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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act


Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

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Health Care Reform and American Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know


Product Group: Book
Manufacturer: Oxford University Press, USA

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act signed by President Obama in March 2010 is a landmark in U.S. social legislation. The new law extends health insurance to nearly all Americans, fulfilling a century-long quest and bringing the United States to parity with other industrial nations. Affordable Care aims to control rapidly rising health care costs and promises to make the United States more equal, reversing four decades of rising disparities between the very rich and everyone else. Millions of people of modest means will gain new benefits and protections from insurance company abuses - and the tab will be paid by privileged corporations and the very rich.

How did such a bold reform effort pass in a polity wracked by partisan divisions and intense lobbying by special interests? What does Affordable Care mean - and what comes next? In Health Care Reform and American Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know, Lawrence R. Jacobs and Theda Skocpol--two of the nation's leading experts on politics and health care policy--provide a concise and accessible overview. They explain the political battles of 2009 and 2010, highlighting White House strategies, the deals Democrats cut with interest groups, and the impact of agitation by Tea Partiers and progressives. Jacobs and Skocpol spell out what the new law can do for everyday Americans, what it will cost, and who will pay. Above all, they explain what comes next, as critical yet often behind-the-scenes battles rage over implementing reform nationally and in the fifty states. Affordable Care might end up being weakened. But, like Social Security and Medicare, it could also gain strength and popularity as the majority of Americans learn what it can do for them.

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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: United States Government Printing Office

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has been the center of continuous debate, not only in Congress, but in the public forum, on the campaign trail, and in the courts. Now you can learn what the text of the law actually says to enable yourself to create an informed opinion concerning this controversial law.

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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Health Care

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148) was signed into law in the United States by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Along with the proposed Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, the Act is a product of the health care reform agenda of the Democratic 111th Congress and the Obama administration.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passed the Senate on December 24, 2009, by a vote of 60-39 and passed the House of Representatives on March 21, 2010, by a vote of 219-212, with no Republicans in either house voting for the bill. At the time of the vote, there were four vacancies in the House.

The bill was originally drafted by the Senate as an alternative to the Affordable Health Care for America Act, which was passed by the House two months earlier on November 7. However, after the Democrats lost their supermajority in the Senate on January 19, 2010, the House decided to pass the Senate version and amend it with a third bill.

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Definition of Income in PPACA for Certain Medicaid Provisions and Premium Credits


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Congressional Research Service

Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended), the definition of income for eligibility for certain Medicaid populations and premium credits in the exchanges is based on modified adjusted gross income (MAGI). The initial intent of using MAGI was to standardize the definition of income for Medicaid eligibility purposes to reduce some of the variability and complexity that exists under the current program and to provide consistency between Medicaid and the health insurance exchange. The use of MAGI, however, has raised some concerns among Congress and the Obama Administration, as it excludes some types of income either partially or altogether. Of particular interest has been the potential impact of eligibility for Medicaid and premium credits for early retirees (aged 62 through 64) receiving Social Security benefits, as some or all of their Social Security income may be excluded from the MAGI definition of income. By excluding some types of income, individuals and families with a higher percentage of total income relative to the federal poverty level may qualify for Medicaid and premium credits. A recent cost estimate by the Congressional Budget Office finds that changing the MAGI income calculation to include all Social Security benefits would reduce the deficit by $13 billion over the 2012-2021 period.

Legislative proposals have been introduced in both chambers of Congress to change the definition of income to include the non-taxable portion of Social Security benefits in the definition of MAGI (H.R. 2576, S. 1376). President Obama also included changing the definition of income for these programs in his deficit reduction proposal. In evaluating these proposals, a number of issues might be considered. First, an alternative definition may add complexity compared with the use of MAGI. Specifically, because adjusted gross income (on which MAGI is based) can be computed largely from information on an individual's federal tax return, verification of income is streamlined. If an alternative definition is used that is not based on tax return information, the administrative complexity of verifying nontaxable income from different sources comes into play. Second, the definition was developed to ensure coordination between Medicaid and premium credits in the health insurance exchange. A change in the definition of income for Medicaid should then also apply to premium credits to ensure consistency between Medicaid and the premium credit offered to selected individuals who purchase private health insurance through the exchanges. Finally, many of the current legislative proposals have focused largely on the inclusion of Social Security benefits in income definitions for eligibility purposes. However, most other low-income programs include other types of income (e.g., nontaxable pensions) and asset holdings that are also excluded from MAGI.

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ObamaCare (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act)


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Carolina Academic Press

ObamaCare explains why health care reform is necessary, describes what the new federal law seeks to accomplish, and discusses the range of legal issues that the Supreme Court will have to resolve in evaluating its constitutionality. Despite the complexity of the legal and economic issues that are covered, the book is written in clear, concise language. It presents a volume of information in a compact and readily understandable form.

Part I of the book explains the crisis in health care that America is facing. This portion of book gathers in one place the studies, surveys, and economic reports that bear upon the problem. It is filled with charts and graphs based upon these sources; showing, for example, the rising cost of medical care relative to Americansā€™ income and the overall health of the American people compared to the people of other countries. Part II describes the PPACA: whose idea it was, what the law says, what it seeks to accomplish, and the justifications that Congress wrote into the law itself. Part III discusses the constitutionality of the law: what parts of the Constitution are involved, what the legal issues are, what the lower courts decided, and all of the considerations that the Supreme Court is likely to take into account in its final ruling.

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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Health Care Law Series)


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: LandMark Publications

This casebook contains 24 federal court of appeals decisions that address issues raised by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA).

The PPACA contains five essential components designed to improve access to the health care and health insurance markets, reduce the escalating costs of health care, and minimize cost-shifting.

First, the Act builds upon the existing nationwide system of employer-based health insurance. It establishes tax incentives for small businesses to purchase health insurance for their employees, 26 U.S.C. § 45R, and requires certain large employers to offer health insurance to their employees, id. § 4980H.

Second, the Act provides for the creation of state-operated "health benefit exchanges." These exchanges allow individuals and small businesses to leverage their collective buying power to obtain price-competitive health insurance. 42 U.S.C. § 18031.

Third, the Act expands federal programs to assist the poor with obtaining health insurance. For eligible individuals who purchase insurance through an exchange, the Act offers federal tax credits for payment of health insurance premiums, 26 U.S.C. § 36B, and authorizes federal payments to help cover out-of-pocket expenses, 42 U.S.C. § 18071. The Act also expands eligibility for Medicaid. Id. § 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(VIII).

Fourth, the Act bars certain practices in the insurance industry that have prevented individuals from obtaining and maintaining health insurance. The guaranteed issue requirement bars insurance companies from denying coverage to individuals with preexisting conditions, id. §§ 300gg-1(a), 300gg-3(a), and the community rating requirement prohibits insurance companies from charging higher rates to individuals based on their medical history, id. § 300gg.

Finally, the Act's "Requirement to Maintain Minimum Essential Coverage," 26 U.S.C. § 5000A, takes effect in 2014 and requires every "applicable individual" to obtain "minimum essential coverage" for each month.

Thomas More Law Center v. Obama, 651 F. 3d 529 (6th Cir. 2011)


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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Arie Friedman, M.D.

Kindle version of the final health care law as passed by both the House and Senate.

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Health Insurance: Navigating Traps & Gaps


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Ampersand, Inc.

In this volatile time, healthcare coverage has become entirely too complex and expensive. Understanding the issues is more important than ever. Lack of good health coverage protection can be financially and emotionally devastating. This book will help you avoid costly traps and gaps.

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Ultimate Guide to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA or ACA) - Understanding Obamacare and Your Health Care Insurance Options, New Plans, Programs, Bill of Rights, Full Text of Law


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Progressive Management

This important and up-to-date e-book provides a complete guide to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), signed by President Barack Obama in March 2010, with the equivalent of over 1500 pages of material. There is coverage of all facets of this vital new law, with full reproductions of implementing regulations and language; top things to know; improvements available now and in the near future, as well as by 2014; patient bill of rights; small employer tax credits; Medicare donut hole rebate; pre-existing condition plans and high-risk pools; parents coverage for children up to age 26; Medicaid and subsidies; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight (OCIIO); health disparities and preventive care coverage; information technology and electronic medical records (electronic health records, EHR); community health centers; insurance options for individuals, families with children, people with disabilities, young adults, and employers; the full text of the law; regulations; authorities; implementation plans; CHIP and programs for children; information about long-term care; and much more. President Obama signed into law the Affordable Care Act. The law puts into place comprehensive health insurance reforms that will hold insurance companies more accountable and will lower health care costs, guarantee more health care choices, and enhance the quality of health care of all Americans. The Act will not be implemented all at once. Portions of the law have already taken effect. Other changes will be implemented through 2014 and beyond. Here's what the government says about the options in the law: The Affordable Care Act is giving you more control over your family s health care by expanding your options for health insurance and making them more affordable. Starting as early as 2010, job-based health plans and new individual plans won t be allowed to deny or exclude coverage for your children (under age 19) based on a pre-existing condition including a disability. Starting in 2014, these same plans won't be allowed to deny or exclude anyone or charge more for a pre-existing condition including a disability. Starting as early as September 2010, if you have children under age 26, you can generally insure them if your policy allows for dependent coverage. The only exception is if you have an existing job-based plan, and your children can get their own job-based coverage. In some plans, you can add your young adult children even earlier than September 2010. Starting as early as 2010, insurance companies won t be able to drop you when you get sick just because you made a mistake on your coverage application. Starting in 2014, if your income is less than the equivalent of about $88,000 for a family of four today, and your job doesn t offer affordable coverage, you may get tax credits to help pay for insurance. Starting in 2014, pregnancy and newborn care, along with vision and dental coverage for children, will be covered in all Exchange plans and new plans sold to individuals and small businesses. An Exchange is a new marketplace where individuals and small businesses can buy affordable health benefit plans. Exchanges will offer you a choice of plans that meet certain benefits and cost standards. Starting in 2014, Members of Congress will be getting their health care insurance through Exchanges, and you will be able buy your insurance through Exchanges, too.

This is a privately authored news service and educational publication of Progressive Management. Our publications synthesize official government information with original material - they are not produced by the federal government. They are designed to provide a convenient user-friendly reference work to uniformly present authoritative knowledge that can be rapidly read, reviewed or searched. Vast archives of important data that might otherwise remain inaccessible are available for instant review no matter where you are.

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Health Insurance: Navigating Traps & Gaps


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Ampersand, Inc.

In this volatile time, healthcare coverage has become entirely too complex and expensive. Understanding the issues is more important than ever. Lack of good health coverage protection can be financially and emotionally devastating. This book will help you avoid costly traps and gaps.

[More details on Health Insurance: Navigating Traps & Gaps ]






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An Act Entitled The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act


Product Group: Book
Manufacturer: Books LLC, Reference Series

OCLC Number: (OCoLC)649733693 Subject: Medical care -- Law and legislation -- United States. Excerpt: ...on for Dual Eligible Beneficiaries Sec. 2601. 5-year period for demonstration projects. Sec. 2602. Providing Federal coverage and payment coordination for dual eligible beneficiaries. Subtitle I--Improving the Quality of Medicaid for Patients and Providers Sec. 2701. Adult health quality measures. Sec. 2702. Payment Adjustment for Health Care-Acquired Conditions. Sec. 2703. State option to provide health homes for enrollees with chronic conditions. Sec. 2704. Demonstration project to evaluate integrated care around a hospitalization. Sec. 2705. Medicaid Global Payment System Demonstration Project. Sec. 2706. Pediatric Accountable Care Organization Demonstration Project. Sec. 2707. Medicaid emergency psychiatric demonstration project. Subtitle J--Improvements to the Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission (MACPAC) Sec. 2801. MACPAC assessment of policies affecting all Medicaid beneficiaries. Subtitle K--Protections for American Indians and Alaska Natives Sec. 2901. Special rules relating to Indians. Sec. 2902. Elimination of sunset for reimbursement for all medicare part B services furnished by certain indian hospitals and clinics. Subtitle L--Maternal and Child Health Services Sec. 2951. Maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting programs. Sec. 2952. Support, education, and research for postpartum depression. Sec. 2953. Personal responsibility education. Sec. 2954. Restoration of funding for abstinence education. Sec. 2955. Inclusion of information about the importance of having a health care power of attorney in transition planning for children aging out of foster care and independent living programs. TITLE III--IMPROVING THE QUALITY AND EFFICIENCY OF HEALTH CARE ...

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Affordable Care Act: Litigation Resources


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Congressional Research Service

In March 2010, Congress passed P.L. 111-148, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), and amended it by passing P.L. 111-152, the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (HCERA). Subsequently, lawsuits were filed in multiple courts challenging various aspects of the new law. Many of these cases were heard in the district courts and a few were appealed to appellate courts. In November 2011, the Supreme Court granted three petitions for certiorari in one of these cases and later scheduled oral arguments for March 26-28, 2012.

This report contains resources for retrieving background information and selected legal material relevant to these cases. It also includes information on CRS experts and products to assist in understanding the legal and policy issues related to the act. This report will be updated as needed.

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Affordable Care Act: Litigation Resources


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Congressional Research Service

In March 2010, Congress passed P.L. 111-148, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), and amended it by passing P.L. 111-152, the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (HCERA). Subsequently, lawsuits were filed in multiple courts challenging various aspects of the new law. Many of these cases were heard in the district courts and a few were appealed to appellate courts. In November 2011, the Supreme Court granted three petitions for certiorari in one of these cases and later scheduled oral arguments for March 26-28, 2012.

This report contains resources for retrieving background information and selected legal material relevant to these cases. It also includes information on CRS experts and products to assist in understanding the legal and policy issues related to the act. This report will be updated as needed.

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Understanding Health Care Reform: Bridging the Gap Between Myth and Reality


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Productivity Press

After nearly a year of debate, in March 2010, Congress passed and the president signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to reform the U.S. health care system. The most significant social legislation since the civil rights legislation and the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, the bill's passage has been met with great controversy. Political pundits, politicians, health care economists, and policy analysts have filled the airwaves and the lay press with their opinions, but little has been heard from those who have the most invested in health care delivery reform-patients and their doctors. Understanding Health Care Reform: Bridging the Gap Between Myth and Reality provides readers with the information to make informed decisions and to help counter the bias of political pundits and the influence of the for-profit health care industry. The author introduces readers to a group of dedicated doctors, administrators, and patients whose experiences illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the health care reform legislation. He also shares his own experiences as both a physician and a patient. The book puts the health care reform legislation in perspective by exploring ten critical areas: The private insurance industry Medicare and Medicaid The elimination of waste caused by overutilization, high administrative fees, and fraud Disease prevention and wellness programs Care for the underserved-the health care "safety net" Quality of care The impending workforce shortage Comparative-effectiveness research to compare treatments Changes in the way medicine is practiced Tort reform Describing the reform act as the foundation and framing of a house, it outlines what doctors, patients, and families must focus on as states, the federal government, and the courts craft this legislation over time. The author cuts through the political rhetoric to address the core question: how do we preserve our ability to provide the best possible care for patients and fulfill our societal mission of providing care for our citizens independent of their financial means? Focusing on strengths and weaknesses, rather than what is right or wrong, he encourages readers to think creatively about their role in establishing a better system of health care in America.

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PPACA: A Brief Overview of the Law, Implementation, and Legal Challenges


Product Group: eBooks
Manufacturer: Congressional Research Service

In March 2010, the 111th Congress passed health reform legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148), as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-152). Jointly referred to as PPACA, the law increases access to health insurance coverage, expands federal private health insurance market requirements, and requires the creation of health insurance exchanges to provide individuals and small employers with access to insurance. The costs for expanding access to health insurance and other provisions are projected to be offset by increased taxes and revenues and reduced Medicare and Medicaid spending. Implementation of PPACA, which is scheduled to unfold over the next few years, involves all the major health care stakeholders, including the federal and state governments, as well as employers, insurers, and health care providers. Following the enactment of PPACA, state attorneys general and others have brought a number of lawsuits challenging provisions of PPACA, including the individual mandate, on constitutional grounds.

This report provides a brief summary of major PPACA provisions, implementation and oversight activities, and current legal challenges. For more detailed information on the topics included in this report, and other information about PPACA, CRS has produced a series of comprehensive reports. The information provided in these reports ranges from broad overviews of PPACA provisions, such as Medicare provisions, to more narrowly focused topics, such as grandfathered health plans.

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