The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or voiceless domed postalveolar fricative (IPA ) is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages, including English. In English, it is usually represented in writing with sh , as in ship.
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , the letter esh introduced by Isaac Pitman (not to be confused with the integral sign ). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is S.
An alternative symbol is , an s with h ek, which is used in the Americanist phonetic notation and the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, as well as in the scientific and ISO 9 transliterations of Cyrillic. It originated with the Czech alphabet of Jan Hus and was adopted in Gaj's Latin alphabet and other Latin alphabets of Slavic languages. It also features in the orthographies of many Baltic, Finno-Lappic, North American and African languages.
Features of the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative:
In various languages, including English and French, it may have simultaneous lip rounding (), although this is usually not written down in technical transcriptions.
Classical Latin phonology did not have . It does occur in most of today's Latin-descended languages. For example the ch in French chanteur ('singer') is pronounced and is descended from Latin cantare pronounced . The sc in Latin scientia ('science') indicated but has changed to in the Italian scienza.
The sound in Russian denoted by < > is commonly transcribed as a palato-alveolar fricative but is actually a laminal retroflex fricative.
als:Stimmloser postalveolarer Frikativ ar: an:Fonema prepalatal fricativo xordo bn: br:Kensonenn drekkevig dre daravat divouezh ca:Fricativa postalveolar sorda cs:Nezn l postalveol rn frikativa de:Stimmloser postalveolarer Frikativ es:Fricativa postalveolar sorda fa: fr:Consonne fricative post-alv olaire sourde ko: hr:Bezvu ni postalveolarni frikativ it:Fricativa postalveolare sorda he: - , , ms:Geseran belakang gusi tak bersuara nl:Stemloze postalveolaire fricatief ja: pl:Sp g oska szczelinowa zadzi s owa bezd wi czna pt:Fricativa p s-alveolar surda ro:Consoan fricativ postalveolar surd ru: fi:Soinniton postalveolaarinen frikatiivi sv:Tonl s postalveolar frikativa uk: zh: