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Encyclopedia results for Multiplication Abacus

Multiplication Abacus

Encyclopedia results for Multiplication Abacus

  1. Abacus

    pp vandalism expiry 20 March 2013 small yes Other uses File Boulier1.JPG right thumb A Chinese abacus ..., A History of Mathematics , pp252 253, Wiley, 1991. ref The abacus , also called a counting frame ... beans or stones moved in grooves in sand or on tablets of wood, stone, or metal. The abacus was in use ..., traders and clerks in Asia , Africa , and elsewhere. The user of an abacus is called an abacist. ref abacist , abacus , in Merriam Webster s Third New International Dictionary Unabridged, 2000, Version 2.5. ref Etymology The use of the word abacus dates before 1387 AD, when a Middle English work borrowed the word from Latin to describe a sandboard abacus. The Latin word came from Greek ... . ref The preferred plural of abacus is a subject of disagreement, with both abacuses ref Reference OED abacus Oxford English Dictionary 1989 ref and abaci ref CITEREFMish2003 Merriam Webster s 2003 ref in use. Mesopotamian abacus The period 2700 2300 BC saw the first appearance of the Sumer ian abacus ... cuneiform which may have been derived from a representation of the abacus. ref Harvcolnb ... dmelvill mesomath chronology.html Old Babylon ians may have used the abacus for the operations ... calculations . ref Harvcolnb Carruccio 2006 p 14 ref Egyptian abacus The use of the abacus in Ancient ... 2010 Persian abacus During the Achaemenid Persian Empire , around 600 BC the Persians first began to use the abacus. ref http learn westasia science math.htm West Asian Mathematics ... abacus The earliest archaeological evidence for the use of the Greek abacus dates to the 5th century BC. ref Harvcolnb Ifrah 2001 p 15 ref The Greek abacus was a table of wood or marble, pre set with small counters in wood or metal for mathematical calculations. This Greek abacus saw use in Achaemenid ... of these lines are marked with a cross where they intersect with the vertical line. Roman abacus Main Roman abacus File RomanAbacusRecon.jpg right thumb 250px Copy of a Roman Abacus The normal method ...   more details

  1. Abacus system

    Abacus is a Latin word that has its origins in the Greek words abax or abacus meaning table or tablet which in turn, possibly originated from the Semitic word abq, meaning sand . The abacus system of mental calculation is a system where users mentally visualize an abacus ref cite web url http english brain brain.html title Research on the benefits of mental abacus for development accessdate March 12,2012 ref ref http english ref to do calculation s. No physical abacus is used only the answers are written down. This system is being propagated in China ref cite web url http 2004 04 13 content 1964401.htm title Chinese Teaching Kids Visit to use abacus for mental calculation accessdate March12,2012 ref , Singapore , South Korea , Thailand , Malaysia , and Japan . Mental calculation is said to improve mental capability, increases speed of response, memory power, and concentration power. Many veteran and prolific abacus users in China, Japan, South Korea, and others who use the abacus daily, naturally tend to not use the abacus anymore but perform calculations by visualizing the abacus. This was verified when the right brain measured heightened Electroencephalography EEG activity when calculating and compared with non veterans who were using the abacus to perform calculations. The standard abacus can be used to perform addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication the abacus can also be used to extract square roots and cubic roots. External links http english brain brain.html Right brain usage Groups fr http ffsoroban.htm A.F.S.A Association Fran aise de Soroban et autres Abaques. Resources reflist DEFAULTSORT Abacus System Category Games of mental skill Category Mental calculation Category Abacus number stub ja ...   more details

  1. Logical abacus

    1911 A logical abacus is a mechanical digital computer . Image William Stanley Jevons Logic Piano.jpg thumb Logic Piano Also referred to as a logical machine , the logical abacus is analogous to the ordinary mathematical abacus . It is based on the principle of truth table s. Before numbers were even invented, counting devices were used to perform everyday calculations one of these devices was the abacus, which provided merchants good and accurate data when buying and selling goods. The abacus was not created as we know it today, but was rather a continuous improvement throughout the ages. Later day abaci had grooves for small pebbles and later yet wires or rods on which counters could freely move back and forth Bogomolny . The most recent form know of the logical abacus is a frame made often ... crossed off. In the abacus the combinations are inscribed each on a single slip of wood or similar ... of William Stanley Jevons logic piano , John Venn and Allan Marquand . In the modern world, the abacus ... times, the abacus was a really simple device that was used to count numbers this included addition and substraction only. Nowadays, the abacus still keeps its essence of the frame with rods and beads moving freely on the rods, but is much more developed. The newest know abacus invented by Lee Kai chen contains four decks, in which more complex operations can be made multiplication and division are easier using this modified abacus and includes instructions for determining square roots and cubic roots of numbers Georges . See also Salamis Tablet suanpan Soroban References Cite EB1911 wstitle Abacus ... History of the Abacus. The universal History of Numbers. Wiley Press 2000. Retrieved from http elf abacus history.html Bogomolny, Abacus and its Relatives from Interactive Mathematics ... links http elf abacus history.html A Brief History of the Abacus http www.cut the blue Abacus.shtml Abacus and Its Relatives Category Logic Category Abacus ...   more details

  1. Abacus (disambiguation)

    Wiktionary abacus An abacus is a counting frame. Abacus may also refer to Abacus architecture , a flat slab forming the uppermost member or division of the capital of a column Abacus GDS , a global distribution System used in travel Abacus, an imprint of Little, Brown and Company Abacus, a Zagat rated restaurant in Dallas, Texas, owned by chef Kent Rathbun Abacus, a producer of payware add ons for Microsoft Flight Simulator Abacus 5 , an action sports manufacturing and distribution company headquartered in Shanghai Abacus Harmonicus , an ancient diagram showing the structure and placement of the keys of a particular musical instrument Abacus Records , an imprint of Century Media Records Abacus school , a type of Renaissance era Italian trade school Abacus system , mental calculation method inspired by the abacus Abacus Federal Savings Bank , an overseas Chinese bank in the United States Abacus 2007AC1 , a financial instrument and the subject of SEC v. Goldman Sachs, et al. 2010 Logical abacus , an early mechanical digital computer Operation Abacus , the Canadian military operation to restore vital services if the year 2000 caused disruption disambig et Abakus t psustus he io Abako homonimo lt Abakas reik m s lv Abaks ...   more details

  1. Asiana Abacus

    Unreferenced date November 2008 Asiana Abacus Co, Ltd. hangul is a South Korea n software and electronics company. headquartered in Sejongro Jongno gu Seoul Korea . established in 1991. Asiana Abacus and airport and Industry industrial software computer are units of licensed by Asiana Airlines and Abacus , a wholly owned subsidiary of group family by Kumho Asiana Group . the Asiana Abacus s service by telecommunication largest providers of web connect service in internet software and computer , IT solution and Computer reservations system CRS network system business products. Asiana Abacus currently operates over all branch offices of Asiana Airlines , and is one of the largest computer industrial electronics software in the world. The Asiana Abacus CEO is Kang Joo An . Products CRS Computerized Reservation System Business product My Abacus Web Connect Web basic A One IUR Interface User Record Hotel & Rent A Car system Edu Abacus Other are Hotel Smart, Get There, Travel Network, Virtually There See also Kumho Asiana Group Economy of South Korea Abacus External links http Asiana Abacus Homepage in Korean http Abacus Homepage Asiana Abacus Partner Kumho Asiana Group tech company stub SouthKorea company stub Category Kumho Asiana Group Category Companies established in 1991 Category Electronics companies of South Korea Category Software companies of South Korea ...   more details

  1. Nano-abacus

    The nano abacus is a nanometre nano sized abacus developed by IBM scientists. Stable rows made up of ten molecule s act as the railings of the abacus. The beads are made up of fullerene and are pushed around by the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope . The nano abacus has the potential to be used in a variety of Nanotechnology nanotechnological inventions such as the molecular computer nano computer . http news 96 n 19961113 01.html Category Nanotechnology ar ru nano tech stub ...   more details

  1. Abacus Solutions

    Orphan date December 2011 Infobox company name Abacus Solutions company logo File Abacus Solutions LLC ... Patrick Hiller, CEO ref cite web url http columns patrick hiller ceo abacus solutions.html title Patrick Hiller, CEO, Abacus Solutions publisher TechLinks ref Ken Snuggs, President ... 36219474&privcapId 6806179&previousCapId 6806179&previousTitle Abacus 20Solutions, 20LLC title ... big Abacus Solutions br big Abacus Solutions is a provider of information technology infrastructure solutions. ref cite web url http c mm491j4 abacus solutions llc title Abacus Solutions LLC publisher Manta ref Abacus Solutions specializes in the areas of virtualization ... research stocks private snapshot.asp?privcapId 6806179 title Abacus Solutions, LLC Private Company Information publisher Bloomberg Businessweek ref Corporate history Abacus Solutions ... columns patrick hiller ceo abacus solutions.html title Patrick Hiller, CEO and Co Founder, Abacus Solutions publisher TechLinks ref and Ken Snuggs. ref cite web url http ...&previousTitle Abacus 20Solutions, 20LLC title Ken Snuggs Executive Profile & Biography publisher ... title Abacus Solutions Announces Corporate Relocation of Its New and Refurbished Servers Business publisher PressReleaseSpider ref In July 2010, Abacus Solutions celebrated ten years in business ref cite web url http press release Abacus Solutions Celebrates Ten Years in Business 1292304.htm title Abacus Solutions Celebrates Ten Years in Business publisher Marketwire ref by broadening ... solutions. Abacus Solutions was named a top reseller ref cite web url http var 500 ... VAR 500 magazine for a seventh year in a row. Products In May 2011, Abacus partnered with Artec ... pr 259862 title Abacus Solutions to Showcase the Next Generation Email Archiving Solution at Interop ... them available through one central archive. Memberships & Philanthropy Abacus Solutions is a member ...   more details

  1. Abacus Harmonicus

    Orphan date December 2008 Cleanup rewrite It appears to be a copy paste reword job from http word abacus harmonicus.html date May 2009 Abacus Harmonicus was an ancient diagram which showed the structure and placement of the keys of a particular musical instrument . Category Musical instruments musical instrument stub ...   more details

  1. Abacus (GDS)

    Abacus is a global distribution system GDS only used by travel agencies in Asia. It is operated by Abacus International Pte, Ltd., which is headquartered in Singapore and which is owned by Sabre and eleven Asian airlines All Nippon Airways , Cathay Pacific , China Airlines , EVA Airways , Garuda Indonesia , Dragonair , Philippine Airlines , Malaysia Airlines , Royal Brunei Airlines , SilkAir and Singapore Airlines ref http Members 91 ref . History Abacus was founded in 1988 by the main airlines in Asia. It entered into an agreement with Worldspan in order to enhance its offering to travel agencies with the capability of booking other airlines in addition to the founder airlines. Abacus was and is the main GDS system used by travel agencies in Asia. In 1990 Abacus and All Nippon Airways founded a Japanese CRS called Infini CRS Infini . Abacus formed subsidiaries called National Marketing Companies in partnership with its shareholding airlines in most countries in Asia. During several years it was also marketed in Australia, however in 2004 the company withdrew from the market and merged its subsidiary with Sabre Pacific. In 2012, Abacus took 100 ownership of Sabre Pacific. Airlines using Abacus The shareholder airlines support Abacus as their primary GDS by providing benefits to travel agancies booking on Abacus. The shareholder relationship between the airlines, the Abacus holding company and the Abacus National marketing companies enabled airlines to realise considerable ... Bursa Announcement 2Q2011.pdf ref . Relationship with Sabre Abacus and Sabre Holdings entered into a technology and shareholding relationship in the late 1990s whereby Abacus is hosted on the Sabre CRS system. This in effect means that the Sabre system is marketed in Asia as Abacus. Sabre owns a 35 ref http ref share of Abacus and Abacus markets Sabre products to agencies and airlines in Asia. Abacus does not own any CRS technology and it s shareholder airlines traditionally use ...   more details

  1. Paul Abacus

    Infobox person name Paul Abacus image Paul Abacus.jpg caption Paul Abacus salary birth date Birth date 1979 05 01 birth place occupation Lecturer, Designer, Consultant networth website footnotes Paul Abacus is a debatably fictional lecturer, designer, and consultant, who speaks frequently about the dissolution of national borders and the reform of global visual culture . He was called a multi media visionary in the December 2011 issue of Spirit Magazine. ref cite journal year 2011 title Sundance Film Festival journal Spirit publisher Southwest Airlines accessdate December 1, 2011 ref Abacus moved ... the cross platform multimedia presentation ABACUS. He frequently consults for data visualization firm Cousins and Sears ref cite web url http cousins paul title Paul Abacus accessdate December ... 2011 10 lars jan visit.html title Lars Jan & Paul Abacus Visit accessdate December 29, 2011 work UC Berkeley New Media Working Group ref In October 2010, ABACUS premiered at the inaugural .... ref cite web url http performances abacus title Early Morning Opera ABACUS accessdate ... 29, 2011 ref Paul Abacus thinking is heavily inspired by the work of polymath R. Buckminster Fuller ... , Abacus utilizes this device to make the argument that we are living near the end of the Screen ... ?p 54 title Corporations Now, Nations Next author Paul Abacus work ABACUS Blog date October 30, 2011 accessdate December 29, 2011 ref According to an article on, Paul Abacus is not a real person at all. Paul Abacus is an invention, a persona created by real life performance artist ... steps title New Frontiers Presenter Paul Abacus Doesn t Exist. Here s Why. author Lars Jan date ... festival film events abacus ABACUS at Sundance Film Festival Persondata Metadata see Wikipedia Persondata . NAME Abacus, Paul ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION Public speaker DATE OF BIRTH May 1, 1979 PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH DEFAULTSORT Abacus, Paul Category Living people ...   more details

  1. Abacus (architecture)

    Image Abaque.romane.primitive.png thumb 300px Simple bevelled abacus abaque from the illustrated fr s Dictionnaire ... 1865 fr icon In architecture , an abacus from the Greek language Greek abax , slab or French ... or the architrave above. The diminutive of abacus, abaculus , is used to describe small mosaic tiles ... or squares in a tessellated pavement. Definition In classical architecture , the shape of the abacus and its edge profile varies in the different classical order s. In the Greek Doric order , the abacus ... Greek Ionic order , the abacus is rectangular in plan, owing to the greater width of the capital, and consists of a carved ovolo moulding. In later examples, the slab is thinner and the abacus ... and Renaissance Ionic capital, the abacus is square with a fillet on the top of an ogee moulding with curved edges over angled volutes. ref name fletcher1 Image Abacus architecture.gif frame ... Greeks and Ancient Rome Romans . In an angular capital of the Greek Corinthian order , the abacus is moulded ... under each corner of the abacus. The same shape is adopted in the Roman and Renaissance Corinthian and Composite ... In Romanesque architecture , the abacus survives as a heavier slab, generally moulded and decorated ... moulded abacus was introduced, which in the 14th and 15th centuries was transformed into an octagonal one. In Gothic architecture , the moulded forms of the abacus vary it may even be a flat disk or drum. ref name fletcher1 The form of the Gothic abacus is often affected by the shape of a vault ... at Repton fig. 1 and in the arcade of the refectory at Westminster Abbey . The abacus in Norman ... Abbey abbey Waltham Abbey . The square of the abacus is often sculptured with Ornament architecture ... English work, the abacus is generally circular, and in larger work, a group of circles fig. 4 , with some ... deep hollows in the capital. In France, the abacus in early work is generally square, as at Chateau de Blois fig. 3 . br Image abacus1 4.png Examples in France The first abacus pictured below fig ...   more details

  1. Multiplication (disambiguation)

    wiktionary multiplication multiply Multiplication is an elementary mathematical operation. Multiplication or multiply may also refer to A generalized multiplicative function , in number theory Multiplication music , methods of applying multiplication in music Multiply Jamie Lidell album Multiply Jamie Lidell album , 2005 Multiply Heavy Jack album Multiply Heavy Jack album Multiply song Multiply song , a song by Xzibit X Multiplies , a 1980 album by Yellow Magic Orchestra Multiply Records , a record label The Multiplication of money disambiguation fr Multiplication homonymie ...   more details

  1. Multiplication algorithm

    A multiplication algorithm is an algorithm or method to multiplication multiply two numbers. Depending on the size of the numbers, different algorithms are in use. Efficient multiplication algorithms have existed since the advent of the decimal system. Grid method main Grid method multiplication The grid method multiplication grid method or box method is an introductory method for multiple digit multiplication ... in a relatively simple multiplication only stage, before these contributions are then totalled ... the idea of multiple digit multiplications and, in an age when most multiplication calculations are done using a calculator or a spreadsheet, it may in practice be the only multiplication algorithm that some students will ever need. Long multiplication If a numeral system positional numeral system is used, a natural way of multiplying numbers is taught in schools as long multiplication , sometimes called grade school multiplication , sometimes called Standard Algorithm multiply the wikt multiplicand ... shifted results. It requires memorization of the multiplication table for single digits. This is the usual ... similar Shift and add shift and add algorithm in base 2. A person doing long multiplication on paper will write down all the products and then add them together an abacus user will sum the products as soon as each one is computed. Example This example uses long multiplication to multiply 23,958,233 ... numbers. Long multiplication has the advantage that it can easily be formulated as a FL complexity ... multiplication k i j x x a j × b k result i x mod 2 x floor x 2 Electronic usage Some Integrated ... hardware or in microcode . In arbitrary precision arithmetic , it s common to use long multiplication ... of multiplying two n digit numbers using long multiplication is Big O notation n sup 2 sup . When implemented in software, long multiplication algorithms have to deal with overflow during additions ... normalization . Sunzi multiplication algorithm File Multiplication algorithm.GIF thumb right 150px ...   more details

  1. Avnet Abacus

    Infobox company company name Avnet Abacus company logo File Avnet Abacus 4c.tif 200px foundation 2009 key people Graham McBeth, President industry Electronics products Electronics , Electronic Components , homepage http www.avnet Avnet Abacus is a pan European business to business distributor of electronic components electrical components , focusing on interconnect, passivity engineering passive , electromechanical electromechanics , power supply and battery products, electrical components IP&E . Avnet Abacus is the unification of Avnet Time and the interconnect, passive, emech and battery business of Abacus Group, acquired by Avnet in January 2009. Avnet Abacus is a business unit of Avnet Electronics Marketing EMEA, a business region of Avnet . Distribution Services Avnet Logistics Services provides specialised supply chain and logistics services to the global electronics industry. Services include Supply chain management Supply Chain Solutions Just in time business Just in time delivery , Kanban , consignment stock and Electronic Data Interchange EDI Point of Use Replenishment Program POURS Obsolescence Services Pareto Vendor managed inventory VMI Supply Chain Assessment Our logistics service is fulfilled by the European Distribution Centre EDC in Tongeren , Belgium and Avnet Logistics Services, UK based in Newcastle under Lyme Offices Avnet Abacus has 40 offices in 18 countries General Information Company Name Avnet Abacus President Graham McBeth Founded July 2009 Employees 430 Parent Company Avnet Inc Products class wikitable Interconnect Passive Electromechanical ... Terminal block s Antennas Enclosures References Cite web title Avnet Abacus a success work Avnet url http article 25506 Avnet Abacus a success.aspx accessdate 2007 12 14 Cite web title Avnet Abacus at electronica work Avnet url http exvi en Avnet Abacus DE B5 225 accessdate 2007 12 14 External links Company links Cite web title Avnet Abacus website work ...   more details

  1. Operation Abacus

    Unreferenced date April 2009 Notability Notability date April 2009 In 2000, Operation Abacus was the Canadian military operation that had troops standing by to restore vital services if the Y2K Bug year 2000 caused disruption to computer systems. Mil hist stub Category Non combat military operations involving Canada ...   more details

  1. Abacus 5

    orphan date December 2008 Infobox Company company type Private company name Abacus 5 company logo Missing image removed Image Abacus5.jpg 140px foundation 2000 location China, United States industry Manufacturing , Distribution business Distribution , Fashion , Publishing products Skateboarding hardgoods and Clothing homepage http Official Website Abacus 5 is an action sports manufacturing and distribution company that is based out of Shanghai , China. It s known for promoting and expanding the skate and street culture in China since 2000. It is currently the Chinese distributor for Alien Workshop , Avera Skateboards , Bones Wheels, Habitat Skateboards, Illogical Gravity , Premium Skateboards , and Silver Trucks . Many of these brands are dealing exclusively with Abacus 5 for their Chinese distribution, promotion, and or production. History Founded in 2000, Abacus 5 first started out as an apparel and skateboarding equipment reseller. It later expanded to having its own manufacturing capabilities along with distributorships for well known US brands. Now, the company has been expanding into an action sports conglomerate that hosts a variety of services from print production and publishing to consulting and retailing. External links http Official Site Category Skateboarding companies Skateboarding stub ...   more details

  1. The White Abacus

    Infobox book See Wikipedia WikiProject Novels or Wikipedia WikiProject Books name The White Abacus image File Broderick The White Abacus Coverart.png image caption The White Abacus trade paperback edition cover. author Damien Broderick cover artist Chris Moore illustrator Chris Moore country United States language English language English genre Science fiction publisher Avon Eos pub date March 1997 media type Print Hardback & Paperback pages 342 pp first edition isbn 9780380974764 oclc The White Abacus is a 1997 science fiction novel by Damien Broderick . It follows the story of Telmah Lord Cima who travels to Earth from a far off world and becomes friends with a computer augmented being called Ratio. ref name FF TWA cite web url http b damien broderick white abacus.htm title The White Abacus by Damien Broderick publisher Fantastic Fiction date accessdate 2010 01 13 ref Background The White Abacus was first published in the United States in March 1997 by Avon Eos in hardback and trade paperback formats. ref name FF TWA In April 1998 it was republished in mass market paperback format. ref name FF TWA The White Abacus won the 1997 Aurealis Award for Aurealis Award for best science fiction novel best science fiction novel and the 1998 Ditmar Award for best Australian long fiction. ref name AAPYR cite web url http downloads history1995 2008.pdf.pdf title aurealis awards, previous years results publisher Aurealis Awards date accessdate 2010 01 13 ref ref name LO TWA cite web url http SFAwards Db Ditmar1998.html nvl title The Locus Index to SF Awards 1998 Ditmar Awards publisher Locus Online date accessdate 2010 01 13 ref Synopsis Empty section date December 2008 References reflist External links isfdb title id 6640 title The White Abacus DEFAULTSORT White Abacus Category 1997 novels Category 1990s science fiction novels Category Australian science fiction novels Category Aurealis Award winning works sf novel ...   more details

  1. Abacus Data

    Abacus Data is a Canadian opinion poll polling and market research firm based in Ottawa . It was founded in August 2010, ref name ucalgary http 2010 08 13 duis sit amet congue orci Abacus Data Launches ref soon after its founder David Coletto graduated from the University of Calgary with a PhD in political science . ref cite web url http news utoday june30 2011 pollster?utm source UToday&utm medium Email&utm campaign june 30 2011 sun news pollster title Grad official pollster for Sun News work UToday publisher University of Calgary date June 30, 2011 accessdate March 8, 2012 ref The company s surveys and political opinion polls are sometimes cited in Canadian news media, including by the Globe and Mail , the National Post , the Toronto Star , and Sun Media newspapers. ref For example cite news url http news Mulcair leadership front runner members hold cards 6182285 story.html title Mulcair is NDP leadership front runner, but B.C. members hold cards date February 21, 2012 author Barbara Yaffe newspaper Vancouver Sun accessdate March 5, 2012 quote An Abacus Data Internet survey of 1,000 respondents ref ref For example cite news url http news politics ontario election pollsters did better but still missed mark in ontario article2194382 title Pollsters did better but still missed mark in Ontario newspaper The Globe and Mail author ric Grenier date Oct. 7, 2011 accessdate March 8, 2012 ref It is the contracted official pollster for the Sun News Network , ref name ucalgary ref cite news newspaper Toronto Sun url http news decision2011 2011 03 29 17799686.html title Start up network teams ... blog archives 2010 12 7 4698036.html work David Akin s On the Hill title New pollster Abacus makes ... 03 david colleto ceo of abacus data.html title David Coletto CEO of Abacus Data An Interview with a Market ... 8, 2012 DEFAULTSORT Abacus Category Public opinion research companies Category Marketing research ...   more details

  1. Multiplication factor

    Multiplication factor may refer to Neutron multiplication factor , in a nuclear chain reaction Multiplication factor, a term used in Digital photography Sensor size and angle of view digital photography Multiplication factor or gas gain in gas ionization detectors used in Nuclear and Particle Physics. See also Multiplicative factor disambig Category Particle detectors Category Ionization Category Electrical phenomena Category Nuclear physics Category Digital photography ...   more details

  1. Roman abacus

    Image RomanAbacusRecon.jpg right framed A reconstruction of a Roman hand abacus, made by the RGZ Museum .... The Ancient Rome Romans developed the Roman hand abacus , a portable, but less capable, base 10 version of the previous Babylonia n abacus. It was the first portable calculating device for engineers ... to the hand abacus, a true reckoning board with unattached counters or pebbles. The Etruscan ... the Roman abacus and the China Chinese suanpan have been used since ancient times. With one bead above and four below the bar, the systematic configuration of the Roman abacus is coincident to the modern Japan ese Abacus Japanese abacus Soroban , although the soroban is historically derived from the suanpan. Layout The Roman Empire Late Roman hand abacus shown here as a reconstruction contains seven .... The abacus was made of a metal plate where the beads ran in slots. The size was such that it could ... O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 2 O O tt The diagram is based on the Roman hand abacus at the London ... slot, depending on the example abacus and the source which could be Friedlein, ref name Friedlein Menninger ... slots are for mixed base math, a development unique to the Roman hand abacus ref name stephenson cite web title The Roman Hand Abacus author Stephenson, Steve url http 7Eelf abacus ... from which the English words inch and ounce are derived , making the abacus useful for Ancient Roman ..., was also divided into 12 Uncia coin unciae . Again, the abacus was ideally suited for counting ... , sicilicus and sextula as used on the Roman bronze abacus, auf dem chernan abacus . The semuncia ... on samples of abacus in different museums. The symbol for the sicilicus is that found on the abacus ... by reference to the figure below. Image Abacus Usages.jpg left framed Alternative usages of the beads ... known and practised by the Romans. The reconstruction of a Roman hand abacus in the Cabinet des M dailles, Biblioth que nationale, supports this. The replica Roman hand abacus at http ...   more details

  1. Multiplication of vectors

    In mathematics , Vector multiplication refers to one of several techniques for the multiplication of two or more Euclidean vector vectors with themselves. It may concern any of the following articles Dot product &mdash Also known as the scalar product , an operation which takes two vectors and returns a scalar mathematics scalar quantity Cross product &mdash Also known as the vector product , a binary operation on two vectors that results in another Euclidean vector vector Triple product s &mdash Products involving three vectors. Multiple cross products &mdash Products involving more than three vectors. See also Scalar multiplication Matrix multiplication Category Vectors Category Multiplication Linear algebra stub eo Multipliko de vektoroj ta ...   more details

  1. Abacus school

    Abacus or abaco refers to calculations, especially the subject of direct calculations, using Hindu numerals without the help of the abacus an instrument for calculating . ref Leonardo Fibonacci . Fibonacci s Liber Abaci Leonardo Pisano s Book of Calculation . Contributor Laurence Edward Sigler. 1202 . Springer. 2003. Page 4. ref Abacus school is a term applied to any Italian school or tutorial after the 13th century, whose commerce directed curriculum placed special emphasis on mathematics, such as algebra , among other subjects. ref Michael of Rhodes Project Team, Dibner Institute , and WGBH Interactive. http michaelofrhodes glossary.html Abacus School . Glossary. Michael of Rhodes. Institute and Museum of the History of Science . 2005. Sunday, March 23, 2008. ref These schools sprang after the publication of Fibonacci nowiki s nowiki Book of the Abacus and his introduction of the Hindu Arabic numeral system . In Fibonacci s viewpoint, this system, originating in India around 400 BCE. and later adopted by the Arabs, was simpler and more practical than using the existing Roman numeric tradition. Italian merchants and traders quickly adopted the structure as a means of producing accountants, clerks, and so on, and subsequently abacus schools for students were established. ref Michael of Rhodes Project Team, Dibner Institute , and WGBH Interactive. http michaelofrhodes math abacus.html Mathematics The Abacus Tradition . A Mariner s Knowledge. Michael of Rhodes. Institute and Museum of the History of Science . 2005. Sunday, March ... 5. ref Significance Abacus schools were significant for a couple of reasons Firstly, because mathematics ... math. Being convinced of its uses, abacus schools were therefore created and dominated by wealthy ... to teach others. ref Grendler, 1989, Page 36. ref School system Italy Italian abacus school systems ..., March 23, 2008. DEFAULTSORT Abacus School Category History of education Category Medieval European ...   more details

  1. Scalar multiplication

    In mathematics , scalar multiplication is one of the basic operations defining a vector space in linear algebra ref cite book last Lay first David C. title Linear Algebra and Its Applications publisher Addison Wesley year 2006 edition 3rd isbn 0 321 28713 4 ref ref cite book last Strang first Gilbert authorlink Gilbert Strang title Linear Algebra and Its Applications publisher Brooks Cole year 2006 edition 4th isbn 0 03 010567 6 ref ref cite book last Axler first Sheldon title Linear Algebra Done Right publisher Springer Science Business Media Springer year 2002 edition 2nd isbn 0 387 98258 2 ref ... 2002 isbn 0 387 95385 X ref . In an intuitive geometrical context, scalar multiplication of a real ... vectors. Scalar multiplication is different from the scalar product , which is an inner product ... over K , then scalar multiplication is a function mathematics function from K × V to V . The result of applying this function to c in K and v in V is denoted c v . Scalar multiplication obeys the following ... in either. Juxtaposition indicates either scalar multiplication or the multiplication operation in the field. Scalar multiplication may be viewed as an external mathematics external binary operation ... multiplication is a stretching or shrinking of a vector. As a special case, V may be taken to be K itself and scalar multiplication may then be taken to be simply the multiplication in the field. When V is K sup n sup , then scalar multiplication is defined component wise . The same idea goes ... change is that the order of the multiplication may be reversed, resulting in the distinct operations left scalar multiplication c v and right scalar multiplication v c . See also Statics Mechanics Product mathematics References reflist DEFAULTSORT Scalar Multiplication Category Linear algebra Category Abstract algebra Category Multiplication de Skalarmultiplikation eo Skalara multipliko fr Multiplication par un scalaire it Moltiplicazione scalare he ms Pendaraban skalar ...   more details

  1. Multiplication operator

    Unreferenced date December 2009 In operator theory , a multiplication operator is a linear operator T defined on some function space vector space of functions and whose value at a function is given by multiplication by a fixed function f . That is, math T varphi x f x varphi x quad math for all in the function space and all x in the domain mathematics domain of which is the same as the domain of f . This type of operators is often contrasted with composition operator s. Multiplication operators generalize the notion of operator given by a diagonal matrix . More precisely, one of the results of operator theory is a spectral theorem , which states that every self adjoint operator on a Hilbert space is unitarily equivalent to a multiplication operator on an Lp space L sup 2 sup space . Example Consider the Hilbert space X L sup 2 sup &minus 1, 3 of complex number complex valued square integrable functions on the interval mathematics interval &minus 1, 3 . Define the operator math T varphi x x 2 varphi x quad math for any function in X . This will be a self adjoint operator self adjoint bounded linear operator with operator norm norm 9. Its spectrum of an operator spectrum will be the interval 0, 9 the range mathematics range of the function x x sup 2 sup defined on &minus 1, 3 . Indeed, for any complex number , the operator T is given by math T lambda varphi x x 2 lambda varphi x . quad math It is invertible function invertible if and only if is not in 0, 9 , and then its inverse is math T lambda 1 varphi x frac 1 x 2 lambda varphi x quad math which is another multiplication operator. This can be easily generalized to characterizing the norm and spectrum of a multiplication operator on any Lp space . See also translation operator shift operator Decomposition of spectrum functional analysis DEFAULTSORT Multiplication Operator Category Functional analysis ...   more details

  1. Lattice multiplication

    place with a 0. ref name Lattice multiplication After all the boxes are filled in this manner, the diagonals ... is the numbers read off down on the left and across on the bottom . Multiplication of Decimals ... point. ref name Lattice multiplication http lp pages 4458 ref Derivatives Matrak Nasuh s circular multiplication follows a similar algorithm, showing 155x525 on the right, which is explained ... 300px thumb center References References Category Arithmetic fr Technique de la multiplication par ...   more details

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