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Apam Napat

Apam Napat is an eminent figure of the Indo-Iranian pantheon. In Hinduism, Ap m Nap t is the god of fresh water, such as in rivers and lakes. In Zoroastrianism, Ap m Nap t is also a divinity of water, see also Burz.

Ap m Napat in Sanskrit and Ap m Nap t in Avestan mean "grandson of waters" (see Ap (water)). Sanskrit and Old Persian napat as well as Avestan nap t ("grandson") are cognate to Latin nep s and English nephew, but the name Ap m Nap t has also been compared to Etruscan Nethuns and Celtic Nechtan and Roman Neptune.

In Yasht 19 of the Avesta Apam Nap t appears as the Creator of mankind. Here, there is an evident link between the glory of sovereignty (Khvarenah) and Apam Nap t who protects Khvarenah as the royal glory of Iranian kings. Ap m Napat is sometimes, for example in Rigveda book 2 hymn 35 verse 3, described as a fire-god who originates in water (see: Agni). The reference to fire may have originally referred to flames from natural gas or oil seepages surfacing through water, as in a fire temple at Surakhany near Baku in Azerbaijan (Jivanji Jamshedji Modi 1926). There is a conjecture that the word "naphtha" came (via Greek, where it meant any sort of petroleum) from the name "Apam Napat".[1]


  1. Studies in ancient technology by R. J. Forbes (page 12)

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