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Pseudocode





Encyclopedia results for Pseudocode

  1. Pseudocode

    In computer science and numerical computation , pseudocode is an informal High level programming language ... than machine reading. Pseudocode typically omits details that are not essential for human understanding ... mathematical notation. The purpose of using pseudocode is that it is easier for people ... place. No standard for pseudocode syntax exists, as a program in pseudocode is not an executable program. Pseudocode resembles, but should not be confused with, Skeleton computer programming skeleton ... Modeling Language UML charts can be thought of as a graphical alternative to pseudocode, but are more ... and numerical computation often use pseudocode in description of algorithms, so that all programmers ... start with a pseudocode description, and then translate that description into the target programming ... start a project by sketching out the code in pseudocode on paper before writing it in its actual language, as a top down structuring approach. Syntax As the name suggests, pseudocode generally does ... sentence. Depending on the writer, pseudocode may therefore vary widely in style, from a near exact ... at the other. This is an example of pseudocode for the mathematical game bizz buzz class wikitable Fortran style pseudo code javascript syntax color works well for pseudocode syntaxhighlight lang Fortran ... well for pseudocode syntaxhighlight lang Pascal procedure bizzbuzz for i 1 to 100 do set print number ... pseudo code javascript syntax color works well for pseudocode syntaxhighlight lang C void function bizzbuzz ... a newline syntaxhighlight See also category Articles with example pseudocode Mathematical style pseudocode In numerical computation , pseudocode often consists of mathematical notation , typically from ... pseudocode is sometimes referred to as pidgin code , for example pidgin ALGOL the origin of the concept .... Mathematical programming languages An alternative to using mathematical pseudocode involving ... language A . MathCAD . Alternative forms of pseudocode Since the usual aim of pseudocode is to present ...   more details



  1. Program Design Language

    Orphan date February 2009 Program Design Language or PDL, for short is a method for designing and documenting methods and procedures in software. It is related to pseudocode , but unlike pseudocode, it is written in plain language without any terms that could suggest the use of any programming language or library. PDL was originally developed by the company Caine, Farber & Gordon and has been modified substantially since they published their initial paper on it in 1975. It has been described in some detail by Steve McConnell in his book Code Complete . See also Pseudocode http www.gamedev.net reference articles article1384.asp Using PDL for Code Design and Documentation http www.cfg.com pdl81 index.html PDL 81 Home Page by Caine, Farber & Gordon, Inc. Soft eng stub Category Algorithm description languages ...   more details



  1. Pidgin code

    unreferenced date June 2009 In computer programming , pidgin code is a mixture of several programming language s in the same program, or pseudocode that is a mixture of a programming language with natural language descriptions. Hence the name the mixture is a programming language analogy to a pidgin in natural language s. In numerical computation , mathematical style pseudocode is sometimes called pidgin code , for example pidgin ALGOL the origin of the concept , pidgin Fortran , pidgin BASIC , pidgin Pascal programming language Pascal , and pidgin C programming language C . It is a compact and often informal notation that blends syntax taken from a conventional programming language with mathematical notation , typically using set theory and matrix mathematics matrix operations, and perhaps also natural language descriptions. It can be understood by a wide range of mathematically trained people, and is used as a way to describe algorithm s where the control structure is made explicit at a rather high level of detail, while some data structures are still left at an abstract level, independent of any specific programming language. Normally non ASCII typesetting is used for the mathematical equations, for example by means of TeX or MathML markup, or proprietary Formula editor formats. These are examples of articles that contain mathematical style pseudo code table border 0 width 90 tr valign top td width 40 Algorithm Conjugate gradient method Ford Fulkerson algorithm Gauss Seidel method Generalized minimal residual method Jacobi eigenvalue algorithm Jacobi method td td Karmarkar s algorithm Particle swarm optimization Stone method Successive over relaxation Symbolic Cholesky decomposition Tridiagonal matrix algorithm td tr table See also Pseudocode Category Algorithm description languages Category Article Feedback 5 prog lang stub ...   more details



  1. Wrapping (graphics)

    About the technique used in 3D graphics wrapping in word processing Word wrap Unreferenced date December 2009 In computer graphics, wrapping is the process of limiting a position to an area. A good example of wrapping is wallpaper , a single pattern repeated indefinitely over a wall . Wrapping is used in 3D computer graphics to repeat a Texture mapping texture over a polygon , eliminating the need for large textures or multiple polygons. To wrap a position x to an area of width w , calculate the value math x equiv x pmod w math . Implementation For computational purposes the wrapped value x of x can be expressed as math x x lfloor x x min x max x min rfloor x max x min math where math x max math is the highest value in the range, and math x min math is the lowest value in the range. Pseudocode for wrapping of a value to a range other than 0 1 is function wrap X, Min, Max Real Real X X Int X Min Max Min Max Min if X 0 then This corrects the problem caused by using Int instead of Floor X X Max Min return X Pseudocode for wrapping of a value to a range of 0 1 is function wrap X Real Real X X Int X if X 0 then X X 1 return X Pseudocode for wrapping of a value to a range of 0 1 without branching is, function wrap X Real Real return X mod 1.0 1.0 mod 1.0 See also Clamping graphics Clamping DEFAULTSORT Wrapping Graphics Category Computer graphics algorithms ...   more details



  1. Rapid Quality Systems

    notability Companies date May 2012 unreferenced date May 2012 Infobox company name Rapid Quality Systems Ltd logo File Rapid Quality Systems Logo.png Logo caption Rapid Quality Systems Logo type private genre Computer software fate predecessor successor foundation Start date 2009 09 01 location city Dundee location country United Kingdom area served Worldwide products Code Rocket Designer, Code Rocket for Visual Studio, Code Rocket for Eclipse homepage URL www.rapidqualitysystems.com Homepage Rapid Quality Systems Ltd develop innovative software development tools to increase developer productivity and improve code quality. Their flagship product, Code Rocket uses abstract pseudocode and flowchart views to help software architects and developers product high quality documentation down to the detailed algorithm level. Code Rocket Designer is a detailed code visualization and documentation tool, designed to reduce software development time and costs. It supports C , C C , Java and Visual Basic programming languages for upfront design and specification, and for visualization of existing code. Code Rocket for Visual Studio integrates our unique and intuitive pseudocode and flowchart editors into your Visual Studio IDE and has been specifically designed to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of software development projects. Code Rocket for Visual Studio supports C , C C and Visual Basic code design and visualization. Code Rocket for Eclipse integrates our unique and intuitive pseudocode and flowchart editors into your Eclipse IDE and has been specifically designed to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of software development projects. Code Rocket for Eclipse supports both Java and C C code design and visualization. Category Computer Software ...   more details



  1. Code Rocket

    , it is highlighted green in the flowchart and can be indicated in the pseudocode margin. Uses ... Studio and Eclipse plugins now integrate with the debugger so that the pseudocode and flowchart views ... team to be implemented, keeping the intellectual property rights at source. Main features Pseudocode ...   more details



  1. Pearson hashing

    Pearson hashing ref name acmref Citation title Fast Hashing of Variable Length Text Strings first Peter K. last Pearson journal Communications of the ACM volume 33 issue 6 pages 677 date June 1990 url http portal.acm.org citation.cfm?id 78978 issn doi 10.1145 78973.78978 ref is a hash function designed for fast execution on processors with 8 bit processor register register s. Given an input consisting of any number of bytes, it produces as output a single byte that is strongly dependent ref name acmref on every byte of the input. Its implementation requires only a few instructions, plus a 256 byte lookup table containing a permutation of the values 0 through 255. This hash function is a CBC MAC that uses an 8 bit random block cipher implemented via the permutation table. An 8 bit block cipher has negligible cryptographic security, so the Pearson hash function is not cryptographically strong but it offers these benefits It is extremely simple. It executes quickly on resource limited processors. There is no simple class of inputs for which hash collision collision s identical outputs are especially likely. Given a small, privileged set of inputs e.g., reserved word s for a compiler , the permutation table can be adjusted so that those inputs yield distinct hash values, producing what is called a perfect hash function . The algorithm can be described by the following pseudocode , which computes the hash of message  C using the permutation table  T code lang pseudo h 0 for each c in C loop index h xor c h T index end loop return h code References references Category Error detection and correction Category Hash functions Category Articles with example pseudocode ...   more details



  1. MTD-f

    MTD f , an abbreviation of MTD n,f Memory enhanced Test Driver with node n and value f is a minimax search algorithm, an alternative to the alpha beta pruning algorithm. Zero Window Searches MTD f efficiently does only zero window alpha beta searches, with a good bound variable beta . In Negascout , AlphaBeta is called with a wide search window, as in AlphaBeta root, INFINITY, INFINITY, depth , so the return value lies between the value of alpha and beta in one call. In MTD f , AlphaBeta fails high or low, returning a lower bound or an upper bound on the minimax value, respectively. Zero window calls cause more cutoffs, but return less information only a bound on the minimax value. To find the minimax value, MTD f calls AlphaBeta a number of times, converging towards it and eventually finding the exact value. A transposition table stores and retrieves the previously searched portions of the tree in memory to reduce the overhead of re exploring parts of the search tree. Pseudocode function MTDF root, f, d g f upperBound lowerBound while lowerBound upperBound if g lowerBound then g 1 else g g AlphaBetaWithMemory root, 1, , d if g then upperBound g else lowerBound g return g Performance Implementations of the MTD f algorithm have been proven to be more efficient search fewer nodes than other search algorithms e.g. Negascout in games such as chess http portal.acm.org citation.cfm?id 240998&coll GUIDE&dl GUIDE&CFID 50049687&CFTOKEN 16181537 . However, in practice, MTD f has some issues such as heavy dependence on the transposition table , search instability, and many others. Therefore, most modern chess engine s still implement Negascout, which is considered by many chess programmers to be the best search algorithm in practice. External links http plaat.nl mtdf.html Description of MTD f algorithm Category Search algorithms Category Articles with example pseudocode fa MTD F ja MTD f ...   more details



  1. Structured English

    also Structured programming SQL formerly Structured English Query Language Pseudocode Decision Tree ...   more details



  1. Promise (computing)

    Multiple issues wikify March 2012 orphan February 2009 unreferenced July 2008 See also Lazy evaluation A promise is the final item in a stream computing Stream . A Stream itself is a way to shorten a very long sequence into a short one, and request only the items needed at the moment. For example, in pseudocode, assuming intseq reports an integer sequence up to its input intseq 5 1, 2, 3, 4 For long computations, like intseq 10000 , a program may not immediately need a list containing 10,000 elements. Upon a closer look at intseq, it may look something like this define intseq value, this 1 if this value return return flatten this, intseq value, this 1 If not all integers were needed immediately, it would be more efficient to return a promise instead. A stream intseq may look like this in pseudocode define stream intseq value, this if this value return return flatten this, end , way to invoke stream intseq value, this 1 In this way, a way to invoke generated by way to invoke the next operation is returned after a custom value that defines the end of data input in this case, end . When needed, the caller can use the handle generated by way to invoke to invoke the next result. This will be added to the data part of the list, and the next invocation will be stored. For example, for stream intseq 5 , through all invocations 1, end , way to invoke stream intseq 5, 2 1, 2, end , way to invoke stream intseq 5, 3 1, 2, 3, end , way to invoke stream intseq 5, 4 1, 2, 3, 4, end , way to invoke stream intseq 5, 5 1, 2, 3, 4 Notice the one extra invocation of stream intseq, that is determined afterward to be empty. This is normal, as it happens to intseq as well. Category Compiler optimizations Category Evaluation strategy ...   more details



  1. Span (programming language)

    Orphan date February 2009 Span is a programming language targeting the Parrot virtual machine . Its syntax is meant to be very similar to C programming language C , but its philosophy is Smalltalk like, and it uses Smalltalk style message syntax. Almost all of Span s library visible to the user is written in Span itself. Span is dynamically typed. The hello world program in Span is class Hello static public main args Console Hello World n Span uses blocks ala Smalltalk for all flow control constructs except definition. For example, for this pseudocode fragment if x y print yes else print no Span would write x y ifTrue Console yes ifFalse Console no Span is currently in very early stages of development. External links http homepage.mac.com matt.kennedy Span Span homepage Category Object oriented programming languages compu lang stub ...   more details



  1. Trellis quantization

    Trellis quantization is an algorithm that can improve data compression in Discrete cosine transform DCT based encoding methods. It is used to optimize residual Discrete cosine transform DCT coefficients after Motion compensation Motion estimation motion estimation in lossy compression lossy video compression encoders such as Xvid and x264 . Trellis quantization reduces the size of some DCT coefficients while recovering others to take their place. This process can increase quality because coefficients chosen by Trellis have the lowest Rate distortion rate distortion ratio. Trellis quantization effectively finds the optimal quantization for each block to maximize the PSNR relative to bitrate . It has varying effectiveness depending on the input data and compression method. References http www.doom9.org index.html? xvid vdub final.htm VirtualDub Xvid guide mentioning Trellis quantization http ffmpegx.com options.html FFMPEGx option documentation http akuvian.org src x264 trellis.txt Trellis explanation and pseudocode by the x264 author Category MPEG Category Data compression Category Video compression compu sci stub ru ...   more details



  1. Lower level design

    Multiple issues orphan August 2009 wikify August 2009 Low Level Design LLD is like detailing the High level design HLD . It defines the actual logic for each and every component of the system. Class diagram s with all the methods and relation between classes comes under LLD. Programs specs are covered under LLD. LLD describes each and every module in an elaborate manner so that the programmer can directly code the program based on this.There will be at least 1 document for each module and there may be more for a module. The LLD will contain detailed Functional logic programming functional logic of the module in pseudocode database table s with all elements including their type and size all interface details with complete API references both requests and responses all dependency issues error message listings complete input and outputs for a module. DEFAULTSORT Lower Level Design Category Software development process ...   more details



  1. PlusCal

    PlusCal formerly known as Cal is an ALGOL algorithmic language . It is designed to replace pseudocode . PlusCal can express both Sequential algorithm sequential and concurrent algorithm s and features means to handle Nondeterministic algorithm nondeterminism , Atomicity programming atomicity and model checking . ref name Lamport2009 cite web url http research.microsoft.com en us um people lamport pubs pluscal.pdf title The PlusCal Algorithm Language last Lamport first Leslie date 2 January 2009 publisher Microsoft Research accessdate 17 September 2010 ref Syntax PlusCal expressions are written using TLA . ref name Lamport2009 The balance of PlusCal syntax can be translated to TLA ref cite web url http www.tlaplus.net tools title TLA Tools accessdate 2010 09 17 ref for the purposes of debugging and model checking. References Reflist External links http research.microsoft.com en us um people lamport tla pluscal.html PlusCal homepage at Microsoft Research Comp sci stub Category Algorithm description languages ...   more details



  1. NESL

    NESL is a parallel programming language developed at Carnegie Mellon by the SCandAL project and released in 1993. It integrates various ideas from parallel algorithm s, and functional programming functional programming and array programming languages. The most important new ideas behind NESL are Nested data parallelism this feature offers the benefits of data parallelism, concise code that is easy to understand and debug, while being well suited for irregular algorithms, such as algorithms on trees, graphs or sparse matrices. A language based performance model this gives a formal way to calculate the work and depth of a program. These measures can be related to running time on parallel machines. The main design guideline for NESL was to make parallel programming easy and portable. Algorithms are typically significantly more concise in NESL than in most other parallel programming languages, and the code closely resembles high level pseudocode. Influences NESL heavily influenced Data Parallel Haskell . ref name dph cite web last Jones first Simon Peyton title Data Parallel Haskell url http www.youtube.com watch?v NWSZ4c9yqW8 accessdate 6 September 2011 ref References Reflist External links http www.cs.cmu.edu scandal nesl.html NESL homepage compu lang stub Category Array programming languages Category Functional languages Category Concurrent programming languages Category Common Lisp software ...   more details



  1. Skeleton (computer programming)

    Unreferenced stub auto yes date December 2009 Skeleton programming is a style of computer programming based on simple high level program structures and so called dummy code . Program skeletons resemble pseudocode , but allow parsing , compiler compilation and testing of the code. Dummy code is inserted in a program skeleton to simulate processing and avoid compiler compilation error messages. It may involve empty subroutine function declarations, or functions that return a correct result only for a simple test case where the expected response of the code is known. Skeleton programming facilitates a top down design approach, where a partially functional system with complete high level structures is designed and coded, and this system is then progressively expanded to fulfill the requirements of the project. Program skeletons are sometimes used for high level descriptions of algorithm s. A program skeleton may also be utilized as a template that reflects syntax and structures commonly used in a wide class of problems. Skeleton programs are utilized in the template method design pattern used in object oriented programming . See that article for examples of skeleton programs. In object oriented programming , dummy code corresponds to an Method computer science Kinds of methods abstract method , a method stub or a mock object . See also Template method pattern DEFAULTSORT Skeleton Computer Science Category Computer programming Category Programming language topics Prog lang stub de Skeleton Programmierung zh ...   more details



  1. Dry run (testing)

    Refimprove date October 2007 wiktionary dry run portal Software Testing A dry run is a testing process where the effects of a possible failure are intentionally mitigated. For example, an aerospace company may conduct a dry run test of a jet s new pilot ejection seat while the jet is parked on the ground, rather than while it is in flight. In computer programming , a dry run is a mental run of a computer program , where the computer programmer examines the source code one step at a time and determines what it will do when run. In theoretical computer science , a dry run is a mental run of an algorithm , sometimes expressed in pseudocode , where the computer scientist examines the algorithm s procedures one step at a time. In both uses, the dry run is frequently assisted by a table on a computer screen or on paper with the program or algorithm s Variable programming variables on the top. The usage of dry run in acceptance procedures for example in the so called FAT acceptance testing factory acceptance testing is meant as following the factory which is a subcontractor must perform a complete test of the system it has to deliver before the actual acceptance from the contractor side. See also Pilot experiment Code review External links http www.worldwidewords.org qa qa dry1.htm World Wide Words Dry Run Category Tests Category Software testing Industry stub compu prog stub de Schreibtischtest ...   more details



  1. Method stub

    method stub or simply stub in software development is a piece of code used to stand in for some other programming functionality. A stub may simulation simulate the behavior of existing code such as a Subroutinrocedure on a remote machine or be a temporary substitute for yet to be developed code. Stubs are therefore most useful in porting , distributed computing as well as general software development and Software testing testing . An example of a stub in pseudocode might be as follows BEGIN Temperature ThermometerRead Outside IF Temperature 40 THEN PRINT It s HOT END IF END BEGIN ThermometerRead Source insideOrOutside RETURN 28 END ThermometerRead The above pseudocode utilises the function tt ThermometerRead tt , which returns a temperature. While tt ThermometerRead tt would be intended to read some hardware device, this function currently does not contain the necessary code. So tt ThermometerRead tt does not, in essence, Simulation simulate any process, yet it does return a legal value, allowing the main program to be at least partly tested. Also note that although it accepts the Parameter computer science parameter of type tt Source tt , which determines whether inside or outside temperature is needed, it does not use the actual value passed Argument computer science argument tt insideOrOutside tt by the caller in its logic. A stub ref http www.webopedia.com TERM S stub.html http www.webopedia.com ref is a routine that doesn t actually do anything other than declare itself and the parameters it accepts and returns something that is usually the values expected in one of the happy scenarios for the caller. Stubs are used commonly as placeholders for implementation of a known interface, where the interface computer science interface is finalized known but the implementation is not yet known finalized. The stub contains just enough code to allow it to be compiled and linked with the rest of the program. See also Portal Software Testing Method computer science Kinds of ...   more details



  1. Expectiminimax tree

    and Non Numerical Computation, pp. 183 200. ref Its pseudocode is given below. function expectiminimax ...   more details



  1. Negamax

    Category Optimization algorithms and methods Category Articles with example pseudocode de Minimax Algorithmus ...   more details



  1. IDA*

    Multiple issues wikify January 2012 technical November 2009 refimprove March 2011 graph search algorithm IDA ref cite journal last Korf first Richard title Depth first Iterative Deepening An Optimal Admissible Tree Search journal Artificial Intelligence year 1985 volume 27 pages 97 109 ref is a variant of the A search algorithm which uses iterative deepening to keep the memory usage lower than in A . It is an informed search based on the idea of the uninformed iterative deepening depth first search . The main difference to IDS is that it uses the f costs g h as the next limit and not just an iterated depth. In the following pseudocode, math h math is the heuristic function that estimates the path from a node to the goal. source lang python algorithm IDA start cost limit h start loop solution, cost limit depth limited search 0, start , cost limit if solution None return solution if cost limit return None returns solution sequence or None, new cost limit algorithm depth limited search start cost, path so far, cost limit node last element path minimum cost start cost h node if minimum cost cost limit return None, minimum cost if is goal node return path so far, cost limit next cost limit for s in successors node new start cost start cost edge cost node, s solution, new cost limit depth limited search new start cost, extend path so far, s , cost limit if solution None return solution, new cost limit next cost limit min next cost limit, new cost limit return None, next cost limit source The difference to A can be seen from this pseudo code it doesn t remember the current shortest path and costs for all visited nodes like in A that is why space complexity is linear in A to all visited nodes until it finds the goal but it only remembers one single path at a time. References reflist DEFAULTSORT Ida Category Graph algorithms Category Routing algorithms Category Search algorithms Category Game artificial intelligence Category Articles with example pseudocode es IDA ...   more details



  1. Google Authenticator

    access control Category Articles with example pseudocode ...   more details



  1. Linear search

    search and linear search performance on the .NET and Mono platform ref Pseudocode Forward iteration The following pseudocode describes a typical variant of linear search, where the result of the search ... . In this pseudocode, the last line is executed only after all list items have been examined with none ... for a value x . The following pseudocode performs a forward search, returning n 1 if the value ... the loop. Set i to i 1. Return i . The following pseudocode searches the array in the reverse order ..., as in this pseudocode Set A n 1 to x . Set i to 1. Repeat this loop If A i x , then exit the loop ... Linear Search Category Search algorithms Category Articles with example pseudocode Category Articles ...   more details



  1. Constant folding

    . Consider the following pseudocode source lang C int x 14 int y 7 x 2 return y 28 x 2 source Propagating ..., by interleaving them iteratively until no more changes occur. Consider this pseudocode, for example ..., shrinking the code even further source lang C return 4 source If this pseudocode constituted ...   more details



  1. Fowler?Noll?Vo hash function

    hash XOR octet of data return hash In the above pseudocode , all variables are signedness unsigned ... hash hash math times math FNV prime return hash The above pseudocode has the same assumptions that were noted for the FNV 1 pseudocode . The small change in order leads to much better avalanche ...   more details




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