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Thai language

Thai ( Phasa Thai[1] ), more precisely Central Thai[2] or Siamese,[3] is the national and official language of Thailand and the native language of the Thai people, Thailand's dominant ethnic group. Thai is a member of the Tai group of the Tai Kadai language family. Some words in Thai are borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language. Thai also has a complex orthography and relational markers. Thai is mutually intelligible with Lao.[4]

Contents


Languages and dialects

Thai is the official language of Thailand, spoken by over 20 million people (2000),[5] Standard Thai is based on the register of the educated classes of Bangkok.[6][7] Khorat Thai is spoken by about 400,000 (1984) in Nakhon Ratchasima; it occupies a linguistic position somewhere between Siamese Thai and Isan on a dialect continuum, and may be considered a variant of either. A majority of the people in the Isan region of Thailand speak a dialect of the Lao language, which has influenced the Siamese Thai dialect.

In addition to Siamese Thai, Thailand is home to other related Tai languages, including:

  • Isan (Northeastern Thai), the language of the Isan region of Thailand, a socio-culturally distinct Thai Lao hybrid dialect which is written with the Thai script. It is spoken by about 15 million people (1983).
  • Northern Thai (Phasa Nuea, Lanna, Kam Mueang, or Thai Yuan), spoken by about 6 million (1983) in the formerly independent kingdom of Lanna (Chiang Mai).
  • Southern Thai (Pak Tai), spoken by 4.5 million (2006)in the formerly independent kingdom of Ligor (Nakhon Si Thammarat).
  • Phu Thai, spoken by about half a million around Nakhon Phanom Province, and 300,000 more in Laos and Vietnam (2006).
  • Phuan, spoken by 200,000 in central Thailand and Isan, and 100,000 more in northern Laos (2006).
  • Shan (Thai Luang, Tai Long, Thai Yai), spoken by about 100,000 in north-west Thailand along the border with the Shan States of Burma, and by 3.2 million in Burma (2006).
  • L (Tai Lue, Dai), spoken by about 80,000 (2001) in northern Thailand, and 600,000 more in China, Burma, and Laos (1981 2000).
  • Nyaw language, spoken by 50,000 in Nakhon Phanom Province, Sakhon Nakhon Province, Udon Thani Province of Northeast Thailand (1990)
  • Song, spoken by about 30,000 in central and northern Thailand (2000).

Most speakers of dialects and minority languages speak Central Thai as well, since it is the language used in schools and universities all across the kingdom.

Numerous languages not related to Thai are spoken within Thailand. Near Laos and Burma, ethnic minority hill tribes people speak Hmong Mien (Yao), Karen, Lisu, and others. Near Cambodia many communities speak Khmer, and the Mon-Khmer language variously known as Suay ( ) Guay or Kuay ( ) (also spoken in central Suphanburi province.[8]

Siamese Thai is composed of several distinct registers, forms for different social contexts:

  • Street or common Thai ( , spoken Thai): informal, without polite terms of address, as used between close relatives and friends.
  • Elegant or formal Thai ( , written Thai): official and written version, includes respectful terms of address; used in simplified form in newspapers.
  • Rhetorical Thai: used for public speaking.
  • Religious Thai: (heavily influenced by Sanskrit and P li) used when discussing Buddhism or addressing monks.
  • Royal Thai ( ): (influenced by Khmer) used when addressing members of the royal family or describing their activities.

Most Thais can speak and understand all of these contexts. Street and elegant Thai are the basis of all conversations; rhetorical, religious and royal Thai are taught in schools as the national curriculum.

Script

Many scholars believe that the Thai script is derived from the Khmer script, which is modeled after the Brahmic script from the Indic family. However, in appearance, Thai is closer to Thai Dam script, which may have the same Indian origins as the Khmer script. The language and its script are closely related to the Lao language and script. Most literate Lao are able to read and understand Thai, as more than half of the Thai vocabulary, grammar, intonation, vowels and so forth are common with the Lao language. Much like the Burmese adopted the Mon script (which also has Indic origins), the Thais adopted and modified the Khmer script to create their own writing system. While the oldest known inscription in the Khmer language dates from 611 CE, inscriptions in Thai writing began to appear around 1292 CE. Notable features include:

  1. It is an abugida script, in which the implicit vowel is a short in a syllable without final consonant and a short in a syllable with final consonant.
  2. Tone markers are placed above the final onset consonant of the syllable.
  3. Vowels sounding after a consonant are nonsequential: they can be located before, after, above or below the consonant, or in a combination of these positions.

Transcription

There is no universal standard for transcribing Thai into the Latin alphabet. For example, the name of King Rama IX, the present monarch, is transcribed variously as Bhumibol, Phumiphon, phuuM miH phohnM, or many other versions. Guide books, text books and dictionaries may each follow different systems. For this reason, most language courses recommend that learners master the Thai script.

What comes closest to a standard is the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS), published by the Thai Royal Institute.[9] This system is increasingly used in Thailand by central and local governments, especially for road signs. Its main drawbacks are that it does not indicate tone or vowel length. Retro-transliteration, that is, reconstruction of Thai spelling from RTGS romanisation, is not possible.

Transliteration

The ISO published an international standard for the transliteration of Thai into Roman script in September 2003 (ISO 11940) http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueDetailPage.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=20574&ICS1=1&ICS2=140&ICS3=10. By adding diacritics to the Latin letters, it makes the transcription reversible, making it a true transliteration. This system is intended for academic use, but is rarely used in any context.

Grammar

From the perspective of linguistic typology, Thai can be considered to be an analytic language. The word order is subject verb object, although the subject is often omitted. Thai pronouns are selected according to the gender and relative status of speaker and audience.

Adjectives and adverbs

There is no morphological distinction between adverbs and adjectives. Many words can be used in either function. They follow the word they modify, which may be a noun, verb, or another adjective or adverb. Intensity can be expressed by a duplicated word, which is used to mean "very" (with the first occurrence at a higher pitch) or "rather" (with both at the same pitch) (Higbie 187-188). Usually, only one word is duplicated per clause.

  • (khon uan, ) a fat person
  • (khon uan uan, ) a very/rather fat person
  • (khon thi uan rew mak, ) a person who becomes/became fat very quickly
  • (khon thi uan rew mak mak, ) a person who becomes/became fat very very quickly

Comparatives take the form "A X B" (kwa, ), A is more X than B. The superlative is expressed as "A X " (thi sut, ), A is most X.

  • (khao uan kwa chan, ) S/he is fatter than me.
  • (khao uan thi sut, ) S/he is the fattest (of all).

Because adjectives can be used as complete predicates, many words used to indicate tense in verbs (see Verbs:Tense below) may be used to describe adjectives.

  • (chan hiu, ) I am hungry.
  • (chan cha hiu, ) I will be hungry.
  • (chan kamlang hiu, ) I am hungry right now.
  • (chan hiu laeo, ) I am already hungry.
  • Remark mostly means "I am hungry right now" because normally, () is a past-tense marker, but has many other uses as well. For example, in the sentence, (): So where are you going?, () is used as a discourse particle.

Verbs

Verbs do not inflect (i.e. do not change with person, tense, voice, mood, or number) nor are there any participles. Duplication conveys the idea of doing the verb intensively.

The passive voice is indicated by the insertion of (thuk, ) before the verb. For example:

  • (khao thuk ti, ), He is hit. This describes an action that is out of the receiver's control and, thus, conveys suffering.

To convey the opposite sense, a sense of having an opportunity arrive, (dai, , can) is used. For example:

  • (khao cha dai pai thiao mueang lao, ), He gets to visit Laos.

Note, dai ( and ), though both spelled , convey two separate meanings. The short vowel dai () conveys an opportunity has arisen and is placed before the verb. The long vowel dai () is placed after the verb and conveys the idea that one has been given permission or one has the ability to do something. Also see the past tense below.

  • (khao ti dai, ), He is/was allowed to hit or He is/was able to hit

Negation is indicated by placing (mai, not) before the verb.

  • , (khao mai ti) He is not hitting. or He doesn't hit.

Tense is conveyed by tense markers before or after the verb.

Present can be indicated by (kamlang, , currently) before the verb for ongoing action (like English -ing form), by (yu, ) after the verb, or by both. For example:
  • (khao kamlang wing, ), or
  • (khao wing yu, ), or
  • (khao kamlang wing yu, ), He is running.
Future can be indicated by (cha, , will) before the verb or by a time expression indicating the future. For example:
  • (khao cha wing, ), He will run or He is going to run
Past can be indicated by (dai, ) before the verb or by a time expression indicating the past. However, (laeo, :, already) is more often used to indicate the past tense by being placed behind the verb. Or, both and are put together to form the past tense expression, i.e. Subject + + Verb + . For example:
  • (khao dai kin, ), He ate
  • (khao kin laeo, , He (already) ate or He's already eaten
  • (khao dai kin laeo, ), He (already) ate or He's already eaten

Thai exhibits serial verb constructions, where verbs are strung together. Some word combinations are common and may be considered set phrases.

  • (khao pai kin khao, ) He went out to eat, literally He go eat food
  • (chan fang mai khao chai, ) I don't understand what was said, literally I listen not understand
  • (khao ma, ) Come in, literally enter come
  • ! (ok pai, ) Leave! or Get out!, literally exit go

Nouns

Nouns are uninflected and have no gender; there are no articles.

Nouns are neither singular nor plural. Some specific nouns are reduplicated to form collectives: (dek, child) is often repeated as (dek dek) to refer to a group of children. The word (phuak, ) may be used as a prefix of a noun or pronoun as a collective to pluralize or emphasise the following word. ( , phuak phom, , we, masculine; phuak rao, , emphasised we; phuak ma, (the) dogs) Plurals are expressed by adding classifiers, used as measure words ( ), in the form of noun-number-classifier ( , "teacher five person" for "five teachers"). While in English, such classifiers are usually absent ("four chairs") or optional ("two bottles of beer" or "two beers"), a classifier is almost always used in Thai (hence "chair four item" and "beer two bottle").

Pronouns

Subject pronouns are often omitted, with nicknames used where English would use a pronoun. See informal and formal names for more details. Pronouns, when used, are ranked in honorific registers, and may also make a T V distinction in relation to kinship and social status. Specialised pronouns are used for those with royal and noble titles, and for clergy. The following are appropriate for conversational use:

Word RTGS IPA Meaning
phom I/me (masculine; formal)
dichan ) I/me (feminine; formal)
chan I/me (feminine; informal; also commonly used by transsexuals; in the past this was both masculine and feminine)
khun you (polite)
than you (polite to a person of high status)
thoe you (informal), she/her (informal)
rao we/us, I/me/you (casual)
khao he/him, she/her
man it, he/she (sometimes casual or offensive; if used to refer to a person)
phuak khao they/them
phi older brother, sister (also used for older acquaintances)
nong younger brother, sister (also used for younger acquaintances)
luk phi luk nong first cousin (male or female)

The reflexive pronoun is (tua eng), which can mean any of: myself, yourself, ourselves, himself, herself, themselves. This can be mixed with another pronoun to create an intensive pronoun, such as (tua phom eng, lit: I myself) or (tua khun eng, lit: you yourself).

Thai does not have a separate possessive pronoun. Instead, possession is indicated by the particle (khong). For example, "my mother" is (mae khong phom, lit: mother of I). This particle is often implicit, so the phrase is shortened to (mae phom).

Thai has many more pronouns than those listed above. Their usage is full of nuances. For example:

  • " " all translate to "I", but each expresses a different gender, age, politeness, status, or relationship between speaker and listener.
  • (rao) can be first person (I), second person (you), or both (we), depending on the context.
  • When speaking to someone older, (nu) is a feminine first person (I). However, when speaking to someone younger, the same word is a neuter second person (you).
  • The second person pronoun (thoe) (lit: you) is semi-feminine. It is used only when the speaker or the listener (or both) are female. Males usually don't address each other by this pronoun.
  • Both (khun) and (thoe) are polite neuter second person pronouns. However, (khun thoe) is a feminine derogative third person.
  • Instead of a second person pronoun such as " " (you), it's much more common for unrelated strangers to call each other " " (brother/sister/aunt/uncle/granny).
  • To express deference, the second person pronoun is sometimes replaced by a profession, similar to how, in English, presiding judges are always addressed as "your honor" rather than "you". In Thai, students always address their teachers by " " (each means teacher) rather than (you). Teachers, monks, and doctors are almost always addressed this way.

Particles

The particles are often untranslatable words added to the end of a sentence to indicate respect, a request, encouragement or other moods (similar to the use of intonation in English), as well as varying the level of formality. They are not used in elegant (written) Thai. The most common particles indicating respect are (khrap, , with a high tone) when the speaker is male, and (kha, , with a falling tone) when the speaker is female; these can also be used to indicate an affirmative, though the (falling tone) is changed to a (high tone).

Other common particles are:

Word RTGS IPA Meaning
cha/ja indicating a request
, or cha/ja indicating emphasis
or la indicating emphasis
si indicating emphasis or an imperative
na softening; indicating a request

Phonology

Tones

There are five phonemic tones: mid, low, falling, high, and rising, sometimes referred to in older reference works as rectus, gravis, circumflexus, altus, and demissus, respectively.[10] The table shows an example of both the phonemic tones and their phonetic realization, in the IPA. Thai language tone chart

Tone Thai Example Phonemic Phonetic Example meaning in English
mid paddy field
low (a nickname)
falling face
high or aunt or uncle (younger than one's mother)
rising or thick

Note that the full complement of five tones exist only on live syllables, those that end in a long vowel or a sonorant (/m/, /n/, / /, /j/, /w/). For dead syllables, which end in either a plosive (/p/, /t/, or /k/) or a short vowel, only two tonal distinctions are possible: Falling vs. low for syllables containing a long vowel, and high vs. low for syllables containing a short vowel (i.e. ending either in a short vowel + plosive, or in a short vowel alone). Note that syllables that phonemically end in a short vowel have an automatic glottal stop added to the end (especially in slower speech). Hence, an alternative characterization of dead syllables is simply those syllables ending in a phonetic plosive consonant.

Consonants

Initials

Thai distinguishes among three voice/aspiration patterns for plosive and affricate consonants:

  • unvoiced, unaspirated
  • unvoiced, aspirated
  • voiced, unaspirated

Where English has only a distinction between the voiced, unaspirated and the unvoiced, aspirated , Thai distinguishes a third sound that is neither voiced nor aspirated, which occurs in English only as an allophone of , approximately the sound of the p in "spin". There is similarly an alveolar , , triplet. In the velar series there is a , pair and in the postalveolar series the , pair.

In each cell below, the first line indicates International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the second indicates the Thai characters in initial position (several letters appearing in the same box have identical pronunciation).

* and are no longer used. Thus, modern Thai is said to have 42 consonant letters.
** Initial is silent and therefore considered as glottal plosive.

Finals

Although the overall 44 Thai consonant letters provide 21 sounds in case of initials, the case for finals is different. For finals, only eight sounds, as well as no sound, called m tr ( ) are used. To demonstrate, at the end of a syllable, () and () are devoiced, becoming pronounced as and respectively.

Of the consonant letters, excluding the disused and , six ( ) cannot be used as a final and the other 36 are grouped as following.

! colspan="2" | Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal

, , , , ,

Plosive
, , , ,

, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,

, , ,
*
Fricative
Affricate
Trill
Approximant

Lateral
approximant
* The glottal plosive appears at the end when no final follows a short vowel

Clusters

In Thai, each syllable in a word is considered separate from the others, so combinations of consonants from adjacent syllables are never recognised as a cluster.

Thai has very limited number of clusters. Original Thai vocabulary introduces only 11 combined patterns:

  • ( ), ( ), ( )
  • ( , ), ( , ), ( , )
  • ( ), ( )
  • ( ), ( , )
  • ( )

The number of clusters increases when a few more combinations are presented in loanwords such as ( ) in (, from Sanskrit indr ) or ( ) in (, from English free). However, it can be observed that Thai language supports only those in initial position, with either , , or as the second consonant sound and not more than two sounds at a time.

Vowels

The basic vowels of the Thai language, from front to back and close to open, are given in the following table. The top entry in every cell is the symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet, the second entry gives the spelling in the Thai alphabet, where a dash ( ) indicates the position of the initial consonant after which the vowel is pronounced. A second dash indicates that a final consonant must follow.

Monophthongs of Thai. From <!-- Harvcoltxt -->
Monophthongs of Thai. From

  Front Back
unrounded unrounded rounded
short long short long short long
Close
 -  

 -  

 -  

 - - 

 -  

 -  
Close-mid
-

-

-

-

-

-
Open-mid
-

-
   
-

-
Open    
- , - -

-
   

The vowels each exist in long-short pairs: these are distinct phonemes forming unrelated words in Thai,[11] but usually transliterated the same: (khao) means "he" or "she", while (khao) means "white".

The long-short pairs are as follows:

Long Short
Thai IPA Example Thai IPA Example
'to slice' 'to dream'
  'to cut'   'kris'
  'to inhale'   'rearmost'
'to recline' 'tendon, ligament'
'to be defeated' 'goat'
'wave'   'to go up'
'to walk' 'silver'
'to fell' 'thick (soup)'
'drum' 'box'

Diphthongs of Thai. From <!-- Harvcoltxt -->
Diphthongs of Thai. From
The basic vowels can be combined into diphthongs. analyze those ending in high vocoids as underlyingly and . For purposes of determining tone, those marked with an asterisk are sometimes classified as long:

Long Short
Thai IPA Thai IPA
*, *, , -
*

Additionally, there are three triphthongs, all of which are long:

Thai IPA

For a guide to written vowels, see the Thai alphabet page.

Vocabulary

Other than compound words and words of foreign origin, most words are monosyllabic. Historically, words have most often been borrowed from Sanskrit and P li; Buddhist terminology is particularly indebted to these. Old Khmer has also contributed its share, especially in regard to royal court terminology. Since the beginning of the 20th century, however, the English language has had the greatest influence, especially for scientific and technical vocabulary. Many Teochew Chinese words are also used, some replacing existing Thai words (for example, the names of basic numbers; see also Sino-Xenic).

As noted above, Thai has several registers, each having certain usages, such as colloquial, formal, literary, and poetic. Thus, the word "eat" can be (kin; common), (daek; vulgar), (yat; vulgar), (boriphok; formal), (rapprathan; formal), (chan; religious), or (sawoei; royal).

Thailand also uses the distinctive Thai six hour clock in addition to the 24 hour clock.

History

Thai has undergone a number of sound changes in its history. Some of the most significant changes, at least in terms of consonants and tones, have occurred between the Old Thai spoken at the time when the language was first written and the Thai language of the present time, and are reflected in the orthography.

Old Thai

Old Thai had a three-way tone distinction on live syllables (those that did not end in a stop consonant) and no possible tone distinction on dead syllables (those ending in a stop consonant, i.e. either /p/, /t/, /k/ or the glottal stop that automatically closes syllables otherwise ending in a short vowel).

There was a two-way voiced vs. voiceless distinction among all fricative and sonorant consonants, and up to a four-way distinction among stops and affricates. The maximal distinctions occurred in labials () and dentals (), while a three-way distinction occurred among velars () and palatals (), with the glottalized member of each set apparently missing.

The major change between Old Thai and modern Thai was due to the loss of voicing distinctions and concomitant tone split. This may have happened between about 1300 and 1600 AD, possibly occurring at different times in different parts of the Thai-speaking area. All of the voiced/voiceless pairs of consonants lost the voicing distinction:

  • Plain voiced stops () became voiceless aspirated stops (). (The glottalized stops were unaffected, as they were treated in every respect like voiceless unaspirated stops due to the initial glottal stop. These stops are often described in the modern language as phonemically plain stops , but the glottalization is still commonly heard.)
  • Voiced fricatives became voiceless.
  • Voiceless sonorants became voiced.

However, in the process of these mergers the former distinction of voice was transferred into a new set of tonal distinctions. In essence, every tone in Old Thai split into two new tones, with a lower-pitched tone corresponding to a syllable that formerly began with a voiced consonant, and a higher-pitched tone corresponding to a syllable that formerly began with a voiceless consonant (including glottalized stops). An additional complication is that formerly voiceless unaspirated stops/affricates (original ) also caused original tone 1 to lower, but had no such effect on original tones 2 or 3.

The above consonant mergers and tone splits account for the complex relationship between spelling and sound in modern Thai. Modern "low"-class consonants were voiced in Old Thai, and the terminology "low" reflects the lower tone variants that resulted. Modern "mid"-class consonants were voiceless unaspirated stops or affricates in Old Thai — precisely the class the triggered lowering in original tone 1 but not tones 2 or 3. Modern "high"-class consonants all remaining voiceless consonants in Old Thai (voiceless fricatives, voiceless sonorants, voiceless aspirated stops). The three most common tone "marks" (the lack of any tone mark, as well as the two marks termed mai ek and mai tho) represent the three tones of Old Thai, and the complex relationship between tone mark and actual tone is due to the various tonal changes since then. Note also that the since the tone split the tones have changed in actual representation to the point that the former relationship between lower and higher tonal variants has been completely obscured. Furthermore, the six tones that resulted after the three tones of Old Thai were split have since merged into five in standard Thai, with the lower variant of former tone 2 merging with the higher variant of former tone 3, becoming the modern "falling" tone. (Note that modern Lao and northern Thai dialects are often described as having six tones, but these are not necessarily due to preservation of the original six tones resulting from the tone split. For example, in standard Lao, both the high and low variants of Old Thai tone 2 merged; however, the mid-class variant of tone 1 became pronounced differently from either the high-class or low-class variants, and all three eventually became phonemic due to further changes, e.g. /kr/ -> /kh/. For similar reasons, Lao has developed more than two tonal distinctions in "dead" syllables.)

Early Old Thai also apparently had velar fricatives as distinct phonemes. These were represented by the now-obsolete letters kho khuat and kho khon, respectively. During the Old Thai period, these sounds merged into the corresponding stops , and as a result the use of these letters became unstable.

At some point in the history of Thai, a palatal nasal phoneme also existed, inherited from Proto-Tai. A letter yo ying also exists, which is used to represent a palatal nasal in words borrowed from Sanskrit and Pali, and is currently pronounced /j/ at the beginning of a syllable but /n/ at the end of a syllable. Most native Thai words that are reconstructed as beginning with are also pronounced /j/ in modern Thai, but generally spelled with yo yak, which consistently represents /j/. This suggests that -> /j/ in native words occurred in the pre-literary period. It's unclear whether Sanskrit and Pali words beginning with were borrowed directly with a /j/, or whether a was re-introduced, followed by a second change -> /j/.

Proto-Tai also had a glottalized palatal sound, reconstructed as in Li Fang-Kuei (1977). Corresponding Thai words are generally spelled , which implies an Old Thai pronunciation of (or ), but a few such words are spelled , which implies a pronunciation of and suggests that the glottalization may have persisted through to the early literary period.

Vowel developments

The vowel system of modern Thai contains nine pure vowels and three centering diphthongs, each of which can occur long or short. According to Li (1977), however, many Thai dialects have only one such long-short pair (), and in general it is difficult or impossible to find minimal long-short pairs in Thai that involve vowels other than /a/ and where both members have frequent correspondences throughout the Tai languages. More specifically, he notes the following facts about Thai:

  • In open syllables, only long vowels occur. (This assumes that all apparent cases of short open syllables are better described as ending in a glottal stop. This makes sense from the lack of tonal distinctions in such syllables, and the glottal stop is also reconstructible across the Tai languages.)
  • In closed syllables, the long high vowels are rare, and cases that do exist typically have diphthongs in other Tai languages.
  • In closed syllables, both long and short mid and low do occur. However, generally, only words with short and long are reconstructible back to Proto-Tai.
  • Both of the mid back unrounded vowels are rare, and words with such sounds generally cannot be reconstructed back to Proto-Tai.

Furthermore, the vowel that corresponds to short Thai /a/ has a different and often higher quality in many of the Tai languages compared with the vowel corresponding to Thai .

This leads Li to posit the following:

  1. Proto-Tai had a system of nine pure vowels with no length distinction, and possessing approximately the same qualities as in modern Thai: high , mid , low .
  2. All Proto-Tai vowels were lengthened in open syllables, and low vowels were also lengthened in closed syllables.
  3. Modern Thai largely preserved the original lengths and qualities, but lowered to , which became short /a/ in closed syllables and created a phonemic length distinction . Eventually, length in all other vowels became phonemic as well and a new (both long and short) was introduced, through a combination of borrowing and sound change. Li believes that the development of long from diphthongs, and the lowering of to to create a length distinction , had occurred by the time of Proto-Southwestern-Tai, but the other missing modern Thai vowels had not yet developed.

Note that not all researchers agree with Li. Pittayaporn (2009), for example, reconstructs a similar system for Proto-Southwestern-Tai, but believes that there was also a mid back unrounded vowel (which he describes as ), occurring only before final velar . He also seems to believe that the Proto-Southwestern-Tai vowel length distinctions can be reconstructed back to similar distinctions in Proto-Tai.

See also

Notes

References

  • . 2549. (Stress and Intonation in Thai ) 24 2 ( 2549) 59-76
  • : . 2547. :
  • Diller, Anthony van Nostrand. 2008. The Tai Kadai Languages.
  • Gandour, Jack, Tumtavitikul, Apiluck and Satthamnuwong, Nakarin. 1999. Effects of Speaking Rate on the Thai Tones. Phonetica 56, pp. 123 134.
  • Rischel, J rgen. 1998. 'Structural and Functional Aspects of Tone Split in Thai'. In Sound structure in language, 2009.
  • Tumtavitikul, Apiluck, 1998. The Metrical Structure of Thai in a Non-Linear Perspective . Papers presentd to the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 1994, pp. 53 71. Udom Warotamasikkhadit and Thanyarat Panakul, eds. Temple,Arizona:Program for Southeast Asian Studies, Arizona State University.
  • Apiluck Tumtavitikul. 1997. The Reflection on the X category in Thai . Mon Khmer Studies XXVII, pp. 307 316.
  • . 2539. . 4.57-66.
  • Tumtavitikul, Appi. 1995. Tonal Movements in Thai . The Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Vol. I, pp. 188 121. Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University.
  • Tumtavitikul, Apiluck. 1994. Thai Contour Tones .Current Issues in Sino-Tibetan Linguistics, pp. 869 875. Hajime Kitamura et al., eds, Ozaka: The Organization Committee of the 26th Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics,National Museum of Ethnology.
  • Tumtavitikul, Apiluck. 1993. FO Induced VOT Variants in Thai . Journal of Languages and Linguistics, 12.1.34 56.
  • Tumtavitikul, Apiluck. 1993. Perhaps, the Tones are in the Consonants? Mon Khmer Studies XXIII, pp. 11 41.
  • Higbie, James and Thinsan, Snea. Thai Reference Grammar: The Structure of Spoken Thai. Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2003. ISBN 974-8304-96-5.
  • Nacaskul, Karnchana, Ph.D. ( . ) Thai Phonology, 4th printing. ( , 4) Bangkok: Chulalongkorn Press, 1998. ISBN 978-974-639-375-1.
  • Nanthana Ronnakiat, Ph.D. ( . ) Phonetics in Principle and Practical. ( ) Bangkok: Thammasat University, 2005. ISBN 974-571-929-3.
  • Segaller, Denis. Thai Without Tears: A Guide to Simple Thai Speaking. Bangkok: BMD Book Mags, 1999. ISBN 974-87115-2-8.
  • Smyth, David. Thai: An Essential Grammar. London: Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-22614-7.

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af:Thai ar: az:Tay dili bn: zh-min-nan:Th i-g map-bms:Basa Thai bg: ca:Tailand s cs:Thaj tina da:Thai (sprog) de:Thail ndische Sprache et:Tai keel es:Idioma tailand s eo:Siama lingvo eu:Thailandiera fa: hif:Thai bhasa fr:Tha ga:An T alainnis gv:Thaish gl:Lingua tai hak:Thai-ng xal: ko: ( ) hi: hr:Tajski jezik io:Tai linguo bpy: id:Bahasa Thai is:Ta lenska it:Lingua thailandese he: ( ) jv:Basa Thai kl:Thailandimiutut ka: kk: sw:Kithai kv: lez: lo: la:Lingua Thai lv:Taju valoda lt:Taj kalba hu:Thai nyelv mk: mg:Fiteny thai ml: mr: xmf: arz: ms:Bahasa Thai nl:Thai (taal) ja: no:Thai nn:Thai oc:Tai (lenga) pnb: km: pms:Lenga thai pl:J zyk tajski pt:L ngua tailandesa ro:Limba thailandez qu:Thay simi ru: sa: sco:Thai leid simple:Thai language sk:Thaj ina ckb: sr: fi:Thain kieli sv:Thai ta: ( ) th: tg: tr:Tayca uk: ug: za:Vahdai vi:Ti ng Th i wuu: yo: d Th zh-yue: zh:






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