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Encyclopedia results for Phonology

Phonology





Encyclopedia results for Phonology

  1. Phonology

    For the journal Phonology journal linguistics Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic ... is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning . Phonology also includes the study of equivalent organizational systems in sign language s. The word phonology as in English phonology the phonology of English can also refer to the phonological system sound system of a given language ... and its vocabulary . Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics . While phonetics concerns the physical ... ref name Carr2003 phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning. In other words, phonetics belongs to descriptive linguistics , and phonology ... the development of the modern concept of phoneme in the mid 20th century. Some subfields of modern phonology ... perception , resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology . Derivation and definitions The word phonology comes from Ancient Greek Greek , ph n , voice, sound ... of the term vary. Nikolai Trubetzkoy in Grundz ge der Phonologie 1939 defines phonology as the study ... s Principles of Phonology , University of California Press, 1969 ref More recently, Lass 1998 writes that phonology refers broadly to the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language, while in more narrow terms, phonology proper is concerned with the function, behaviour and organization ... studying this use. ref name ClarkEtal2007 Development of phonology The history of phonology may ..., is considered to be the starting point of modern phonology. He also worked on the theory ... on the work of Ferdinand de Saussure . An influential school of phonology in the interwar period ... der Phonologie Principles of Phonology , ref name GdP published posthumously in 1939, is among the most ... for Generative linguistics Generative Phonology. In this view, phonological representations ..., the Generativists folded morphophonology into phonology, which both solved and created problems ...   more details



  1. Greek phonology

    Greek phonology is treated under Ancient Greek phonology , discussing the classical language Koine Greek phonology , discussing the developments between Classical and Modern Greek Modern Greek phonology disambig ...   more details



  1. Chinese phonology

    Chinese phonology generally means Historical Chinese phonology Modern Standard Chinese phonology For the phonology of other varieties of Chinese, see the respective articles of List of Chinese dialects each variety . disambig Category Chinese language Category Language phonologies ...   more details



  1. Cognitive phonology

    primarysources date February 2009 Cognitive phonology is usually thought of as the study of the sound systems of languages. It is an attempt to classify various correspondences between morphemes and phonetic sequence s and is a part of cognitive grammar . One attractive feature of cognitive phonology is that other aspects of grammar are directly accessible due to its subordinate relationship with cognitive grammar thus making relationships between phonology and various aspects of syntax, semantics and pragmatics feasible. Linguistics stub Category Phonology ...   more details



  1. Laboratory phonology

    Laboratory phonology is an approach to phonology that de emphasizes the role of phonological theory, and instead emphasizes the importance of careful laboratory studies of human speech . The central goal of laboratory phonology is gaining an understanding of the relationship between the cognitive and physical aspects of human speech ref name Cohn Cohn, Abigail. http conf.ling.cornell.edu cohn LPhon&Tphonho.pdf Phonology An Appraisal of the Field in 2007 , Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America. January 5, 2007. Anaheim, CA. ref through the use of an interdisciplinary approach that promotes scholarly exchange across disciplines, bridging linguistics with psychology , computer science , etc. ref name LabPhon1 Beckman, M. and J. Kingston Introduction. In J. Kingston and M. Beckman eds. Papers in Laboratory Phonology I Between the Grammar and the Physics of Speech . Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1 16. ref Laboratory phonology is particularly connected with the Association for Laboratory Phonology , which was founded to promote the approach. Among the researchers associated with laboratory phonology are Janet Pierrehumbert , Mary Beckman , and D. Robert Ladd, who co authored a paper discussing the approach. ref name PBL2000 Pierrehumbert, J., M. Beckman, and D.R. Ladd 2000 . Conceptual Foundations of Phonology as a Laboratory Science. In N. Burton Roberts, P. Carr and G.J. Docherty eds. Phonological Knowledge Conceptual and Empirical Issues . Oxford Oxford University Press. Pages 273 303. ref Notes Reflist ling stub Category Phonetics Category Phonology Category Experimental social sciences ...   more details



  1. Hebrew phonology

    Hebrew phonology may refer to Biblical Hebrew phonology Modern Hebrew phonology disambig Short pages monitor This long comment was added to the page to prevent it from being listed on Special Shortpages. It and the accompanying monitoring template were generated via Template Long comment. Please do not remove the monitor template without removing the comment as well. fr Prononciation de l h breu ...   more details



  1. Phonology (journal)

    Infobox Journal title Phonology cover File Phonology journal .jpg editor Colin J. Ewen br Ellen Kaisse discipline Phonology abbreviation publisher Cambridge University Press country United Kingdom frequency Three times a year history 1984 present openaccess website http journals.cambridge.org jid PHO link1 link1 name link2 link2 name JSTOR OCLC LCCN ISSN 0952 6757 eISSN 1469 8188 Phonology is a British peer review ed academic journal journal of phonology published by Cambridge University Press , the only journal devoted exclusively to this subfield of linguistics . The current editors are Prof. Colin J. Ewen Leiden University and Prof. Ellen Kaisse University of Washington . The volumes from 1997 on are available electronically with subscription via the site of the publisher. Now published three times a year, in its first three years 1984 1987 it appeared once a year under the name Phonology Yearbook . Most cited articles As of January 2011, the top 5 most cited articles were ref name mostcited cite web url http journals.cambridge.org action displayJournal?jid PHO&tab mostcited title Most cited accessdate 2011 01 28 date 2011 publisher Cambridge University Press ref Cite doi 10.1017 S0952675700000440 Cite doi 10.1017 S0952675700000397 Cite doi 10.1017 S0952675700002268 Cite doi 10.1017 S0952675700000476 Cite doi 10.1017 S0952675700001019 References reflist External links Official http journals.cambridge.org PHO Category Publications established in 1984 Category Triannual journals Category Linguistics journals Category Phonology Category English language journals socialscience journal stub ...   more details



  1. Government phonology

    Refimprove date December 2009 Context date October 2009 Government phonology GP is a theoretical framework of linguistics and more specifically of phonology . The framework aims to provide a non arbitrary account for phonological phenomena by replacing the rule component of phonology with a restricted set of universal principles and parameters. As in Noam Chomsky s principles and parameters approach to syntax , the differences in phonological systems across languages are captured through different combinations of parametric settings. In GP, phonological representations consist of zero e.g. vowel zero in French or more combinations of elements. These elements are the primitives of the theory and are deemed to be universally present in all human phonological systems. They are assumed to correspond to characteristic acoustic signatures in the signal, or hot features as previously referred to. There are 6 elements believed to be existent across all languages, namely A , I , U , , L and H . They represent backness, frontness, roundness, stopness, voicing nasality and frication aspiration respectively. As in French, it is possible to have empty nuclei, marked , which are subject to the phonological Empty Category Principle ECP . Unlike features, each element is a Valency linguistics monovalent , and potentially interpretable phonological expression. Its actual interpretation depends on what phonological constituent dominates it, and whether it occupies a head or operator position within a phonological expression. Today, whilst Optimality Theory has become the dominant theory in phonology, GP continues to develop. P chtrager, ref P chtrager, M. A. 2006 . The structure of length. PhD Thesis. Vienna Universit t Wien., ref for example, proposes GP 2.0, another version of GP that strives to further reduce the number of elements by capturing manner of articulation with structure. The full potential of GP awaits to be seen. Reflist DEFAULTSORT Government Phonology Category Phonology ...   more details



  1. Articulatory phonology

    Articulatory phonology http www.haskins.yale.edu research gestural.html http www.essex.ac.uk speech pubs presents ioa 96 mt post.html is a linguistics linguistic theory originally proposed in 1986 by Catherine Browman http www.haskins.yale.edu staff browman.html of Haskins Laboratories and Louis M. Goldstein http www.yale.edu linguist faculty louis.html of Yale University and Haskins. The theory identifies theoretical discrepancies between phonetics and phonology and aims to unify the two by treating them as low and high dimensional descriptions of a single system. Unification can be achieved by incorporating into a single model the idea that the physical system identified with phonetics constrains the underlying abstract system identified with phonology , making the units of control at the abstract planning level the same as those at the physical level. The plan of an utterance is formatted as a gestural score, which provides the input to a physically based model of speech production the task dynamic model of Elliot Saltzman http www.bu.edu sargent about faculty physical therapy saltzman ... model of speech production developed at Haskins Laboratories combines articulatory phonology ... issue page S22 Browman, C.P. and Goldstein, L. 1986 Towards an articulatory phonology. In C. Ewen and J. Anderson eds. Phonology Yearbook 3 . Cambridge Cambridge University Press, pp.  219 252. Cite ... Articulatory phonology an overview url journal Phonetica volume 49 issue 3 4 pages 155 180 pmid 1488456 Browman, C.P. and Goldstein, L. 1993 Dynamics and articulatory phonology. Status Reports on Speech ... M., and Carol Fowler . 2003 . Articulatory phonology a phonology for public language use. In Phonetics and Phonology in Language Comprehension and Production Differences and Similarities , ed. Antje S. Meyer ... Review volume 94 issue 1 pages 84 106 pmid 3823306 Tatham, M. A. A. 1996 . Articulatory phonology ... Category Computational linguistics Category Psycholinguistics Category Phonetics Category Phonology ...   more details



  1. Autosegmental phonology

    Autosegmental phonology is the name of a framework of phonological analysis proposed by John Goldsmith in his PhD thesis in 1976 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT . As a theory of phonological representation, autosegmental phonology developed a formal account of ideas that had been sketched in earlier work by several linguists, notably Bernard Bloch 1948 , Charles Hockett 1955 and J. R. Firth 1948 . On such a view, phonological representations consist of more than one Distinctive feature linear sequence of segments each linear sequence constitutes a separate tier. The co registration of elements or autosegments on one tier with those on another is represented by association lines. There is a close relationship between analysis of segments into distinctive features and an autosegmental analysis each feature in a language appears on exactly one tier. The working hypothesis of autosegmental analysis is that a large part of phonological generalizations can be interpreted as a restructuring or reorganization of the autosegments in a representation. Clear examples of the usefulness ..., autosegmental phonology includes a Well formedness Condition on association lines each element ... phonology an autosegmental model . Indiana University Linguistics Club. Firth, J.R. 1948. Sounds ... and metrical phonology . Basil Blackwell. Hayes, B. 2009. Introductory Phonology . Malden Blackwell, ch. 14 15. Hockett, Charles. 1955. A manual of phonology . Indiana University Publications ... A Note on the Misrepresentation of a Research Tradition in Phonology. http eric.ed.gov ERICWebPortal ... SearchType 0 no&accno EJ501527 Roca, I. and Johnson, W. 1999. A course in phonology. Wiley ... The Aims of Autosegmental Phonology by John Goldsmith http www2.let.uu.nl UiL OTS Lexicon zoek.pl ... of Linguistics https dspace.mit.edu handle 1721.1 16388 Autosegmental phonology Doctoral dissertation ... What is autosegmental phonology? SIL Category Phonology pdc Autosegmental Phonology fa ...   more details



  1. Metrical phonology

    Metrical phonology is a theory of Stress linguistics stress or linguistic prominence. ref cite paper first Mark last Liberman author authorlink coauthors title The intonational system of English version publisher PhD thesis, MIT, Distributed 1978 by IULC year 1975 url accessdate ref ref name Liberman Prince cite paper first Mark last Liberman author authorlink coauthors Prince, Alan title On stress and linguistic rhythm version publisher Linguistics Inquiry 8 year 1977 url pages 249 336 accessdate ref The innovative feature of this theory is that the prominence of a unit is defined relative to other units in the same phrase. For example, in the most common pronunciation of the phrase doctors use penicillin if said out of the blue , the syllable ci is the strongest or most stressed syllable .... Stress was assigned using the cyclic reapplication of rules to words and phrases. Metrical phonology ... in metrical phonology is partially determined by the relations between nodes in a branching Tree structure ... in 2 . 2 Image Metrical tree narrow focus.JPG In Metrical Phonology there has been debate about ... title Prosodic phonology version publisher Foris Publications Dordrecht year 1986 url page accessdate ... author authorlink coauthors title Phonology and Syntax The relation between sound and structure version ... phonology and music Hierarchical patterns of prominence like those represented in metrical trees ... phonology Metrical phonology offers a number of advantages over a system representing stress ... of an individual segment, metrical phonology avoids the inexplicable differences between the stress feature and other phonological features. ref name Liberman Prince Metrical phonology also correctly ... last Ladd author authorlink coauthors title Intonational Phonology version publisher Cambridge ... did Gus do? narrow focus on skied , and What happened yesterday? broad focus . Finally, metrical phonology ... of movement. References Reflist Category Phonology ...   more details



  1. Dhivehi phonology

    Unreferenced date March 2008 Dhivehi phonology is the study of the inventory and phonology patterns of the consonant s, vowel s, and Prosody linguistics prosody of the Dhivehi language . Consonants and vowels The phoneme phonemic inventory of Dhivehi consists of 29 consonants and 10 vowels. Like other modern Indo Aryan languages the Dhivehi phonemic inventory shows an opposition of long and short vowels, of dental and retroflex consonants as well as single and geminate consonants. class wikitable style text align center Vowels rowspan 2 colspan 2 Front vowel Front colspan 2 Central vowel Central colspan 2 Back vowel Back class small short long short long short long Close vowel Close IPA i IPA i IPA u IPA u Mid vowel Mid IPA e IPA e IPA o IPA o Open vowel Open IPA a IPA a class wikitable style text align center Consonants colspan 2 Labial consonant Labial Dental consonant Dental Alveolar consonant Alveolar Retroflex consonant Retroflex Palatal consonant Palatal Velar consonant Velar Glottal consonant Glottal rowspan 3 Plosive consonant Plosive small voiceless small IPA p IPA t IPA IPA c IPA k small voice phonetics voiced small IPA b IPA d IPA IPA IPA small prenasalization prenasalized small IPA b IPA d IPA IPA rowspan 2 Fricative consonant Fricative small voiceless small IPA f IPA s IPA IPA IPA h small voiced small IPA v IPA z colspan 2 Nasal stop Nasal IPA m IPA n IPA IPA IPA colspan 2 Approximant consonant Approximant IPA l IPA l IPA IPA j colspan 2 Trill consonant Trill IPA r Dental and retroflex stops are contrastive in Dhivehi. For example unicode ma un means quietly madun means seldom . The segments IPA t and IPA d are articulated just behind the front teeth. Dhivehi retroflex segments IPA , IPA , IPA , and IPA are produced at the very ... prenasalized stops. The influence of other languages has played a great role in Dhivehi phonology ... is.ku l From English school . Language phonologies DEFAULTSORT Dhivehi Phonology Category Dhivehi ...   more details



  1. Register (phonology)

    see also Register sociolinguistics In linguistics , a register language, also known as a pitch register language, is a language which combines tone linguistics tone and vowel phonation into a single phonology phonological system. Burmese language Burmese and the Chinese dialect Shanghainese are examples. Burmese is often considered a tonal language, but differences in relative pitch are correlated with vowel phonation, so that neither exists independently. There are three such registers in Burmese, which have traditionally been considered three of the four tones . The fourth is not a tone at all, but a closed syllable, called entering tone in translations of Chinese phonetics . Jones 1986 views the differences as resulting from the intersection of both pitch registers and voice registers Clearly Burmese is not tonal in the same sense as such other languages and therefore requires a different concept, namely that of pitch register. ref Robert Jones, 1986. Pitch register languages, pp 135 136, in John McCoy & Timothy Light eds., Contributions to Sino Tibetan Studies ref class wikitable Burmese pitch phonation registers ref James Matisoff, 2001. Prosodic Diffusibility in South East Asia, pp. 309 310. In Aleksandra Aikhenvald and Robert Dixon, Areal Diffusion and Genetic Inheritance, OUP. ref Register Phonation Length Pitch Example Gloss Low Modal voice long low IPA l come High Breathy voice long high falling when final IPA l IPA l mule Creaky Creaky voice medium high IPA l moon Checked Final glottal stop short high IPA l fresh Khmer language Khmer is sometimes considered to be a register language. It s also been called a restructured register language because both its pitch and phonation can be considered allophonic If they are ignored, the phonemic distinctions they carry remain as a difference in diphthong s and vowel length . References Reflist Suprasegmentals Category Phonation Category Tonal languages br Rez yezhoniezh th ...   more details



  1. Tamil phonology

    Refimprove date January 2008 main Tamil language Tamil phonology is characterised by the presence of retroflex consonant s and multiple rhotic s. Tamil does not distinguish phonologically between voiced and unvoiced consonants phonetically, voice is assigned depending on a consonant s position in a word. ref Cite journal last1 Schiffman first1 Harold F. last2 Arokianathan first2 S. contribution Diglossic variation in Tamil film and fiction editor1 last Krishnamurti editor1 first Bhadriraju editor1 link Bhadriraju Krishnamurti editor2 last Masica editor2 first Colin P. editor2 link Colin Masica title South Asian languages structure, convergence, and diglossia year 1986 publisher Motilal Banarsidass place New Delhi isbn 8120800338 pages 371 382 ref harv at p. 371 ref Tamil phonology permits few consonant clusters, which can never be word initial. Native grammarians classify Tamil phonemes into vowels, consonants, and a secondary character , the ytam. listen filename Tamil tongue twister.ogg title A Tamil tongue twister description The sentence literally means A poor old man slipped on a banana peel and fell sprawling. format Ogg Vowels The vowels are called uyir ezhuthu uyir life, ezhuthu letter . The vowels are classified into short and long five of each type and two diphthong s. The long nedil vowels are about twice as long as the short kuRil vowels. The diphthong s are usually pronounced about one and a half times as long as the short vowels, though most grammatical texts place them with the long vowels. class wikitable Monophthong s ref Harvcoltxt Keane 2004 pp 114 115 ref rowspan 2 colspan 2 Front vowel Front colspan 2 Central vowel Central colspan 2 Back vowel Back small long small small short small small long small small short small small long small small short small ... f and IPA z are peripheral to the phonology of Tamil, being found only in loanwords and frequently .... Phonology Phonologists are divided in their opinion over why written Tamil did not distinguish ...   more details



  1. Welsh phonology

    The phonology of Welsh language Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are linguistic typology typologically rare in European languages, such as the voiceless lateral fricative IPA and voiceless nasal stops . Stress linguistics Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable in polysyllabic words, while the word final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitch music pitch than the stressed syllable. Consonants Welsh has the following consonant phoneme s ref name Jones 1984 Glyn E. Jones 1984 , The distinctive vowels and consonants of Welsh . In Welsh Phonology Selected Readings , ed. M. J. Ball and G. E. Jones. Cardiff University of Wales Press. 40 64. ISBN 0 7083 0861 9. ref class wikitable rowspan 2   rowspan 2 Labial consonant Labial rowspan 2 dental consonant Dental colspan 2 alveolar consonant Alveolar rowspan 2 palatal consonant Palatal rowspan 2 Dorsal consonant Dorsal rowspan 2 glottal consonant Glottal small plain small small lateral consonant lateral small plosive consonant Plosive align center IPA p    b   align center IPA t    d     align center IPA k      affricate consonant Affricate         align center IPA t     d     fricative consonant Fricative align center IPA f    v align center IPA     align center IPA s    z align center IPA align center IPA align center IPA     align center IPA h nasal stop Nasal align center IPA m     m   align center IPA n     n     align center IPA       Trill consonant Trill     align center IPA r     r         Approximant       align center IPA l align center IPA j align center IPA w   Symbols in parentheses are either allophone s, or found only in loanword s. The sound IPA ... for phonology , in Welsh Phonology Selected Readings , ed. M. J. Ball and G. E. Jones, Cardiff University ...   more details



  1. German phonology

    , IPAblink is likely see Old English phonology Consonant allophones Old English phonology . Despite ... consonant affricates , and finally all other German phonology Consonants consonants and Consonant ... has been challenged. ref Grijzenhout & Joppen 1998 1 ref The first German phonology Vowels vowels .... Sound changes Sound changes and mergers A Merger phonology merger found mostly in Northern accents ... give vs. ich gebe I give , but not B ren bears vs. Beeren berries . Another common Merger phonology ..., many more Merger phonology mergers occur, some of which are universal and some of which are typical ... Grijzenhout, J., & Joppen, S. 1998 . First Steps in the Acquisition of German Phonology A Case ... title The Phonology of German place Oxford publisher Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 824040 6 External ... in German Language phonologies DEFAULTSORT German Phonology Category German language Category Language ...   more details



  1. Yiddish phonology

    There is significant Phonology phonological variation among the various dialects of the Yiddish language . The description that follows is of a modern Standard Yiddish that was devised during the early 20th century and is frequently encountered in pedagogical contexts. Its genesis is described in the article on Yiddish dialects . Consonants class wikitable style text align center style vertical align center height 2em Yiddish consonants colspan 2 Labial consonant Labial Dental consonant Dental Postalveolar consonant Post br alveolar Velar consonant Velar br Uvular consonant Uvular Glottal consonant Glottal colspan 2 Nasal stop Nasal IPA m IPA n IPA r footnote1 group decimal colspan 2 Plosive consonant Plosive IPA p b IPA t d IPA k colspan 2 Affricate consonant Affricate IPA ts dz IPA t d colspan 2 Fricative consonant Fricative IPA f IPA v IPA s z IPA IPA IPA h colspan 2 Rhotic consonant Rhotic IPA r footnote2 group decimal rowspan 2 Approximant consonant Approximant small central small IPA j small lateral consonant lateral IPA l r footnote3 group decimal IPA reflist group decimal refs ref name footnote1 IPA is not a separate phoneme but an allophone of IPA n when directly followed by IPA k or IPA . ref ref name footnote2 Depending on speaker, the rhotic consonant rhotic IPA r may be realized either as an alveolar trill IPA r , an alveolar tap IPA , or a uvular trill IPA . ref ref name footnote3 The plain Lateral consonant lateral IPA l is generally velarization velarized . ref Orphaned reference Yiddish has a number of palatalisation palatalised coronal consonants, mostly from Slavic loanwords IPA s , IPA z , IPA ts , IPA dz , IPA t , IPA d , IPA n , ref name Harvcoltxt Kleine 2003 p 262 Harvcoltxt Kleine 2003 p 262 ref and IPA l . The phonemic status of these palatalised consonants, as well as any other affricates, is unclear. As in the Slavic ... Language phonologies DEFAULTSORT Yiddish Phonology Category Yiddish language Phonology Category ...   more details



  1. Abkhaz phonology

    Papers in Linguistics 6 . Language phonologies DEFAULTSORT Abkhaz Phonology Category Language phonologies Category Abkhaz language Phonology ...   more details



  1. Nepali phonology

    last4 Hale first4 Austin year 1971 title Nepali Segmental Phonology publisher Summer Institute ... phonologies Use dmy dates date January 2012 DEFAULTSORT Nepali Phonology Category Languages of Nepal ...   more details



  1. Latvian phonology

    This article is about the phonology of the Latvian language . It deals with synchronic phonology as well as phonetics. Consonants class wikitable   Labial consonant Labial Alveolar consonant Alveolar Postalveolar consonant Post br alveolar Palatal consonant Palatal Velar consonant Velar align center Nasal stop Nasal IPA m IPA n IPA IPA align center Plosive consonant Plosive IPA p     IPA b IPA t     IPA d   IPA c     IPA IPA k     IPA align center Affricate consonant Affricate   IPA t s     IPA d z IPA t     IPA d   align center fricative consonant Fricative IPA f     IPA v IPA s     IPA z IPA     IPA IPA x align center Approximant consonant Approximant   IPA j   align center Lateral consonant Lateral   IPA l IPA   align center Trill consonant Trill   IPA r       The consonant sounds IPA f x are only found in loanwords. IPA is only an allophone of nasals before velars. Vowels Latvian has six vowels, with Vowel length length as distinctive feature class wikitable border 1 style text align center Latvian vowels rowspan 2   colspan 2 Front vowel Front colspan 2 Central vowel Central colspan 2 Back vowel Back class small short long short long short long Close vowel Close IPA i IPA i colspan 2   IPA u IPA u Open mid vowel Mid IPA IPA colspan 2   IPA IPA Open vowel Open IPA IPA IPA a IPA a colspan 2   IPA , and the diphthongs involving it other than IPA u , are confined to loanwords. Vowel length ratio is about 1 2.5. Vowel length is phonemic and plays an important role in the language. For example koka IPA ku ka means made of wood , kok IPA ku ka means on the tree pile IPA pil means a drop , and p le IPA pi l means a duck . Latvian also has 10 diphthong s IPA ai ui i au i u iu i u u , although some diphthongs are mostly limited to proper names and interjections. Pitch accent Standard ...   more details



  1. Ottawa phonology

    distinction between long vowels and short vowels plays a significant role in Ottawa phonology. Only ... of Ojibwe phonology are silent on the issue. ref Harvcoltxt Valentine 2001 p 40 Harvcoltxt Rhodes ... nini Metrical feet and syllable weight Ojibwe syllables are organized into Metrical phonology metrical ... are either Metrical phonology Weak or Metrical phonology Strong . Each foot contains no more one ... Valentine 2001 pp 51 62 ref Syllable weight plays a significant role in Ottawa phonology, determining ... DEFAULTSORT Ottawa Phonology Category Language phonologies Category Anishinaabe languages Category ...   more details



  1. Irish phonology

    of Irish phonology is that almost all consonant s come in pairs, with one having a broad pronunciation ... analysis of the phonology of an Irish dialect was Harvcoltxt Finck 1899 , which was based on Franz ... a series of monographs, each describing the phonology of one local dialect Harvcoltxt Cu v 1944 ... an Fhailigh 1968 for Erris in County Mayo. More recent descriptive phonology has been published by Harvcoltxt ... phonology of Irish began with Harvcoltxt Siadhail Wigger 1975 , which follows the principles and practices of The Sound Pattern of English and which formed the basis of the phonology sections of Harvcoltxt Siadhail 1989 . Dissertations examining Irish phonology from a theoretical point ... Cyran 1997 and Harvcoltxt Bloch Rozmej 1998 in government phonology . Consonants Most dialects ... a number of different explanations within the context of theoretical phonology. All accounts agree ... x Harvcol O Rahilly 1932 pp 110 12 . Hiberno English Irish phonology has had a significant influence on the phonology of Hiberno English Harvcol Wells 1982 pp 417 50 . For example, most of the vowels ...   more details



  1. Norwegian phonology

    that is so common in most languages ref Gussenhoven. Carlos. 2002. The phonology of tone and intonation ... Gjert title The Phonology of Norwegian publisher Oxford University Press year 2007 url http www.oup.com uk catalogue ?ci 9780198237655 isbn 9780198237655 Language phonologies DEFAULTSORT Norwegian Phonology ...   more details



  1. Tagalog phonology

    unreferenced date July 2008 IPA notice This article deals with current phonology and phonetics as well as with historical developments of the phonology of the Tagalog language , including variants. Tagalog has allophone s, so it is important here to distinguish phoneme s written in slashes and corresponding allophones written in brackets . Consonants class wikitable style margin auto align center caption Table of consonant phonemes of Tagalog colspan 2 Labial consonant Labial colspan 2 Dental consonant Dental br Alveolar consonant Alveolar colspan 2 Postalveolar consonant Post br alveolar colspan 2 Palatal consonant Palatal colspan 2 Velar consonant Velar colspan 2 Glottal consonant Glottal align center Nasal stop Nasal colspan 2 IPA m colspan 2 IPA n colspan 2 colspan 2 IPA colspan 2 IPA colspan 2 align center Plosive consonant Plosive IPA p IPA b IPA t IPA d colspan 2 colspan 2 IPA k IPA colspan 2 IPA align center Fricative consonant Fricative colspan 2 colspan 2 IPA s colspan 2 IPA colspan 2 colspan 2 colspan 2 IPA h align center Affricate consonant Affricate colspan 2 colspan 2 IPA ts IPA t IPA d colspan 2 colspan 2 colspan 2 align center Flap consonant Tap colspan 2 colspan 2 IPA colspan 2 colspan 2 colspan 2 colspan 2 align center Approximant consonant Approximant colspan 2 colspan 2 IPA l colspan 2 colspan 2 IPA j colspan 2 IPA w colspan 2 class wikitable style text align center Phoneme Spelling Distribution and quality of allophones colspan 4 style text align center Plosives IPAslink p p pul IPAslink b b bughaw IPAslink t t tao When followed by IPA j may be pronounced IPA t , particularly by but not limited to speakers in urban areas. IPAslink d d dil w When followed by IPA j may be pronounced IPA d , particularly by but not limited to speakers in urban ... phonologies DEFAULTSORT Tagalog Phonology Category Language phonologies Category Tagalog language Phonology ...   more details



  1. Zuni phonology

    Mexico Press. Michaels, David. 1971 . A note on some exceptions in Zuni phonology. International Journal ... . A comparative sketch of Pueblo languages Phonology. In Kansas working papers in linguistics No. 12, pp.  119 139 . University of Kansas. Language phonologies DEFAULTSORT Zuni Phonology Category ...   more details




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