and southern Nepal, where 11 protected areas comprising dry forest foothills and tall-grass savannas harbor tigers in a landscape. The goals are to manage tigers as a single metapopulation, the dispersal of which between core refuges can help maintain genetic, demographic, and ecological integrity, and to ensure that species and habitat conservation becomes mainstreamed into the rural development agenda. In Nepal a community-based tourism model has been developed with a strong emphasis on sharing benefits with local people and on the regeneration of degraded forests. The approach has been successful in reducing poaching, restoring habitats, and creating a local constituency for conservation.[60]

In India

A Bengal tiger roams around in Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan, India. In 1972, Project Tiger was launched aiming at ensuring a viable population of tigers in the country and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the people. The project's task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would emigrate to adjacent forests. The selection of areas for the reserves represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country. Funds and commitment were mustered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project. By the late 1980s, the initial nine reserves covering an area of had been increased to 15 reserves covering an area of . More than 1100 tigers were estimated to inhabit the reserves by 1984.[61]

Through this initiative the population decline was reversed initially, but has resumed in recent years; India's tiger population decreased from 3,642 in the 1990s to just over 1,400 from 2002 to 2008.[62]

The Indian Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 enables government agencies to take strict measures so as to ensure the conservation of the Bengal tigers. The Wildlife Institute of India estimates showed that tiger numbers had fallen in Madhya Pradesh by 61%, Maharashtra by 57%, and Rajasthan by 40%. The government's first tiger census, conducted under the Project Tiger initiative begun in 1973, counted 1,827 tigers in the country that year. Using that methodology, the government observed a steady population increase, reaching 3,700 tigers in 2002. However, the use of more reliable and independent censusing technology (including camera traps) for the 2007 2008 all-India census has shown that the numbers were in fact less than half than originally claimed by the Forest Department.[63]

Following the revelation that only 1,411 Bengal tigers exist in the wild in India, down from 3,600 in 2003, the Indian government has decided to set up eight new tiger reserves.[64] Because of dwindling tiger numbers, the Indian government has pledged US$153 million to further fund the Project Tiger initiative, set-up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers, and fund the relocation of up to 200,000 villagers to minimize human-tiger interaction.[65]

Tiger scientists in India, such as Raghu Chundawat and Ullas Karanth, have faced criticism from the forest department. Both these scientists have been for years calling for use of technology in the conservation efforts. Chundawat, in the past, had been involved with radio telemetry (collaring the tigers). While studying tigers in Panna tiger reserve, he repeatedly warned the FD authorities about the problem of tiger poaching in the reserve; they remained in denial, producing bogus numbers of tigers in their reports, and banned Chundawat from the reserve. Eventually, however, it was proven he was right, as in 2008. the authorities admitted that all tigers in Panna have been poached.[66] Karanth has been instrumental in using camera traps, radiotelemetry and prey counts. During the 1990s and early 2000s he also noticed that tiger numbers were significantly lower than the official figures; his insistence on using modern science in tiger conservation and uncompromising efforts to save tigers and their habitat have earned him many enemies.

The project to map all the forest reserves in India has not been completed yet, though the Ministry of Environment and Forests had sanctioned Rs. 13 million for the same in March 2004.

George Schaller wrote:[67]

"India has to decide whether it wants to keep the tiger or not. It has to decide if it is worthwhile to keep its National Symbol, its icon, representing wildlife. It has to decide if it wants to keep its natural heritage for future generations, a heritage more important than the cultural one, whether we speak of its temples, the Taj Mahal, or others, because once destroyed it cannot be replaced."

In January 2008, the Government of India launched a dedicated anti-poaching force composed of experts from Indian police, forest officials and various other environmental agencies.[68] Indian officials successfully started a project to reintroduce the tigers into the Sariska reserve.[69] The Ranthambore National Park is often cited as a major success by Indian officials against poaching.[70]

In Bangladesh

The Sundarbans tiger project is a Bangladesh Forest Department initiative that started its field activities in February 2005. The idea for creating such a project was first developed during a field survey in 2001, conducted by Md. Osman Gani, Ishtiaq U. Ahmad, James L. D. Smith and K. Ullas Karanth. They realized that the Sundarbans mangrove forest at the mouth of the Ganges River contained probably one of the largest populations of wild tigers left in the world. As such, there was an urgent need to start measures that would ensure the protection of this precious area. The Save the Tiger Fund and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service generously donated funds to support the initial phase of research that aimed to collect data on tiger ecology using telemetry, and study the tiger s environment by assessing its habitat and prey. But management of a wilderness area needs more than just information on the species to be protected. Personnel with skills and resources to implement conservation strategies, and the general support of the country are also required. So from the research base, the project is evolving rapidly to also encompass capacity building and conservation awareness activities. It has been able to do so through the forward thinking approach to management taken by the Forest Department, and the incredible support of the Bangladeshi people. The project is administered by the Forest Department. At the field level, there is a team of 8 persons, made up of Forest Department personnel and one wildlife consultant from the University of Minnesota who advises on research strategies and trains staff.[71][72][73]

In Nepal

The government aims at doubling the country's tiger population by 2022, and in May 2010, decided to establish Banke National Park with a protected area of , which bears good potential for tiger habitat.[74]

Ex situ

Bengal tigers have been captive bred since 1880 and widely crossed with other tiger subspecies.[75] Indian zoos have bred tigers for the first time being at the Alipore Zoo in Kolkata. The 1997 International Tiger Studbook lists the global captive population of Bengal tigers at 210 individuals that are all kept in Indian zoos, except for one female in North America. Completion of the Indian Bengal Tiger Studbook is a necessary prerequisite to establishing a captive management program for tigers in India.[76]

Admixed genetic heritage

In the late 1990s, microsatellite analysis was used to identify hybrids of Indian and Siberian tigers through polymerase chain reaction amplification of hair samples. The study revealed that two tigers of the wild population of Dudhwa National Park had alleles contributed by both subspecies.[77] Both tigers had an Indian tiger mitochondrial haplotype indicating that these animals had an Indian tiger mother.[78]

In July 1976, Billy Arjan Singh acquired a hand-reared tigress from Twycross Zoo in the United Kingdom, and reintroduced her to the wild in Dudhwa National Park with the permission of India's then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.[79] In the 1990s, some tigers from this area were observed to have the typical appearance of Siberian tigers: white complexion, pale fur, large head and wide stripes. It was later proved that the tigress was a hybrid Siberian-Bengal tigress. Dudhwa tigers constitute about 1% of India's total wild population, but the possibility exists of this admixed genetic heritage being passed on to other tiger populations and jeopardizing the Bengal tiger as a distinct subspecies.[80][81][82][83]

"Re-wilding" project in South Africa

In 2000, the Bengal tiger re-wilding project Tiger Canyons was started by John Varty, who together with the zoologist Dave Salmoni trained captive-bred tiger cubs how to stalk, hunt, associate hunting with food and regain their predatory instincts. They claimed that once the tigers proved that they can sustain themselves in the wild, they would be released into a free-range sanctuary of South-Africa to fend for themselves.[84]

The project has received controversy after accusations by their investors and conservationists of manipulating the behavior of the tigers for the purpose of a film production, Living with Tigers, with the tigers believed to be unable to hunt.[85][86] Stuart Bray, who had originally invested a large sum of money in the project, claimed that he and his wife, Li Quan, watched the film crew "[chase] the prey up against the fence and into the path of the tigers just for the sake of dramatic footage."[85][86]

The four tigers involved in this project have been confirmed to be crossbred Siberian Bengal tigers, which should neither be used for breeding nor being released into the Karoo, which for them is unsuitable habitat.[87] Tigers that are not genetically pure will not be able to participate in the tiger Species Survival Plan, as they are not used for breeding, and are not allowed to be released into the wild.[88]

In the USA

In October 2011, 18 Bengal tigers were among the exotic animals shot by the local sheriff's department after the 2011 Ohio exotic animal release.[89]

In culture

Nilakanta Sastri, K. A.]] (2003) A history of South India : from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. 4th edition. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.[90] The Shiva Pashupati seal with tiger to right of the seated Shiva figure Pashupati The tiger is one of the animals displayed on the Pashupati seal of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The tiger crest is the emblem on the Chola coins. The seals of several Chola copper coins show the tiger, the Pandya emblem fish and the Chera emblem bow, indicating that the Cholas had achieved political supremacy over the latter two dynasties. Gold coins found in Kavilayadavalli in the Nellore district of Andra Pradesh have motifs of the tiger, bow and some indistinct marks.[91]

Today, the Bengal tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh and India.[92]

  • Members of the East Bengal Regiment of the Bangladesh Army are nicked as 'Bengal Tigers' and the regiment logo is a tiger face.
  • The logo of Bangladesh Cricket Board features a Royal Bengal Tiger.
  • Cincinnati's National Football League team is named the Cincinnati Bengals.
  • The Detroit's MLB team Detroit Tigers are nicknamed the Bengals.
  • Dominican Republic's most successful baseball team Licey Tigers are nicknamed the Bengals.
  • The team from Kolkata in the Indian Cricket League is called the Royal Bengal Tigers.
  • Louisiana State University's Tigers are nicknamed the Bayou Bengals.

References

External links

az:Benqal p l ngi bn: bg: ca:Tigre de Bengala cs:Tygr beng lsk da:Bengalsk tiger de:K nigstiger dv: es:Panthera tigris tigris fa: fr:Tigre du Bengale ko: hi: hr:Bengalski tigar id:Harimau Benggala it:Panthera tigris tigris he: lv:Beng lijas t eris lt:Bengalinis tigras mk: ml: ms:Harimau Benggala mn: nl:Bengaalse tijger no:Bengaltiger pa: pnb: pl:Tygrys bengalski pt:Tigre-de-bengala ru: sq:Tigri i Bengalit simple:Bengal tiger sk:Tiger d ung ov indick sr: fi:Intiantiikeri sv:Bengalisk tiger tl:Panthera tigris tigris ta: th: tr:Bengal kaplan uk: vi:H Bengal zh:






Source: Wikipedia | The above article is available under the GNU FDL. | Edit this article



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