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  1. Electropolishing

    Refimprove date November 2010 Electropolishing , also known as electrochemical polishing or electrolytic polishing especially in the metallography field , is an electrochemical process that removes material from a metallic workpiece. It is used to polishing polish , Passivation passivate , and deburr metal parts. It is often described as the reverse of electroplating . It may be used in lieu of abrasive fine polishing in Microstructure microstructural preparation. ref G.F. Vander Voort, ed., Chemical and Electrolytic Polishing, ASM Handbook, Vol. 9 Metallography and Microstructures , ASM International , 2004, p 281 293, ISBN 978 0 87170 706 2. ref Mechanism Typically, the workpiece is immersed ... normally produces hydrogen. Electrolytes used for electropolishing are most often concentrated acid ... electropolishing electrolytes reported in the literature include mixtures of perchlorates with acetic anhydride and methanolic solutions of sulfuric acid. To achieve electropolishing of a rough surface ... date December 2010 Anodic dissolution under electropolishing conditions deburrs metal objects due to increased current density on corners and burrs. Applications Electropolishing has many applications ... steel surgical devices. Electropolishing is also commonly applied to the preparation of thin metal samples for transmission electron microscopy because electropolishing does not cause mechanical ... pressures, outgassing rates, and pumping speed. Standards ASME BPE Standards for Electropolishing Bioprocessing Equipment SEMI F19, Electropolishing Specifications for Semiconductor Applications ASTM B 912 00, Passivation of Stainless Steels Using Electropolishing ASTM E1558, Standard Guide for Electrolytic ... electropolishing workbook.pdf Electropolishing overview http assets pdf epusersguide.pdf Electropolishing Users Guide http services electropolishing.html Benefits of Electropolishing http www.euro pdf map Electropolishing EN.pdf Electropolishing ...   more details

  1. Electrometallurgy

    Electrometallurgy is the field concerned with the processes of metal electrodeposition . There are four categories of these processes electrowinning , the extraction of metal from ores ref Popov et al. , p.1 ref electrorefining , the purification of metals. ref Popov et al. , p.1 ref Powder metallurgy Metal powder production by electrodeposition is included in this category, or sometimes electrowinning, or a separate category depending on application. ref Popov et al. , pp.2,30 ref electroplating , the deposition of a layer of one metal on another ref Popov et al. , p.1 ref electroforming , the manufacture of, usually thin, metal parts through electroplating ref Popov et al. , p.1 ref See also electropolishing , the removal of material from a metallic workpiece Notes reflist Reference Konstantin Ivanovich Popov, Stojan S. Djoki , Branimir N. Grgur, Fundamental Aspects of Electrometallurgy , Springer, 2002 ISBN 0306472694. Category Metallurgical processes Category Electrolysis Category Chemical processes hi it Elettrometallurgia ...   more details

  1. Nitinol biocompatibility services electropolishing default.html Harrison Electropolishing. deletable image ... services electropolishing default.html Harrison Electopolishing. Electropolishing Another ... structure breaks that may promote corrosion. Electropolishing is even more effective, because it doesn t leave the scratches that mechanical polishing will. Electropolishing is accomplished by creating .... ref The Basics of the Electropolish Process , http services electropolishing ... greatly enhance the breakdown potentials of Nitinol. These treatments include mechanical polishing, electropolishing .... Surface treatments that have to some extent, lowered thrombogenicity in vitro are Electropolishing ...   more details

  1. Hastelloy

    File Swing Check valves.JPG thumb Three check valve s in corrosion resistant Hastelloy refimprove date February 2009 Hastelloy is the registered trademark name of Haynes International , Inc. The trademark is applied as the prefix name of a range of twenty two different highly corrosion resistant metal alloy s loosely grouped by the metallurgy metallurgical industry under the material term superalloy s or high performance alloys . The predominant alloying ingredient is typically the transition metal nickel . Other alloying ingredients are added to nickel in each of the subcategories of this trademark designation and include varying percentages of the elements molybdenum , chromium , cobalt , iron , copper , manganese , titanium , zirconium , aluminum , carbon , and tungsten . The primary function of the Hastelloy super alloys is that of effective survival under high temperature, high stress service in a moderately to severely corrosive, and or erosion prone environment where more common and less expensive iron based alloys would fail, including the pressure vessel s of some nuclear reactor s, chemical reactor s, distillation equipment, and pipes and valves in chemical industry. Although a super alloy, Hastelloy does experience degradation due to fabricating and handling. Electropolishing or passivation of Hastelloy can improve corrosion resistance. ref http materials hastelloy.html Hastelloy Electropolishing and Passivation ref Types The following Hastelloy alloys have been produced however, production of some may have been discontinued class wikitable border 1 Composition of various hastelloy alloys percent Alloy Cobalt Co Chromium Cr Molybdenum Mo Tungsten W Iron Fe Silicon Si Manganese Mn Carbon C Nickel Ni Others B 2 1 1 28 2 0.1 1 0.01 Balance B 3 3 1.5 28.5 3 1.5 0.1 3 0.01 65 min. Aluminium Al 0.5 , Titanium Ti 0.2 C 4 2 16 16 3 0.08 1 0.01 Balance Ti 0.7 C 2000 2 23 16 3 0.08 0.01 Balance Copper Cu 1.6 C 22 2.5 22 13 3 3 0.08 0.5 0.01 Balan ...   more details

  1. Herman Bank

    a special electropolishing process to provide a super smooth stent surface. The electropolishing ...   more details

  1. Deep eutectic solvent

    A deep eutectic solvent or DES is a type of ion ic solvent with special properties composed of a mixture which forms a eutectic with a melting point much lower than either of the individual components. The first generation eutectic solvents were based on mixtures of quaternary ammonium salt s with hydrogen donor s such as amine s and carboxylic acid s. The deep eutectic phenomenon was first described in 2003 for a mixture of choline chloride 2 hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium chloride and urea in a 1 2 mole chemistry mole ratio, respectively. Choline chloride has a melting point of 302 C and that of urea is 133 C. The eutectic mixture melts as low as 12 C. There are four types of eutectic solvents ref cite journal last Andrew Abbott coauthors John Barron, Karl Ryder and David Wilson title Eutectic Based Ionic Liquids with Metal Containing Anions and Cations journal Chem. Eur. J. year 2007 volume 13 pages 6495 6501 doi 10.1002 chem.200601738 ref class wikitable Type I Eutectic metal salt organic salt e.g. ZnCl sub 2 sub choline chloride Type II Eutectic metal salt hydrate organic salt e.g. CoCl sub 2 sub 6H sub 2 sub O choline chloride Type III Eutectic organic salt hydrogen bond donor e.g. choline chloride urea Type IV Eutectic metal salt hydrate hydrogen bond donor e.g. ZnCl sub 2 sub urea The DESs have been studied for their applicability in industry at lab level, and the DES described above was found to be able to dissolve many metal salts like lithium chloride solubility 2.5 mole unit mol L and copper II oxide solubility 0.12  mol L . In this capacity these solvents are used for metal cleaning prior to electroplating . Because the solvent is conductive it also has a potential application in electropolishing . Organic compound s such as benzoic acid solubility 0.82  mol L also have great solubility and this even includes cellulose . Compared to ordinary solvents, eutectic solvents also have a very low Volatile organic compound VOC and are non flammable. Oth ...   more details

  1. Field ion microscope

    and FIM are prepared by electropolishing electrochemical polishing of thin wires. However, these tips ...   more details

  1. Surface finishing

    Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial process es that alter the surface of a manufactured item to achieve a certain property. ref name omfi Finishing processes may be employed to improve appearance, adhesion or wettability , soldering solderability , corrosion resistance , tarnish resistance, chemical resistance, wear resistance , hardness , modify electrical conductivity , remove burrs and other surface flaws, and control the surface friction . ref name omfi Citation title Overview of the Metal Finishing Industry url http ref 5C03 5C02454 overview.htm accessdate 2009 01 15 . ref ref Degarmo, p. 18. ref In limited cases some of these techniques can be used to restore original dimensions to salvage or repair an item. Surface finishing processes can be categorized by how they affect the workpiece Removing or reshaping finishing Adding or altering finishing Mechanical processes may also be categorized together because of similarities the final surface finish. Adding and altering Blanching coinage Blanching Case hardening Ceramic glaze Cladding metalworking Cladding Corona treatment Diffusion processes Carburizing Nitriding Electroplating Galvanizing Gilding Glaze metallurgy Glazing Knurling Paint ing Passivation Conversion coating Anodizing Bluing steel Bluing Chromate conversion coating Phosphate conversion coating Parkerizing Plasma electrolytic oxidation Plasma spraying Powder coating Thin film deposition Chemical vapor deposition CVD Electroplating Electrophoretic deposition EPD Mechanical plating Sputter deposition Physical vapor deposition PVD Vacuum plating Vitreous enamel Removing and reshaping Abrasive blasting Sandblasting Burnishing metalworking Burnishing Chemical mechanical planarization CMP Electropolishing Flame polishing Gas cluster ion beam Surface grinder Grinding Industrial etching Linishing Mass finishing processes Tumble finishing Vibratory finishing Pickling metal Pickling Polishing Buffing Peening Shot peening Superfinis ...   more details

  1. Perchloric acid

    in ion exchange chromatography. It is also used for electropolishing etching of aluminum, molybdenum ... used to Electropolishing electro polish aluminum furniture. In addition, organic compounds were ...   more details

  1. List of industrial processes

    Unreferenced date August 2009 it s a list, references are in the individual articles Industrial processes are procedures involving chemistry chemical or mechanization mechanical steps to aid in the manufacture of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. Industrial processes are the key components of heavy industry . Most processes make the production of an otherwise rare material vastly cheaper in price, thus changing it into a commodity i.e. the process makes it economically feasible for society to use the material on a large scales, in machinery, or a substantial amount of raw materials, in comparison to batch or craft processes. Production of a specific material may involve more than one type of process. Most industrial processes result in both a desired product s and by product s, many of which are toxic, hazardous, or hard to deal with. General processes These may be applied on their own, or as part of a larger process. Liquefaction of gases for ease of transportation Supercritical drying , Freeze drying removal of excess liquid Scrubber removing of pollution from exhaust gases Chemical processes Main Chemical process Smelting chemically enhancing metals Disinfection chemical treatment to kill bacteria and viruses Pyroprocessing using heat to chemically combine materials, such as in cement kiln cement . Heat processes Flash smelting a refinement on smelting, for sulfur containing ores produces copper, nickel and lead Electrolysis main Electrolysis The availability of electricity and its effect on materials gave rise to several processes for plating or separating metals. Gilding , Electroplating , Anodization , Electrowinning depositing a material on an electrode Electropolishing the reverse of electroplating Electrofocusing similar to electroplating, but separating molecules Electrolytic process the generic process of using electrolysis Electrophoretic deposition electrolytic deposition of colloidal particles in a liquid medium Electrotyping ...   more details

  1. List of manufacturing processes

    Abrasive blasting sand blasting Buffing Burnishing metalworking Burnishing Electroplating Electropolishing ...   more details

  1. Burr (edge)

    , grinding , wire brushing , abrasive flow machining , electrochemical deburring, electropolishing ...   more details

  1. Atom probe

    geometry produced by electropolishing , or focused ion beam methods. Preparation is done, often ..., with hand electropolishing techniques giving good results. Subsequently, atom probe has been ...   more details

  1. Nickel titanium

    via electropolishing and or passivation , nitinol forms a very stable protective TiO sub 2 sub ..., very early medical devices were made without electropolishing, and corrosion was observed. Today ...   more details

  1. Ultra-high vacuum

    gas behind bolts, welding voids, etc. Electropolishing Electropolish all metal parts after machining ...   more details

  1. Microtome

    Use dmy dates date September 2010 File Ultramicrotome 2265 EM GD MB.jpg thumb An ultramicrotome used in microscopy . A microtome from the Greek mikros , meaning small , and temnein , meaning to cut is a sectioning instrument that allows for the cutting of extremely thin slices of material, known as sections. Microtomes are an important device in microscopy preparation, allowing for the preparation of samples for observation under transmitted visible light light or electron radiation. Microtomes use steel, glass, or diamond blades depending upon the specimen being sliced and the desired thickness of the sections being cut. Steel blades are used to prepare sections of animal or plant tissues for light microscopy histology . Glass knives are used to slice sections for light microscopy and to slice very thin sections for electron microscopy . Industrial grade diamond knives are used to slice hard materials such as bone, teeth and plant matter for both light microscopy and for electron microscopy. Gem quality diamond knife diamond knives are used for slicing thin sections for electron microscopy . Microtomy is a method for the preparation of thin sections for materials such as bones, minerals and teeth, and an alternative to electropolishing and focused ion beam ion milling . Microtome sections can be made thin enough to section a human hair across its breadth, with section thickness between 0.05 and 100  micrometre m . History Image Cummings 1774 Microtome.jpg thumb 150px A diagram of a microtome drawn by Cummings in 1770. ref name Hill 1770 In the beginnings of light microscope development, sections from plants and animals were manually prepared using razor blades. It was found that to observe the structure of the specimen under observation it was important to make clean reproducible cuts on the order of 100  m, through which light can be transmitted. This allowed for the observation of samples using light microscopes in a transmission mode. One of the first ...   more details

  1. Focused ion beam

    100 nanometers. Other techniques, such as ion mill ing or electropolishing can be used to prepare such thin ...   more details

  1. Marchywka Effect

    be modified in a variety of ways including anodizing and electropolishing . Electrochemistry was quickly ...   more details

  1. Stainless steel

    Bead blast finish No. 10 Heat colored finish wide range of Electropolishing electropolished and heat ...   more details

  1. Corrosion

    applied to ferrous tools or surfaces to remove rust. Corrosion removal should not be confused with Electropolishing ...   more details

  1. Phosphoric acid

    in copper electropolishing for burr removal and circuit board planarization. Phosphoric acid is used ...   more details

  1. Superconducting Radio Frequency

    acid chemistry to avoid hydrogen contamination, Electropolishing Electropolish of the cavity interior ...   more details

  1. List of ASTM International standards

    Expand list date February 2011 This is a list of ASTM International standards, current and withdrawn. A ASTM A1 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Rails ASTM A6 Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes, and Sheet Piling ASTM A29 Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot Wrought, General Requirements for ASTM A36 Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel ASTM A53 Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot Dipped, Zinc Coated, Welded and Seamless ASTM A90 Standard Specification for Weight Mass of Coating on Iron and Steel Articles with Zinc of Zinc Alloy Coatings ASTM A105 Standard Specification for Forgings, Carbon Steel for Piping Components ASTM A106 Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service ASTM A108 Standard Specification for Steel Bar, Carbon and Alloy, Cold Finished ASTM A123 Standard Specification for Zinc Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings on Iron and Steel Products ASTM A148 Standard Specification for Steel Castings, High Strength, for Structural Purposes ASTM A153 Standard Specification for Zinc Coating Hot Dip on Iron and Steel Hardware ASTM A228 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Music Spring Quality ASTM A240 Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications ASTM A249 ASTM A297 Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Iron Chromium and Iron Chromium Nickel, Heat Resistant, for General Application ASTM A304 Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Bars Subject to End Quench Hardenability Requirements ASTM A325 Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120 105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength ASTM A325M Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated 830 MPa Minimum Tensile Strength ASTM A350 Standard Specification for Carbon and Low Allot Steel Forgings, Requiring Notch Toughnes ...   more details

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