The City of Baguio (Ilokano: Ciudad ti Baguio; Filipino: Lungsod ng Baguio) is a highly urbanized city located in northern Luzon island in the Philippines. The city has become the center of business and commerce as well as the center of education in the entire Northern Luzon thereby becoming the seat of government of the Cordillera Administrative Region(C.A.R.). According to the 2007 census, Baguio City has a population of 301,926.
Baguio City was established by Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. The name of the city is derived from the word bagiw in Ibaloi, the indigenous language of the Benguet Region, meaning 'moss'. The city is at an altitude of approximately in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion conducive to the growth of mossy plants and orchids.
Because of its altitude, Baguio City was designated by the Philippine Commission as the Summer Capital of the Philippines on June 1, 1903. It was incorporated as a chartered city by the Philippine Assembly on September 1, 1909, as authored by former Philippines Supreme Court Justice George A. Malcolm. The City of Baguio celebrated its Centennial last September 1, 2009.
The region around Baguio was first settled primarily by the Ibalois and the Kankanaeys. In the nearby town of La Trinidad, Benguet, Spaniards established a commandante or military garrison, but Kafagway, as Baguio was once known, was barely touched.
American colonial period
When the Americans took possession of the Philippines, Baguio was selected by a party to become the summer capital of the Philippines. In 1903 Filipino, Japanese and Chinese workers were hired to build Kennon Road, the first road directly connecting Baguio with the lowlands of Pangasinan. Before this, the only road to Benguet was Naguilian Road.
The Americans declared Baguio the Summer Capital of the Philippines on July 1, 1903 . Every year during the months of March to June, the entire American government personnel from the Governor-General to the humblest clerk was moved to Baguio to escape Manila's summer heat (abolished in 1913 when Francis B. Harrison took office). The Mansion House was built to become the residence of the American governor-general. The famous American architect Daniel Burnham, one of the earliest successful modern city planners, laid a meticulous plan for the city in 1904. On September 1, 1909 Baguio was declared a chartered city, the second after the city of Manila. They further developed Baguio, building parks and public structures such as Wright Park in honor of Governor General Luke E. Wright, Burnham Park in honor of Baguio city planner Daniel Burnham, Governor Pack Road, and Session Road.
World War II
On April 26, 1945, Filipino troops of the 1st, 2nd, 11th, 12th, 13th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, 1st Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary and the USAFIP-NL 66th Infantry Regiment and the American troops of the 33rd and 37th Infantry Division of the United States Army entered Baguio City and fought against the Japanese Imperial Army forces led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita which started the Battle for the Liberation of Baguio City during World War II.
Baguio is the site of the formal surrender of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and Vice Admiral Okochi. It is where they gave up the entire Imperial Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the High Commissioner's Residence (now the United States Ambassador's Residence) in Camp John Hay on September 3, 1945, marking the end of World War II.
The very strong 1990 Luzon earthquake (Ms = 7.8) destroyed much of city of Baguio on July 16, 1990. A significant number of buildings and infrastructure were damaged, major highways were temporarily severed, and a number of houses were leveled or severely shaken with a significant loss of life. Some of the fallen buildings were built on or near fault lines. Baguio City was rebuilt with the aid from the national government and various international donors like Japan, Singapore and other countries.
Around May 2003, a petition initiated by Dion Fernandez to declare Baguio a heritage zone was circulated on the Internet and national print media, gaining more than 10,000 signatures. The petition calls upon unspecified officials to create the Zone prior to the Baguio centennial in 2009. In May 2005, the Heritage Conservation Society(HCS) submitted to the Baguio City Council a proposed Special Heritage Bill drafted by HCS Trustee Ivan Henares. It has been approved on second reading but is being opposed by a group of businessmen.
Geography and climate
Baguio City is located some 1,500 meters above sea level, nestled within the Cordillera Central mountain range in northern Luzon. The city is enclosed by the province of Benguet. It covers a small area of 57.5 square kilometers. Most of the developed part of the city is built on uneven, hilly terrain of the northern section. When Daniel Burnham plotted the plans for the city, he made the City Hall as a reference point where the city limits extend from east to west and from north to south. It is the highest major Philippine city in terms of elevation.
Baguio City features a subtropical highland climate under the Koppen climate classification. The city is known for its mild climate. It is because of this that Baguio is nicknamed the "Summer Capital of the Philippines". Owing to its high elevation, the temperature in the city is 8 degrees Celsius lower compared to the average temperature of the rest of the country. Average temperature ranges from 15 to 23 degrees Celsius. It is usually lower during the late and early months of the year. The lowest recorded temperature was 6.3 degrees Celsius on January 18, 1961. This is in contrast to the all-time high of 30.4 degrees Celsius recorded on March 15, 1988 during the 1988 El Ni o season. Baguio seldom exceeds 26 degrees Celsius even during the warmest part of the year.
Like many other cities with a subtropical highland climate, Baguio sees noticeably less precipitation during its dry season. However, the city has an extraordinary amount of precipitation during the rainy season, with the months of July and August having on average more than 1,000 mm of rain. Baguio averages over 4500 mm of precipitation annually.
Like most Philippine cities, Baguio is governed by a mayor, vice mayor, and twelve (12) councilors. However, being a highly-urbanized city with its own charter, it is not subject to the jurisdiction of Benguet province, of which it was formerly a part.
The current mayor of Baguio is Mauricio Domogan, and the lone congressional district is currently represented by Congressman Bernardo Vergara, who has already served before as the Baguio's representative to congress. They were re-elected last May 2010.
Baguio City is politically subdivided into 129 barangays.
- Alfonso Tabora
- Andres Bonifacio
- Asin Road
- Atok Trail
- Aurora Hill Proper
- Aurora Hill, North Central
- Aurora Hill, South Central
- Bagong Lipunan (Market Area)
- Bakakeng Central
- Bakakeng North
- Bal-Marcoville (Marcoville)
- Bayan Park East
- Bayan Park Village
- Bayan Park West (Bayan Park)
- BGH Compound
- Cabinet Hill-Teacher s Camp
- Camdas Subdivision
- Camp 7
- Camp 8
- Camp Allen
- Campo Filipino
- City Camp Central
- City Camp Proper
- Country Club Village
- Cresencia Village
- Dagsian, Lower
- Dagsian, Upper
- Department of Public Services(DPS) Compound
- Dizon Subdivision
- Dominican Hill Mirador
- Engineers' Hill
- Fairview Village
- Ferdinand (Happy Homes-Campo)
- Fort del Pilar
- Gabriela Silang
- General Emilio F. Aguinaldo
- General Luna, Lower
- General Luna, Upper
- Greenwater Village
- Guisad Central
- Guisad Sorong
- Happy Hollow
- Happy Homes (Happy Homes-Lucban)
- Harrison-Claudio Carantes
- Holy Ghost Extension
- Holy Ghost Proper
- Honeymoon (Honeymoon-Holy Ghost)
- Imelda R. Marcos (La Salle)
- Imelda Village
- Kayang Extension
- Loakan Proper
- Lopez Jaena
- Lourdes Subdivision Extension
- Lourdes Subdivision, Lower
- Lourdes Subdivision, Proper
- Magsaysay Private Road
- Magsaysay, Lower
- Magsaysay, Upper
- Malcolm Square-Perfecto
- Manuel A. Roxas
- Market Subdivision, Upper
- Middle Quezon Hill Subdivision
- Military Cut-off
- Mines View Park
- Modern Site, East
- Modern Site, West
- MRR-Queen Of Peace
- New Lucban
- Outlook Drive
- Padre Burgos
- Padre Zamora
- Palma-Urbano (Cari?o-Palma)
- Pinsao Pilot Project
- Pinsao Proper
- Quezon Hill Proper
- Quezon Hill, Upper
- Quirino Hill, East
- Quirino Hill, Lower
- Quirino Hill, Middle
- Quirino Hill, West
- Quirino-Magsaysay, Upper
- Rizal Monument Area
- Rock Quarry, Lower
- Rock Quarry, Middle
- Rock Quarry, Upper
- Saint Joseph Village
- Salud Mitra
- San Antonio Village
- San Luis Village
- San Roque Village
- San Vicente
- Sanitary Camp South
- Sanitary Camp, North
- Santa Escolastica
- Santo Rosario Valley
- Santo Tomas Proper
- Santo Tomas School Area
- Scout Barrio
- Session Road Area
- Slaughter House Area
- SLU-SVP Housing Village
- South Drive
- Teodora Alonzo
- Victoria Village
Loakan Airport is the lone airport serving the general area of Baguio City. The airport is classified as a trunkline airport, or a major commercial domestic airport, by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, a body of the Department of Transportation and Communications that is responsible for the operations of not only this airport but also of all other airports in the Philippines except the major international airports. It is about 10 minutes by car from the city center going south. Due to the limited length of the runway which is 1,802 meters or 5,912 feet, it is restricted to commuter size aircraft. This perhaps contributed to the city's declining competitiveness against other medium-sized cities around the country. The airport is used primarily by helicopters, turbo-prop and piston engine aircraft, although on rare occasion light business jets (LBJ) have flown into the airport.
The three main access roads leading to Baguio from the lowlands are Kennon Road, Aspiras-Palispis Highway (previously known as Marcos Highway) and Naguilian Road, also known as Quirino Highway. Kennon Road starts at Rosario, La Union and winds upwards through a narrow, steep valley. This is often the fastest route to Baguio but it is particularly perilous, with landslides during the rainy season and sharp dropoffs, some without guardrails. The Aspiras Highway, which starts in Agoo, La Union and connects to Palispis Highway, at the boundary of Benguet and La Union Provinces, and Naguilian Road, which starts in Bauang, La Union, are both longer routes but are much safer than Kennon Road especially during rainy season, and are the preferred routes for coaches, buses, lorries (trucks) and by more conservative car drivers.
It takes about six hours to travel the approximately 250 km distance between Manila and Baguio City by way of Kennon Road. It is about fifteen to thirty minutes longer through the Aspiras-Palispis Highway, and could take three more hours if going up from Manila via Naguilian Road which is the usual route for travelers from the Northern areas of Luzon such as Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur and northern La Union province.
There is another access to Baguio from Aritao in the province of Nueva Vizcaya passing through Itogon, Benguet but this is less traveled, the road is not well maintained, and public transportation through this route is not as regular. It is particularly difficult during rainy periods. Another road, Halsema Highway (also known as "Mountain Trail") leads North through the mountainous portion of the Cordillera Autonomous Region. It starts at the northern border of Baguio City, in the Municipality of La Trinidad (Trinidad Valley). This highway offers some extraordinary scenery, coupled with some sheer drops of hundreds of feet in some sparsely populated areas. Drivers should be well-versed in Cordillera-style mountainous driving, as this road has, on very rare occasions, experienced sleet / freezing rain conditions as one proceeds North toward Sagada, Mountain Province.
There are several bus lines linking Baguio with Manila and Central Luzon, and provinces such as Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Quezon, Bicol Region, Eastern Visayas, La Union, and those in the Ilocos regions. Most transportation companies also offer express and air-conditioned buses at a higher fare, although some "aircon" minibuses offer cheaper fares. Bus services that operate in Baguio include , Victory Liner, Partas, GV Florida Transport, Philippine Rabbit, Viron Transit, Dangwa Tranco, Genesis Transport, Saulog Transit Inc., Dagupan Bus Co.,Inc.., Amanian bus line, and many smaller feeder minibuses.
There are also hundreds of Taxi and jeepney operators who provide public transportation in Baguio City.
The economy of Baguio City is centered on tourism and its educational institutions, of which it has at least eight colleges and universities, as well as a plethora of trade and technical schools. Based on the latest census made in the year 2007, almost half of the city's population are students, many of whom come from nearby provinces, with numerous foreign students to add to the diversity.
Another key source of income for Baguio is its position as the commercial hub for the province of Benguet. Many of the agricultural and mining goods produced in Benguet pass through Baguio City for processing, sale or further distribution to the "lowlands."
Brooms with price tags being sold in market
The city is also a major retail center for the Cordilleras and Ilocos provinces, with shoppers coming to the city to take advantage of the diversity of competitively priced commercial products on sale, many of which would otherwise only be available in Manila. The city is also popular with bargain hunters some of the most popular bargaining areas include Baguio City Market and Maharlika Livelihood Center. Despite the city's relatively small size, it boasts numerous shopping centers and malls catering to increasing commercial and tourist activity in Baguio: these include SM City Baguio mall, Baguio Center Mall, Cooyeesan Hotel Plaza, Abanao Square, Maharlika Livelihood Center, Porta Vaga Mall and Bonchic bargain center.
Various food and retail businesses run by local residents proliferate, forming a key part of Baguio's interesting cultural landscape. Some of these include Tiong San chain of department stores and supermarkets, Sunshine Supermarket, Star Cafe, Country Mart, the famous Rose Bowl Restaurant, Good Taste, Marosan's, Patao's, eateries along Bonafacio, Session Road, near Teacher's Camp and many others.
Session Road The areas of Session Road, Harrison Road, Magsaysay Avenue and Abanao Street comprise the trade center of the city. It is in these areas where commercial and business structures abound. First-class cinemas, hotels, restaurants, department stores, and shopping centers are to be found in this area. Shopping at the famous City Market offers one a wide array of locally sourced goods and products: everything from colorful woven fabrics and hand-strung beads to primitive wood carvings, cut flowers, strawberries and "Baguio" vegetables, the latter often denoting vegetable types that do well in the cooler growing climate. (Strawberries and string beans referred to as 'Baguio beans' across the Philippines are shipped to major urban markets across the archipelago.)
Baguio is home to one of the country's most profitable and best investment areas, a Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) location called the Baguio City Economic Zone (BCEZ). Located in the southern part of the city between Camp John Hay leisure resort and Philippine Military Academy at Loakan. Firms located in the BCEZ mostly produce and export knitted clothing, transistors, small components for vehicles, electronics and computer parts. Notable firms include Texas Instruments Philippines which happens to be the second largest exporter in the country, MOOG, and Sitel.
Tourism is one of Baguio's main industries due to its weather and history. During the year end holidays some people from the lowlands prefer spending their vacation in Baguio, to experience cold temperatures they rarely have in their home provinces. Also, during summer, especially during Holy Week, tourists from all over the country flock to the city. During this time, the total number of people in the city doubles. To accommodate all these people there are more than 80 hotels and inns available. Local festivities such as the Panagbenga Festival also attract both local and foreign tourists. Baguio is the lone Philippine destination in the 2011 TripAdvisor Traveler's Choice Destinations Awards, Asia category, with the city being among the top 25 destinations in Asia.
The Philippine Military Academy in Baguio City Baguio is a university town with 141,088 students out of the 301,926 population count done on the year 2007. It is the center of education in the entire North Luzon. There are eight major institutions of higher education in Baguio City.
University of the Philippines Baguio (U.P. Baguio) - the national university of the Philippines, U.P. System's flag-bearer in Northern Luzon, internationally known for its excellent record in ethnic and multidisciplinary research and Cordillera Studies
Philippine Military Academy - the national training school for future officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Saint Louis University, Baguio City - established in 1911 by the CICM missionaries whose aim is to educate the locals through Christian Education. Since then, it has become the largest and one of the top performing universities in the country. SLU is among the elite 15 Philippine universities recognized among top 201+ universities in Asia.
University of Baguio - founded by Dr. Fernando G. Bautista and Mrs. Rosa C. Bautista in 1948.
University of the Cordilleras - formerly Baguio Colleges Foundation, established on June 19, 1946.
Baguio Central University - formerly Lyceum of Baguio. First opened in 1945.
Pines City Colleges - formerly Pines City Doctors' Hospital School of Nursing and Pines City Educational Center. First opened as a Nursing school in 1969. The oldest school of Nursing in Baguio City (since the closing of the Baguio General Hospital School of Nursing).
Easter College - formerly Easter School. It is one of the oldest schools in the Cordilleras. The school was established by the Protestant Episcopalian missionary Rt. Rev. Charles Henry Brent in 1906.
Other higher educational institutions
- STI College, Baguio
- Data Center, Baguio
- Remnant International College
- Baguio College of Technology
- National University - Baguio
- AMA Computer College
- Baguio School of Business and Technology
- Philippine Public Safety College
- Philippine Women's University
- Meridian Paramedical & Tech Inst
- NIIT Baguio
- Women's Vocational Institute
- San Pablo Major Seminary
- Philippine Baptist Theological Seminary is the flagship Southern Baptist ministerial training center established in 1954, offering undergraduate, graduate and post graduate degree programs.
- Asia Pacific Theological Seminary founded in 1964 in Manila and transferred to the Baguio area in 1986, is the foremost seminary for the Asia-Pacific region of the Assembles of God.
- Lutheran Theological Seminary was established in 1955 in Manila with the Rev. Lorenz Nieting as head. The campus was moved to Baguio in 1961 offering a five-year divinity degree program leading to ordination to Lutheran diaconate on the third year and the priesthood.
- Al-Maarif Educational Center, www.almaarifeducationalcenter.weebly.com
International Schools (elementary and secondary levels)
Brent International School was founded the same year as the city. It was originally established as a boarding school for the sons of American families stationed in the Philippines.
- Monticello International School
- Educare International School
- Remnant International College
- Union School International
- Yeun Soo-Saint Jude International School
- Daily International School
Panagbenga Festival February
Panagbenga Festival (English: Flower Festival) is a month-long annual flower festival occurring in Baguio, the summer capital of the Philippines. The term is of Malayo-Polynesian origin, meaning "season of blooming". The festival, held during the month of February, was created as a tribute to the city's flowers and as a way to rise up from the devastation of the 1990 Luzon earthquake. The festival includes floats that are decorated with flowers unlike those used in Pasadena's Rose Parade. The festival also includes street dancing, presented by dancers clad in flower-inspired costumes, that is inspired by the Bendian, an Ibaloi dance of celebration that came from the Cordillera region.
Chinese New Year February
Chinese New Year is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. In China, it is known as "Spring Festival," the literal translation of the Chinese name (Pinyin: Ch nji ), since the spring season in Chinese calendar starts with lichun, the first solar term in a Chinese calendar year. It marks the end of the winter season, analogous to the Western Carnival. The festival begins on the first day of the first month (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zh ngyu ) in the traditional Chinese calendar and ends with Lantern Festival which is on the 15th day. Chinese New Year's Eve, a day where Chinese families gather for their annual reunion dinner, is known as Ch x ( ) or "Eve of the Passing Year." Because the Chinese calendar is lunisolar, the Chinese New Year is often referred to as the "Lunar New Year".
The city is home to many immigrants from other parts of the country. A significant population of foreigners also contributed to the diversity of the city's colorful culture. The languages commonly spoken in Baguio are Kankana-ey, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, English, Chinese. several establishments were founded to accommodate their needs. Posters and signages are sometimes printed with Korean translation. Several restaurants also serve different types of local and foreign cuisine.
Baguio's youth majority in the population has given it a distinct flavor different from those of other cities in the Philippines. Although Baguio City is very modern nowadays, Panagbenga Festival, the annual Flower Festival, is celebrated each February to showcase Baguio's rich cultural heritage, its appreciation of the environment, and inclination towards the arts.
The city became a haven for many Filipino artists in the 1970s-1990s. Drawn by the cool climate and low cost of living, artists such as Ben Cabrera (now a National Artist) and filmmaker Butch Perez relocated to the city. At the same time, locals such as mixed-media artist Santiago Bose and filmmaker Kidlat Tahimik were also establishing work in the city. Even today, artists like painters and sculptors from all over the country are drawn to the Baguio Arts Festival which is held annually.
Many Baguio artists used the context of cultural diversity of the Cordillera Region to establish their work. Other notable Baguio City artists include Narda Capuyan (weaving), Kawayan de Guia (painting), Kigao (sculpture), Willy Magtibay, Peter Pinder (fiber glass sculpture, painting, mixed media), Art Tibaldo (mixed media-visual arts) and Franklin Cimatu (poetry.) The active student population in Baguio has also spawned various interests in animation and digital arts, with several local artists doing work for large production and advertising agencies in the Philippines and abroad.
- Daniel Burnham, the urban planner and architect responsible for the initial design of the city
- John Hay, United States Secretary of state and namesake of Camp John Hay
- Luke Edward Wright, for whom Wright Park was named
- Leonard Wood, for whom Leonard Wood Road was named
- Lyman W.V. Kennon, builder and namesake for Kennon Road
- Gov. William F. Pack, then governor of Benguet province who planned the creation of Teacher's Camp http://www.heritage.org.ph/article.php?id=51
- F. B. Harrison, the most beloved American governor-general in the Philippines, for whom Harrison Road was named
- Teachers Camp
- William Cameron Forbes, American Governor-General of the Philippines who ordered Kennon Road to be built
- Baguio Cathedral
- Dean Conant Worcester, Member of First Philippine Commission and official urging founding of Baguio as the "Summer Capital"
Communication and mass media
Baguio City is home to regional television stations of GMA Network, TV5 and ABS-CBN.
- ABS-CBN: Channel 2, Channel 3
- TV5: Channel 28
- GMA-7: Channel 10
- Studio 23: Channel 30
- GMA News TV: Channel 22
- AksyonTV: Channel 34
- ETC-9: Channel 12
- DZWT540: DZWT 540 International Radio
- DWSP: DZRH Nationwide
- DZEQ: DZEQ Radyo ng Bayan 999
- DZWX: Bombo Radyo Baguio
- DZBS: DZBS Radyo Ronda 1368
- DWRA: Super Radyo Baguio
FM Radio Stations
- DWIM: 89.5 Star FM
- DWDJ: RJ 100 Baguio
- DZYS: 91.9 Yes FM
- DWRA: Campus Radio 92.7
- DWMB: 95.1 Love Radio
- DWBG: 959 Big FM
- DWSK: 96.7 K-Lite
- DWLY: 96.7 K-Lite
- DWUB: Z Radio 98.7
- DZWR: 99.9 Country
- DZYB: 102.3 Jesse
- DZRR: MOR 103.1 For Life!
- DWHB: I! FM Baguio|103.9 iFM
- DZBM: 105.1 Crossover
- DZLL: 107.1 Smooth FM
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