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Badrinath

Badrinath is a Hindu/Jain holy town and a nagar panchayat in Chamoli district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the most important of the four sites in India's Char Dham pilgrimage. The town gets its name from the Holy temple of Badrinath. The deity of Badrinath worshiped as an avatar of Vishnu by Hindus is regarded as "Adinath / Rishabdev" [1st Trithankar] by Jains. This indicates best unity between Jains and Hindus.

Contents


Geography

Badrinath is located at .[1] It has an average elevation of 3,415 metres (11,204 feet). It is in the Garhwal hills, on the banks of the Alaknanda River. The town lies between the Nar and Narayana mountain ranges and in the shadow of Nilkantha peak (6,560m). Badrinath is located 301 km north of Rishikesh. From Gaurikund (near Kedarnath) to Badrinath by road is 233 km.

Significance

Badrinath was re-established as a major pilgrimage site by Adi Shankara in the ninth century.[2] In recent years its popularity has increased significantly, with an estimated 600,000 pilgrims visiting during the 2006 season,[3] compared to 90,676 in 1961.[4] The temple in Badrinath is also a sacred pilgrimage site for Vaishnavites.

Badrinath has been mentioned as a holy place in scriptures and legends for thousands of years. According to the Bhagavata Purana, "There in Badrikashram the supreme being (Vishnu), in his incarnation as the sages Nara and Narayana, had been undergoing great penance since time immemorial for the welfare of all living entities." (Bhagavata Purana 3.4.22)

Badri refers to a berry that was said to grow abundantly in the area, and nath means "Lord of". Badri is also the Sanskrit name for the Indian Jujube tree,[5] which has an edible berry. Some scriptural references refer to Jujube trees being abundant in Badrinath.

Badrinath temple

Badrinath temple in night after closing ceremony.
Badrinath temple in night after closing ceremony.

The Badrinath temple is the main attraction in the town. According to legend Shankara discovered a black stone image of Lord Badrinarayan made of Saligram stone in the Alaknanda River. He originally enshrined it in a cave near the Tapt Kund hot springs.[4][6] In the sixteenth century, the King of Garhwal moved the murti to the present temple.[4]

The temple has undergone several major renovations because of age and damage by avalanche.[6] In the 17th century, the temple was expanded by the kings of Garhwal. After significant damage in the great 1803 Himalayan earthquake, it was rebuilt by the King of Jaipur.[7][8]

The temple is approximately 50 ft (15 m) tall with a small cupola on top, covered with a gold gilt roof.[4] The facade is built of stone, with arched windows. A broad stairway leads up to a tall arched gateway, which is the main entrance. The architecture resembles a Buddhist vihara (temple), with the brightly painted facade also more typical of Buddhist temples.[8] Just inside is the mandapa, a large pillared hall that leads to the garbha grha, or main shrine area. The walls and pillars of the mandapa are covered with intricate carvings.[8]

Neelkanth Parbat from Badrinath

History and legend

The Badrinath area is referred to as Badari or Badarikaashram ( ) in Hindu scriptures. It is a place sacred to Vishnu, particularly in Vishnu's dual form of Nara-Narayana. Thus, in the Mahabharata, Krishna, addressing Arjuna, says, "Thou wast Nara in a former body, and, with Narayana for thy companion, didst perform dreadful austerity at Badari for many myriads of years."[9]

One legend has it that when the goddess Ganga was requested to descend to earth to help suffering humanity, the earth was unable to withstand the force of her descent. Therefore the mighty Ganga (Ganges) was split into twelve holy channels, with Alaknanda one of them.

The mountains around Badrinath are mentioned in the Mahabharata, when the Pandavas are said to have ended their life by ascending the slopes of a peak in western Garhwal called Swargarohini - literally, the 'Ascent to Heaven'. Local legend has it that the Pandavas passed through Badrinath and the town of Mana, 4 km north of Badrinath, on their way to Svarga (heaven). There is also a cave in Mana where Vyasa, according to legend, wrote the Mahabharata.[4]

The area around Badrinath was celebrated in Padma Purana as abounding in spiritual treasures.[4]

Pilgrimage

View from Badrinath
View from Badrinath
Located only a few kilometers from the Indo-China (Tibet) border, Badrinath is generally a two-day-long journey from either Kedarnath, the site that precedes it in the Char Dham circuit, or one of the main disembarkation points on the plains. Hemkund Sahib, an important Sikh pilgrimage site, is on the way to Badrinath, so the road is especially crowded during the summer pilgrimage season. The temple and its substantial surrounding village are accessible by road. The best time to visit Badrinath is between June and September. Warm clothes are recommended all year. The northern math established by Adi Sankara is nearby at Jyotirmath. Other places in the area are Haridwar and Rishikesh.

How to reach Badrinath

Air

The nearest airport is the Jolly Grant Airport near Dehradun away by road. However, the distance by a helicopter journey is hardly 100 km. There are many providers of helicopter service from Dehradun.

Railway

The nearest railway stations are at Rishikesh (at 297 km) and Kotdwara (at 327 km). However, Rishikesh is a small railway station not connected by fast trains. Kotdwara is connected by only a few trains. Haridwar railway junction, 24 km farther from Rishikesh, has train connections to most of the major cities in India and is, therefore, the railhead for Badrinath.

Road

Badrinath is reached by national highway NH58 that connects Delhi with Mana Pass in Uttarakhand near Indo-Tibet border. Buses carry pilgrims from New Delhi to Badrinath via Haridwar and Rishikesh in pilgrim season of summer months. Rishikesh is the major starting point for road journey to Badrinath.

Regular buses operate from Rishikesh bus station to Badrinath and start very early before dawn. The last bus from Rishikesh leaves for Badrinath before dawn. The road is narrow after Joshimath and travel is not permitted on the road after sunset. Therefore if one misses the bus for Badrinath at Rishikesh bus station, one has to go only up to Rudraprayag, Chamoli or Joshimath and spent the night there to take the early morning bus for Badrinath from that town.

The road distance from Rishikesh to Badrinath is via Rudraprayag, Chamoli and Joshimath.

  • Delhi to Haridwar 206 km
  • Haridwar to Rishikesh 24 km
  • Rishikesh to Devprayag 74 km
  • Devprayag to Srinagar 34 km
  • Srinagar to Rudraprayag 33 km
  • Rudraprayag to Karnaprayag 31 km
  • Karnaprayag to Nandprayag 21 km
  • Nandprayag to Chamoli 10 km
  • Chamoli to Joshimath 48 km
  • Joshimath to Badrinath 42 km

Demographics

India census,[10] Badrinath had a population of 841. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Badrinath has an average literacy rate of 89%, ; with 92% of the males and 86% of females literate. 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Notes

See also

  • Badhri Narayanan temple

External links

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Source: Wikipedia | The above article is available under the GNU FDL. | Edit this article



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