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Encyclopedia results for Secondary metabolism

Secondary metabolism





Encyclopedia results for Secondary metabolism

  1. Secondary metabolism

    Image Streptomycin structure.png thumb 120px right Streptomycin , an important antibiotic drug produced by Streptomyces bacteria Secondary metabolism also called special metabolism is a term for pathways and small molecule products of metabolism that are not absolutely required for the survival of the organism . Examples of the products include antibiotics and pigment s. To distinguish non secondary ordinary metabolism, the term basic metabolism is sometimes used. Secondary metabolite s are produced by microbe s, plants, fungi and animals, but not by all of them. Important secondary metabolites main Secondary metabolite Antibiotic s, such as streptomycin and penicillin Pigment s, such as delphinidin References Unreferenced date June 2008 External links http www.biologie.uni hamburg.de b online e20 20.htm Secondary metabolism in plants Category Metabolism biochemistry stub fi Sekundaarimetabolia es Metabolito secundario ...   more details



  1. Plant secondary metabolism

    Orphan date January 2012 refimprove date March 2011 Secondary plant metabolism contains products that aid .... Secondary metabolism facilitates the primary metabolism in plants. This primary metabolism consists ..., secondary metabolism plays a pinnacle role in keeping all the of plants systems working properly. A common role of secondary metabolites in plants is defense mechanisms. They fight off herbivores, pests ... defense systems. Taxobox color light green name Secondary Metabolism Aid in Plant Growth image Plants 6 .jpg image width 250px image caption History Research into secondary plant metabolism primarily ..., the main research around secondary plant metabolism was dedicated to the formation of secondary ... fifty years research of plant secondary metabolism. Phytochemistry 68.22 24 2007 2831 2846. Web. 31 Mar 2011. ref Primary vs. Secondary Plant Metabolism Primary metabolism in a plant compromises all ... difficult to determine the precise role each secondary metabolite plays. Some of the roles secondary ... the exact function and usefulness of these compounds were. All that was known was that secondary plant metabolites were by products of the primary metabolism and were not crucial to the plant s survival. Early research only succeeded as far as categorizing the secondary plant metabolites but did not give real insight into the actual function of the secondary plant metabolites. The study of plant ... into the functions of secondary plant metabolites until around the 1980s. Before then, secondary ... that secondary plant metabolites play an indispensable role in the survival of the plant in its environment. One of the most ground breaking ideas of this time argued that plant secondary metabolites evolved in relation to environmental conditions, and this indicated the high gene plasticity of secondary .... Recently, the research around secondary plant metabolites is focused around the gene level and the genetic ... involved in the growth and development of a plant whereas secondary metabolites are compounds ...   more details



  1. Lipid metabolism

    Lipid metabolism refers to the processes that involve the intercourse and degradation of lipid s. The types of lipids involved include Bile salt s Cholesterol s Eicosanoid s Glycolipid s Ketone bodies Fatty acids see also fatty acid metabolism Phospholipid s Sphingolipid s Steroid see also steroidogenesis Triacylglycerol s fats see also lipolysis and lipogenesis External links MeshName Lipid metabolism Ophardt, Charles E. 2003 http www.elmhurst.edu chm vchembook 622overview.html Lipid Catabolism Summary . Virtual Chembook. Elmhurst College. King, Michael W. http themedicalbiochemistrypage.org lipid synthesis.html Fatty Acid, Omega 3 and Omega 6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism . The Medical Biochemistry Page. http www.theheart.org condition lipid metabolic.do Breaking news and clinical trials about Lipid and Metabolism Metabolism Lipid metabolism enzymes Eicosanoid metabolism enzymes Glycolipid sphingolipid metabolism enzymes Ketone and cholesterol metabolism enzymes Category Lipids Category Metabolism biochemistry stub sr Lipidni metabolizam ...   more details



  1. Cysteine metabolism

    Unreferenced date December 2009 Cysteine metabolism refers to the biological pathways that consume or create cysteine . The pathways of different amino acids and other metabolites interweave and overlap to creating complex systems. Human cysteine metabolism In human cysteine metabolism, L cysteine is consumed in several ways as shown below. L cysteine is also consumed in methionine and glutathione metabolism as well as pantothenate CoA biosynthesis. class wikitable style text align center L cysteine consumption pathways enzyme product cysteine dioxygenase 3 sulfino L alanine or cysteine sulfinic acid amino acid racemase D cysteine cysteine lyase L cysteate cysteine tRNA ligase L cysteinyl tRNA sup Cys sup cystine reductase L cystine cysteine transaminase 3 mercapto pyruvate L cysteine is the product of several processes as well. In addition to the reactions below, L cysteine is also a product of glycine , serine , and threonine metabolism. class wikitable style text align center L cysteine production pathways starting chemical enzyme O acetyl L serine cysteine synthase L cystine glutathione cystine transhydrogenase pyruvate cystathionine lyase 3 mercapto pyruvate cysteine transaminase See also D cysteine desulfhydrase Sulphur metabolism DEFAULTSORT Cysteine Metabolism Category Sulfur metabolism Category Sulfur amino acids ja ...   more details



  1. Information metabolism

    Merge Antoni K pi ski date December 2009 Information metabolism is a psychology psychological theory of human social interaction s based on information processing Citation needed date February 2007 . It was developed in Eastern Europe by Antoni K pi ski . In the late 1970s, Lithuania n psychologist Au ra Augustinavi i t created socionics , a personality typology based on the typology of Carl Jung and the theory of information metabolism of Antoni K pi ski , a Poland Polish psychiatrist interested in schizophrenia . According to Augustinavi i t , humans can be classified in terms of types of information processing , or information metabolism . Psychological features such as attention, interests, memory and motivation are components of this theory of information metabolism. This theory of information metabolism is built upon an analogy to biological metabolism . According to this analogy, information that arrives as signals from outside an organism are available for information metabolism just as food is available for energy metabolism. The brain is the key information metabolism system. The brain and information metabolism deal with a two way flow of signals metabolism of input signals results in the production of output. Just as enzymes can constructively interact only with structurally specific substrate molecules, brains can only constructively metabolize information that is correctly ... metabolism, Augustinavi i t created a mathematical theory of thinking. Dubious date December 2009 References Bielecki, A. 2000 A mathematical model of Kepinski s information metabolism model ... Information metabolism as a model of consciousness. International Journal of Neuroscience , Vol. 68 ... Journal of Psychosomatics, Vol. 41, pp.  4 10. Kokoszka, A. 1999 Information metabolism ... 169 10. Kokoszka, A. 2001 Mental organization according to the metabolism of information model and its ... s information metabolism. Carnot s principle and reformation theory. International Journal of Neuroscience ...   more details



  1. Protein metabolism

    Protein metabolism denotes the various biochemistry biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of protein synthesis proteins and amino acid synthesis amino acids , and the breakdown of proteins and other large molecules, too by protein catabolism catabolism . Protein synthesis Main article Protein biosynthesis . Protein biosynthesis relies on four processes amino acid synthesis RNA synthesis Transcription genetics transcription Translation genetics translation Protein anabolism is the process by which protein are formed from amino acids aka anabolic amino acid synthesis . Protein breakdown See Proteolysis Protein catabolism is the process by which proteins are broken down to their amino acids. This is also called proteolysis . This can be followed by further amino acid degradation . Metabolism DEFAULTSORT Protein Metabolism Category Metabolism Metabolism stub cs B lkovina Metabolismus b lkovin sr Proteinski metabolizam th ...   more details



  1. Industrial metabolism

    Recycling Industrial metabolism was first proposed by Robert Ayres scientist Robert Ayres as the whole integrated collection of physical processes that convert raw materials and energy, plus labour, into finished products and wastes... ref Ayres, R.U., 1994. Industrial metabolism Theory and policy. In Ayres, R.U., Simonis, U.K. Eds. , http www.unu.edu unupress unupbooks 80841e 80841E00.htm Industrial Metabolism Restructuring for Sustainable Development . United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 3 20. ref The goal is to study the flow of materials through society in order to better understand the sources and causes of emissions, along with the effects of the linkages in our socio technological systems. ref S. Anderberg 1998 , Industrial metabolism and linkages between economics, ethics, and the environment , Ecological Economics , 24, pp 311 320 ref See also Portal Sustainable development Anthropogenic metabolism Energy accounting Industrial ecology Material flow accounting Material flow analysis Books http www.unu.edu unupress unupbooks 80841e 80841E00.htm Industrial Metabolism Restructuring for Sustainable Development Sources Reflist Industrial Ecology Category Industrial ecology Category Sustainability Category Environment stubs Sustainability stub ...   more details



  1. Urban metabolism

    Urban Metabolism is a scientific modelling model to facilitate the description and analysis of the flows .... First used as an exploration and comparison modeling tool by Abel Wolman in The metabolism of Cities . The use of the Urban Metabolism model offers benefits to studies of the sustainability of cities ... model. History Karl Marx may have been the first to discuss urban metabolism. He used metabolism ... 1883 . He advocated that urban metabolism becomes a power in itself like capitalism , and will control ..., the associated producers, govern the human metabolism with nature in a rational way, bringing it under ... as living machines with metabolism so much so that his initiative was not accepted. In 1965, when Abel Wolman, a sanitary engineer, used urban metabolism in his A Typical American City study. He defined urban metabolism as, all the materials and commodities needed to sustain a city s inhabitants ... pollution. The definition was updated again in 2007 in The changing metabolism of cities by Kennedy et al 2007 , which updated the definition of urban metabolism to, the sum total of the technical ... of waste. ref Kennedy, et al. 2007 The changing metabolism of cities. ref Uses The concept of urban metabolism has been used to describe the resource consumption and waste generation of the cities ... organism analogies may help in understanding cities including references to metabolism were made by the Chicago ... of the term has been the British educator and author Herbert Girardet . More recently the metabolism .... ref Gandy, M. 2004 . Rethinking urban metabolism Water, space and the modern city. City , http ... reflist References Newman, P. W. G. 1999 . Sustainability and cities extending the metabolism model ... of the Environment Report 1996 CSIRO. Wolman, A. 1965 . The metabolism of cities. Scientific American ... Urban Metabolism Encyclopedia of the Earth article http www.eoearth.org article Urban metabolism Urban Metabolism DEFAULTSORT Urban Metabolism Category Impact assessment Category Industrial ecology ...   more details



  1. Flux (metabolism)

    Unreferenced date November 2006 Flux , or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway . Flux is regulated by the enzymes involved in a pathway. Within cell biology cell s, regulation of flux is vital for all metabolic pathways to regulate the metabolic pathway s activity under different conditions. Flux is therefore of great interest in metabolic network modelling , where it is analysed via flux balance analysis . DEFAULTSORT Flux Biochemistry Category Metabolism Metabolism stub Biochem stub ...   more details



  1. Cell Metabolism

    Infobox Journal title Cell Metabolism discipline Physiology Molecular Biology publisher Cell Press country United States USA frequency Monthly history 2005 to present openaccess After 12 months website http www.cellmetabolism.org ISSN 1550 4131 Cell Metabolism , launched in January 2005, is one of the newer titles in the Cell Press family. The journal focuses on physiology, with an emphasis on understanding the molecular basis of how the body self regulates in the face of change, and how disturbances in these balances can lead to disease. Advances in these fields take on a special importance given the increasing prevalence of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and related maladies metabolic diseases in the developed world. Created in response to what top scientists saw as a growing need for a specialized journal in this field, Cell Metabolism is run by in house editorial and production teams with full responsibility for selecting and preparing content for publication. Further Information Journal published on a monthly basis The 2007 Thomson Reuters Impact Factor for Cell Metabolism is 17.148 External links http www.cellmetabolism.org www.CellMetabolism.org Reed Elsevier Category Biology journals Category Cell Press academic journals Category Publications established in 2005 fr Cell Metabolism ...   more details



  1. Drug metabolism

    Drug metabolism is the biochemical modification of pharmaceutical drug pharmaceutical substances by living organism s, usually through specialized Enzyme enzymatic systems. This is a form of xenobiotic metabolism . Drug metabolism often converts Hydrophobic lipophilic chemical compound s into more readily Excretion excreted Hydrophilicity polar products. Its rate is an important determinant of the duration and intensity of the pharmacological action of drugs. Medication Drug metabolism can result in toxication or detoxication the activation or deactivation of the chemical. While both occur, the major ... thumb 350px right Phases I and II of the metabolism of a lipophilic drug. Phase I Phase I reactions ... that utilize this method for their metabolism include phenothiazine s, Paracetamol Metabolism paracetamol .... But Phase I metabolism converts acetonitrile to HOCH sub 2 sub CN, which rapidly dissociates into formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide , both of which are toxic. Phase I metabolism of drug candidates ... endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cell is the principal organ of drug metabolism, although every ... to drug metabolism include that it is a large organ, that it is the first organ perfused by chemicals ... the first pass effect . Other sites of drug metabolism include epithelial cell s of the gastrointestinal ... reactions. Factors that affect drug metabolism The duration and intensity of pharmacological ..., anything that increases the rate of metabolism e.g. , Enzyme induction and inhibition enzyme induction ... and pathological factors can also affect drug metabolism. Physiological factors that can influence drug metabolism include age, individual variation e.g. , pharmacogenetics , enterohepatic circulation ... influence drug metabolism, including liver , kidney , or heart diseases. In silico modelling and simulation methods allow drug metabolism to be predicted in virtual patient populations prior to performing ... Tucker year 2007 title Simulation and prediction of in vivo drug metabolism in human populations from ...   more details



  1. Anthropogenic metabolism

    Anthropogenic metabolism is a term used in material flow analysis , substance flow analysis and waste management . It includes blockquote not only the physiological metabolism but also includes the thousands of goods and substances necessary to sustain modern life. Anthropogenic stands for man made. The anthroposphere is the Sphere disambiguation sphere in which human activities take place, sometimes called technosphere or biosphere . Today, the most important man made material flows are due to activities such as cleaning, transporting, residing and communicating. These activities were of little metabolic significance in prehistoric times. ref Paul H. Brunner Brunner Paul H. and Rechberger H. 2002 http www.iwa.tuwien.ac.at htmd2264 publikat aws publikationen Publikationen 2001 Anthropogenic 20Metabolism 20and 20Environmental 20Legacies.pdf Anthropogenic Metabolism and Environmental Legacies in Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change ISBN 0 471 97796 9 ref blockquote Negative Effects of Anthropogenic Metabolism Essentially what anthropogenic metabolism means in layman s terms is the human impact on the world by the modern industrialized world. Much of these impacts include waste ... which simply means at what rate we use up the energy around us. Most of the anthropogenic metabolism ... due to anthropogenic metabolism of the growing population. The water footprint encompasses how ... to climate change primarily from anthropogenic metabolism . A few examples of how humans contribute ... impacts on the marine systems as a result of anthropogenic metabolism , according to Blaustein, The dramatic ... effects of anthropogenic metabolism are seen through the water footprint , ecological footprint ... and higher economized countries which include more industries thus more anthropogenic metabolism . See also Industrial metabolism References references Further reading Baccini, Peter and Brunner, Paul H., Metabolism of the Anthroposphere, Springer, 1991, Heidelberg, Berlin, New York, ISBN 978 ...   more details



  1. Metabolism (architecture)

    , Berkeley . ref Kisho Kurokawa, Metabolism in Architecture London Studio Vista, 1977 , p.26 7. ref The ideas of Metabolism as implemented in modern culture were philosophical as well as architectural .... The most famous built example of Metabolism is Kurokawa s Nakagin Capsule Tower 1972 . Affiliated ... Cook 1978 82 See also Megastructure Notes reflist References Noboru Kawazoe, et al. 1960 . Metabolism 1960 The Proposals for a New Urbanism . Bitjsutu Shuppan Sha. Kisho Kurokawa 1977 . Metabolism in Architecture . Studio Vista. ISBN 978 0289707333 Kisho Kurokawa 1992 . From Metabolism to Symbiosis ... architektura ru simple Metabolism architecture sk Metabolizmus architekt ra ...   more details



  1. Sulfur metabolism

    Sulfur metabolism is vital for all living organism s as it is a constituent of a number of essential organic molecules like cysteine , methionine , coenzyme A , and iron sulfur cluster s. These compounds are involved in a number of essential cellular processes such as protein biosynthesis or the transfer of electrons and acyl group s. Sulfur, therefore, is an essential component of all living cells. The importance of sulfur is well represented by the sulfhydryl thiol functional group, lying at the centre of many chemical reactions in biology. Thiol based reactions have diverse biological functions thiols in thioredoxin s provide reductive power for the synthesis of biological molecules thiols in coenzyme A facilitate the oxidation of pyruvic acid pyruvate and fatty acid s to generate energy for living cells and thiols in glutathione and mycothiol are involved in detoxifying hazardous molecules, as well as maintaining the redox balance of living cells. Additionally, sulfur containing molecules function as messengers in intracellular and intra species communication. Sulfur is also a constituent ... 0 ref Mycobacterium Sulfur metabolism in mycobacteria plays a role in the pathogenesis of the insidious ... Sulphur Metabolism in Mycobacteria title Mycobacterium Genomics and Molecular Biology publisher ..., their biosynthesis is of great industrial interest. Therefore, the metabolism of sulfur in Corynebacterium ..., the regulation of sulfur metabolism has been analyzed on the transcriptional as well as on the enzymatic ... amino acid metabolism by the enzyme cystalysin is cytotoxic and may be considered one of the virulence .... Sulfur metabolism is the subject of much research in archaea, including both sulfur oxidation ... of sulfur amino acids metabolism and some species have alternative pathways of cysteine synthesis ... 12 19.9734606566 nparticle.2008 12 22.2553167374 References reflist Category Metabolism Category Sulfur metabolism Category Sulfur ...   more details



  1. Xenobiotic metabolism

    Image CYP2C9 1OG2.png 230px thumb Cytochrome P450 oxidase s are important enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism. Xenobiotic metabolism from the Greek xenos Greek xenos stranger and biotic related to living ..., in some cases, the intermediates in xenobiotic metabolism can themselves be the cause of toxic effects. Xenobiotic metabolism is divided into three phases. In phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 .... The reactions in these pathways are of particular interest in medicine as part of drug metabolism ... in xenobiotic metabolism are a common reason for hazardous drug interaction s. These pathways are also important in environmental science , with the xenobiotic metabolism of microorganism s determining ... in the environment. The enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism, particularly the glutathione S transferase ... mixture of chemicals involved in normal metabolism . The solution that has evolved to address this problem .... The detoxification of the reactive by products of normal metabolism cannot be achieved by the systems ... Phases I and II of the metabolism of a lipophilic xenobiotic. The metabolism of xenobiotics is often ... reactions related to metabolism and chemical toxicity journal Chem. Res. Toxicol. volume 14 issue 6 ... can be excreted from cells in phase III of their metabolism, with the anionic groups acting as affinity ... enzymes are usually required for the metabolism of each group of endogenous toxins. Examples of these specific ... metabolism a look from the past to the future journal Drug Metab. Dispos. volume 29 issue 6 pages 779 ... role in xenobiotic metabolism in 1963. ref cite journal author Estabrook RW title A passion for P450s ... See also Drug design Drug metabolism Microbial biodegradation Biodegradation Bioremediation Antioxidant ... and drug metabolism databases ref cite journal author James Smith Viktor Stein year 2009 title SPORCalc ... Default.aspx Drug metabolism database http www.icgeb.org p450srv Directory of P450 ... Database Drug metabolism http www.ionsource.com tutorial metabolism drug metabolism.htm Small Molecule ...   more details



  1. Carbohydrate metabolism

    Refimprove date November 2008 Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemistry biochemical processes responsible for the anabolism formation , catabolism breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in life living organism s. The most important carbohydrate is glucose , a simple sugar monosaccharide that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways across species plants synthesize carbohydrates from atmospheric gases by photosynthesis storing the absorbed energy internally, often in the form of starch or lipid s. Plant components are eaten by animals and fungi , and used as fuel for cellular respiration . Oxidation of one gram of carbohydrate yields approximately 4 kcal of Chemical energy energy and from lipids about 9 kcal. Energy obtained from metabolism e.g. oxidation of glucose is usually stored temporarily within cells in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP . Organisms capable of aerobic respiration metabolize glucose and oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts. Carbohydrates include complex and simple sugars. Simple sugars can be broken down directly in cells. Complex carbohydrates such as sucrose a disaccharide, or a molecule containing two simple sugars ... metabolism of glucose molecules to obtain adenosine triphosphate ATP and pyruvate Pyruvate from glycolysis ... by the intake of dietary carbohydrates, diet controls major aspects of metabolism via insulin. In humans ... have glucoregulatory actions similar to glucagon. Human diseases of carbohydrate metabolism ... Reflist External links MeshName Carbohydrate metabolism http www.bbc.co.uk schools gcsebitesize ... http www.medbio.info Horn Sugars4Kids Sugar4Kids Carbohydrate metabolism Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis Fructose and galactose metabolism Glycosaminoglycan metabolism enzymes Glycoprotein metabolism enzymes DEFAULTSORT Carbohydrate Metabolism Category Metabolism da Kulhydratstofskifte de Glucose Biochemie ...   more details



  1. Purine metabolism

    Modulation of purine metabolism has pharmacotherapeutic value. Purine synthesis inhibitors inhibit ... synthesis by blocking the metabolism of folic acid it is an inhibitor of the Dihydrofolate reductase ... The Medical Biochemistry Page http www.genome.jp kegg pathway map map00230.html Purine metabolism Reference pathway http www.pumpa.org.uk PUMPA Purine Metabolic Patients Association Protein metabolism Nucleotide metabolism Nucleotide metabolism intermediates Inborn errors of purine pyrimidine metabolism ...   more details



  1. Sleep and metabolism

    Wikify date December 2011 Sleep and Metabolism Sleep is important in regulating metabolism. There are non REM and REM sleep. REM is Rapid Eye Movement. Non REM sleep has four stages where the third and fourth stages are considered Slow Wave Sleep SWS . SWS is considered deep sleep, when metabolism is least active. ref name autogenerated1 cite journal last Sharma first Sunil coauthors Kavuru, Mani title Sleep and Metabolism Overview journal International Journal of Endocrinology date 2 year 2010 month August url http ncbi.nlm.gov pmc articles PMC2929498 accessdate November 29, 2011 ref Metabolism involves two biochemical processes that occur in living organisms. The first is anabolism, which means the build up of molecules. The second is catabolism, the break down of molecules. These two processes work to regulate the amount of energy the body uses to maintain itself. During non REM sleep, metabolic rate and brain temperature are lowered to deal with damages that may have occurred during time of wakefulness. ref name autogenerated1 Normal Metabolism After eating, the pancreas releases insulin. Insulin signals muscle and fat cells to absorb the glucose from the food. Blood glucose would then lower down to normal state. ref name autogenerated2 cite news last Walker first Matthew title Sleep Deprivation I Immune Function and Metabolism accessdate October 10, 2011 date October 10, 2011 ref Sleep Deprivation and Type 2 Diabetes Insulin Resistant Metabolism The normal amount of insulin does not signal muscle and fat cells to absorb glucose. Because of the high level of glucose, the pancreas releases much insulin. Blood sugar will then rapidly drop. This can progress to type 2 diabetes. ref name autogenerated2 Sleep loss can affect the basic metabolic functions of storing carbohydrates ... in glucose metabolism that resemble that of type 2 diabetes patients. When the participants were tested ... and Appetite Control Sleep plays a vital role in regulating metabolism and appetite. When sleep deprived ...   more details



  1. Pyrimidine metabolism

    for rate of DNA turnover. Fact date February 2007 Pharmacotherapy Modulating the pyrimidine metabolism ... misc pyrimid.html Overview at Queen Mary, University of London MetabolismMap Protein metabolism Nucleotide metabolism Category Pyrimidines Category metabolism ca S ntesi de les pirimidines sr Biosinteza ...   more details



  1. Xylose metabolism

    metabolism have revealed that limiting the speed of this step may be beneficial to the efficiency ... NADPH during metabolism, limiting this step will help to correct the already evident imbalance ... laboratory strains do not always reflect their metabolism abilities on raw xylose products in nature ... to optimize the efficiency of the D xylose metabolism pathway. References reflist 2 Carbohydrate metabolism ...   more details



  1. Calcium metabolism

    Image Ca TableImage.png thumb Calcium Calcium metabolism or calcium homeostasis is the mechanism by which the body maintains adequate calcium levels. Derangements of this mechanism lead to hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia , both of which can have important consequences for health. Calcium location and quantity Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. The average adult body contains in total approximately 1  kg, 99 in the skeleton in the form of calcium phosphate salts. The extracellular fluid ECF contains approximately 22.5  mmol, of which about 9  mmol is in the blood plasma serum . Approximately 500  mmol of calcium is exchanged between bone and the ECF over a period of twenty four hours. ref cite book last1 Marshall first1 W. J. year 1995 title Clinical Chemistry edition 3rd publisher Mosby location London isbn 0723421900 ref Normal ranges The serum level of calcium is closely regulated with a normal total calcium of 2.2 2.6  mmol L 9 10.5  mg dL and a normal ionized calcium of 1.1 1.4  mmol L 4.5 5.6  mg dL . The amount of total calcium varies with the level of serum albumin , a protein to which calcium is bound. The biologic effect of calcium is determined by the amount of ionized calcium , rather than the total calcium. Ionized calcium does not vary with the albumin level, and therefore it is useful to measure the ionized calcium level when the serum albumin is not within normal ranges, or when a calcium disorder is suspected despite .... Hormonal Control of Calcium & Phosphate Metabolism & the Physiology of Bone Chapter . Barrett KE ... is a consequence of chronic renal failure related to the calcium metabolism. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia have been linked to calcium metabolism disorders. Research into cancer prevention The role ... ref See also Disorders of calcium metabolism Calcium in biology References reflist 2 External links GeorgiaPhysiology 5 5ch6 5ch6line Endocrinology Metal metabolism DEFAULTSORT Calcium Metabolism ...   more details



  1. Ethanol metabolism

    from reactants. Gene expression and ethanol metabolism Image Gycolpathway.gif Glycolysis Pathway ... enzyme of the major oxidative pathway of alcohol metabolism. Two major liver isoforms of this enzyme ... citric acid cycle . Image citrate.gif References reflist 2 Metabolism Category Metabolism sv Alkoholmetabolisering ...   more details



  1. Secondary

    Wiktionarypar secondary Secondary is an adjective meaning second or second hand . It may refer to The group of usually at least four defensive back s in American football and Canadian football An obsolete name for the Mesozoic in geosciences The secondary winding, or the electrical or electronic circuit connected to the secondary winding in a transformer Secondary color Secondary consumers in ecology Trophic dynamics Secondary dominant in music Secondary education Secondary school The type of school at the secondary level of education Secondary market , an aftermarket where financial assets are traded Secondary market offering Secondary mirror , second mirror element focusing surface in a reflecting telescope Secondary neoplasm Secondaries, the second largest group of remiges wing feathers , which attach to the inner lower arm Private equity secondary , investment in an existing private equity fund or other alternative asset disambig es Secundario fr Secondaire ...   more details



  1. Inborn error of steroid metabolism

    Infobox Disease Name Inborn error of steroid metabolism Image Caption DiseasesDB ICD10 ICD9 ICDO OMIM MedlinePlus eMedicineSubj eMedicineTopic MeshID D043202 A inborn error of steroid metabolism is an inborn error of metabolism due to defects in steroid metabolism . Defects of steroid metabolism Category Cholesterol and steroid metabolism disorders genetics stub ...   more details



  1. Inborn errors of metal metabolism

    Infobox Disease Name Inborn errors of metal metabolism Image Caption DiseasesDB ICD10 ICD10 E 83 e 70 ICD9 ICD9 275 ICDO OMIM MedlinePlus eMedicineSubj eMedicineTopic MeshID D008664 Inborn errors of metal metabolism refers to metabolic disturbances in the processing or distribution of dietary mineral s. An example is hemochromatosis . Inborn errors of metal metabolism Category Inborn errors of metal metabolism medicine stub ...   more details




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