Tezpur () is a city and the administrative headquarters and municipal board of Sonitpur district in the state of Assam in northeastern India. Tezpur is an ancient city on the banks of the river Brahmaputra and is the largest of the north bank towns with a population exceeding 100,000. It is situated north east of Guwahati.
Origin of the name
The name Tezpur is derived from the Sanskrit words 'Teza' (meaning blood) and 'Pura' (meaning town or city). Legend has it that the original name of this place was 'Sonitpur' ("sonit" in Sanskrit also means blood!) but when the battle between Krishna's army and Banasura's army fought for the rescue of Aniruddha (who was the grandson of Lord Krishna, according to legend) there was so much bloodshed that the whole place was stained in red. This led to the name of the place becoming Tezpur.It is the Seventh largest city of assam after Guwahati, Silchar, Dibrugarh, Jorhat,Nagaon and Tinsukia with a population of 100,477.
Love story of Usha and Anirudha
When you enter Tezpur via the Kaliyabhomora Bridge There is an inscription "Welcome to Tezpur - the city of love". This is based on a traditional love story set in the mythological periods when Tezpur was formed.
Rukmani told Krishna that he had established religion during his incarnation and now he should retire from the incarnation. Krishna said, Before leaving this earth and finish the incarnation, I have to break the ego of Banasurwho is a devotee of Shiva. Shiva, pleased with the devotion of Banasur, protected his town "SONITPUR"himself. Banasur got Shiva s special favour. Shiva s elder son Kartikeya gifted Banasura boon in the form of a divine Peacock as his carriage. Riding on this, Banasur defeated the deities, demi gods and many more. Banasurwas full of pride due to his success and told Shiva, God, no one wants to fight with me; I am upset and want to fight with somebody. Shiva said, The day your wining flag will fall, that day you will get a chance to fight a war. Banasur s daughter Usha was very beautiful and a great devotee of Goddess Parvati. Devi Parvati awarded her a boon that on the night of Baishakh dwadeshi (12th day) the man whom she will see in her dreams will be married to her. That night, she saw Aniruddha in her dreams and was fascinated by him.
Banasur thought that he was immortal and was very proud. Lord Shiva was worried to see his ego and requested Krishna to break his ego. Here, Banasur s wife Vrinda was worried about her daughter Usha s marriage. She trusted Goddess Parvati. Banasur was very happy on getting the boon from Shiva for a fight and decided to organize a swayamvar (a choice of husband made by a princess in public) for his daughter Usha. He announced that the one who will make his winning flag fall, could marry Usha. At this announcement many princes came and tried to drop the flag but no one succeeded. Then Banasur himself walked up to the flag to make it fall but Shiva told him through divine utterance that he could not make his own flag fall. As for the love story of Usha and Aniruddha, Krishna ordered Devarshi Narad to show the right path to Usha who was blindly in love with Aniruddha.Naradji made Usha s feeling for Aniruddha stronger. Usha started having love talks with the painting of Aniruddha made by her friend Chitralekha. Just then Banasurcame and saw her talking that made him very angry. So he threw away the painting. The painting struck with the winning flag and the flag fell down. Banasur remembered Shiva s words and was very happy that now he would get a chance to fight a war. Naradji increased the agitation of love in Usha s mind for Aniruddha. Shri Krishna and Rukmani discussed the love story of Usha and Aniruddha. Banasur sent a threatening message to Krishna and Balram for this lovestory. At this, Balram got angry and decided to fight a war with Banasurbut Krishna told him about Aniruddha s love for Usha and cooled him down. Then Balram went with a proposal for Usha and Aniruddha s marriage to Banasurbut he rejected it.
Usha was bewildered in Aniruddha s love. Seeing this, Chitralekha told her that she could kidnap Aniruddha and get him there. On Usha s instruction, Chitralekhawent and kidnapped Aniruddha to bring him along. Banasursent two illusive spies Chitrasen and Veersen to Dwarka to keep an eye on Aniruddha. Chitralekhawas on her way back along with Aniruddha when she met Chitrasen and Veersen but with her illusive tricks she cheated them and went ahead.
On being asked by Naradji, Shri Krishna told the story of Chitralekha s cursed life: In her previous life, Chitralekha was a heavenly nymph and maid servant of Goddess Parvati and after being defeated by Parvati in the dice game, she took the form of Parvati with her illusive powers and tried to convince Shiva. At this, Goddess Parvati got angry and had cursed her.
Chitralekhareached Dwarka to kidnap Aniruddha. There Shri Krishna stopped her on her way with his Sudarshan Chakra. Chitralekha asked Naradji for help and requested him to give her way through the Chakra. With Krishna s blessings she gained entry in the palace and took away Aniruddha with her. Balram got very angry when he came to know about Aniruddha s kidnapping. Later, Krishna and Rukmani pacified him. Chitralekhagot Aniruddha into Usha s palace quietly saving him from the sight of the guards. Usha was very happy to see Aniruddha.Rukmani was very upset on not finding Aniruddha in his room. Shri Krishna told her the mystery of Aniruddha s kidnap. Banasur s wife Vrinda and secretary Kumand explained him not to fight with Krishna but he was adamant with his love for war and maintained security guards for Usha. Balram was worried for Aniruddha s security. Shri Krishna and Rukmani explained to him not to worry.
Knowing that Aniruddha was in Sonitpur only, Banasur appointed Mayasur who knew illusive tricks to guard Usha. Then Balram killed Mayasur with his mace but Krishna informed him that the Mayasur that he had killed was the illusive Mayasur that was his image.
Here, in Usha s room, Chitralekha warned her to be careful with Banasur. Shri Krishna explained the definition of love to Naradji and said that the time had come to break the ego of Banasur. With Banasur s order Chitralekhatook Usha to the Shiva temple in a Palanquin. Aniruddha also in the disguise of a Kahar (person carrying the palanquin) went along. On searching Usha s room Banasurcame to know that Aniruddha had been successful in running away. He sent his soldiers in all directions to search for Aniruddha and they encircled him outside the temple. Illusive Mayasur appeared and fought with Aniruddha. They fought fiercely and in the end Mayasur was killed by Aniruddha.
After this, Banasurcame and stopped Aniruddha s way. They also fought fiercely. On seeing Aniruddha fighting with Banasur, Balram got very upset. Then Naradji and Krishna explained to him. Banasurand Aniruddha fought an illusive war. In the end, Banasur released such a weapon from which a dangerous snake appeared and captured Aniruddha. At this, Balram got very angry but Shri Krishna made him see his Chaturbhuj form and pacified him.
To protect Aniruddha and break Banasur s ego, Shri Krishna asked for permission from Shiva to fight with Banasur. Usha and Aniruddha succeeded in running away from Banasur s palace. As soon as Banasurcame to know about this, he followed them with his army and a battle was fought between Banasurand Aniruddha. Banasurmade Aniruddha his captive in the war. Here, Krishna asked for permission from Shiva to fight against Banasur.
Banasur ordered for Aniruddha s death as punishment. Shri Krishna and Balram came to Sonitpur for Balram s security. There, Krishna fought with Banasur. Shri Krishna cut off Banasur s thousand hands one by one and tore apart his ego.This bloddshed in this great war led to the naming of "Tezpur"(Tez=blood in assamese). In the end, Krishna wanted to kill him with his Sudarshan Chakra; just then Lord Shiva manifested and protected Banasur. On Shiva, Brahma and Narad s request, Krishna appeared in his Viraat form, then Naradji made Banasur realize the truth that Lord Shiva and Krishna were one. Then Banasursighted the Harihar form, mix of Krishna and Shiva. Banasur apologized for his crime. Shri Krishna forgave him and blessed him.
All the deities got a sight of the Viraat form of Shri Krishna. They felt lucky to get the vision and prayed to him with great devotion.Usha and anirudha then lived a happily married life thereafter in the city of love "Tezpur".
Historical ruins from the 8th and 9th centuries dot the surrounding areas of the city. The ruins of Bamuni Hills are the most famous. They bear resemblance to the Gupta period art. Accordingly there are plenty of myths as well. The ruins of Da Parbatia is a shining example of the architecture around the 4th Century AD.
Modern Tezpur was founded by the British colonial administration in 1835 as the headquarters of Darrang district. During World War II, Tezpur received large numbers of refugees fleeing from Burma, particularly the corps of Anglo-Burmese and Anglo-Indian nurses. After independence of India in 1947, it remained the headquarters of Darrang district. During the Sino-Indian War of 1962 the Chinese army came up to the Tawang city, which is located at Arunachal Pradesh and for that purpose the town had to be evacuated. All Jail gates were opened and prisoners were released. In 1983 a part of the district was carved out to form a separate district, named Darrang. Tezpur was made the headquarters of the new district of Sonitpur.
Tezpur Balipara Light Railway : The existing MG rail line is the oldest on the North Bank, descending from the Tezpur Balipara Light Railway built in 1885 to carry tea from upcountry estates to the then riverport of Tezpur.
Rock inscriptions 829 A.D.: Sir Edward A. Gait ( 1897) had made reference to the nine line inscription of Harjjar Varma in his A History of Assam . The inscription is the first recorded history of Assam and dates back to 829 A.D. The inscription was found engraved on a massive stone some two km away from Tezpur town situated near a temple called Rudrapad.
Hazara Pukhuri : A king of the dynasty Harjjar Varma excavated a large pond in of land, later came to be known as Hajara Pukhuri (Harjjara Pukhuri).
Showing the incident historical at Kankalata Udyan, Tezpur Kanaklata: On 10 September 1942, at Gohpur a young girl named Kanaklata Barua from the village of Barangabri led a procession of unarmed villagers under the Congress flag. As soon as Kanaklata unfurled the flag she and her companion Mukunda Kakati were gunned down by the armed police. Their heroic sacrifice is still remembered with pride. On the same day at Dhekiajuli Police Station eleven unarmed villagers were gunned down by the armed police while trying to hoist the tri-color at the police station. Three teenage girls called Tileswari, Numali and Khahuli killed in this incident are especially commemorated by the locals.
Tezpur is considered to be the cultural capital of Assamese culture. Being from the core Assamese cultural region, the town has produced many stalwarts such as Dr. Bhupen Hazarika, Jyoti Prasad Agarwala (1903 51), Kalaguru Bishnu Prasad Rabha (1909 69), Phani Sarma (1909 70) and Ananda Chandra Agarwala (1874 1939). It is also the birth place of the former Speaker of the Indian Parliament (2004 2009), Somnath Chatterjee.
Bishnu Rabha Smriti Udyan
Kalaguru Bishnuprasad Rabha (1909 69): Bishnuprasad Rabha was born in Dhaka, Bangladesh on January 31, 1909. His father Gopal Chandra Rabha was in the British Police and the family was financially sound. Bishnu Rabha spent his childhood in Dhaka and started his primary education in Bengali medium there. After the primary schooling his family shifted permanatly to Tezpur, Assam. Bishnu Rabha started his high school education in Tezpur Government High School. From the same school he passed out in flying colors and went to Calcutta for higher education. He completed ISC exam successfully from St. Paul's Mission College and joined prestigious Ripon college in Calcutta for Bsc.
Bishnu Rabha was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi those in 1930. He actively participated in the freedom movement and this affected his education. He wrote many slogans and hoisted Indian tricolour falgs in many government buildings in Calcutta. This forced British police to issue non-bailable warrant against him. Bishnu Rabha fled from calcutta to Tezpur and started his activities from there. He led Assam in the freedom movement and parallelly expressing his in born artistic talents. He donated all his inherited 2500 bighas of land to the poor farmers.
On The Other Sides: Popularly known as Kala Guru ( Assamese: ) he himself used to write his name as "BISHNU PRASAD RAVA". He was a multifaceted artist and revolutionary singer of Assam. A doyen of the Arts, from an early stage, he played an active role in the struggle for Indian independence. However, he never joined Indian National Congress. He believed - the Congress is a party of the bourgeoisie and so it's struggle against British imperialism is fraught with compromises. He came to be influenced by left wing ideas and came close to the Communist Party of India. However, when Germany attacked Soviet Union during second world war and the Indian communists decided to work with the British government, a section of the party favoured a different approach - to oppose British imperialism and Fascism simultaneously. So a split happened in the communist party and in 1945 he finally joined the Revolutionary Communist Party of India (RCPI]). In 1951, after the death of Jyoti Prasad Agarwala, he became the president of the Assam branch of Indian Peoples' Theatre Association (IPTA), Comrade Rava was elected as a Member of the Assam Legislative Assembly from Tezpur for the term 1967-72 but untimely he passed away on the 20th June 1969.
Bishnu Rabha always worked for the upliftment of his own society. All his writings, songs, arts are just by product of that. The books wriiten by hime like His achievements like Axomiya Kristir Somu Abhax (An outline of the Assamese culture), Axomiya Kristi (The Assamese culture), and Mukti Deol (The temple of freedom) are reflections of his socialistic notions. His residence is still a cultural hub consisting of a recording studio.website- http://rgoaudio.webs.com/
Jyoti Prasad Agarwalla(1903 51): Known as 'Rupkonwar' (Prince of Beauty) to the Assamese, Agarwala's main artistic and political journey begins in the 1930s. He dedicated himself fully to the freedom movement. He was even jailed for 15 months and fined 500 rupees for his active involvement in the struggle for independence. Meanwhile he kept on working for the artistic and cultural upliftment of the Assamese society.
Jyoti Prasad Agarwala started writing since the age of 14 years only. At that time he wrote down the famous play 'Sonit-Konwari'. For next few years during his student days he wrote many short stories. Agarwala was focused on studying children psychology. He wrote many stories for children. Some other plays written by him are Rupalim, Karengar Ligiri, and Lobhita. Agarwala wrote more than 300 poems and set music to most of them. These songs collection is known as Jyoti Sangeet. It became a new genre of music itself in Assam in later days.
Agarwala is considered the father of Assamese film. He invested huge amount of time and his own money into it. He had a studio called 'Chitrban' set up at the Bholaguri tea estate in Tezpur in 1934. The film 'Joymati' was shot there and released in 1935, starring Phani Sarma (1909 70). In 1939 Agarwala made the second Assamese movie 'Indramalati'. He also built a cinema hall called 'Junaki' opened in Tezpur in 1937. Another contribution of Agarwala is the publication of the newspaper 'Axomiya' from 1944 and onwards. He also established an Assamese music school in Tezpur. The Assamese poet Chandra Kumar Agarwala was his uncle. While Agarwala was in the charge of Tamulbari tea estate of Dibrugarh, the same place where he was born, he suffered from cancer and died merely 48 years old on 17 June 1951. His death anniversary is calebrated as 'Jyoti Divas' in Assam on June 17 every year.
Economy, Transport and Logistics
An Assamese woman using a traditional Handloom for weaving Mekhela Chadors in the Mahila Samiti workshop in Tezpur Economy of Tezpur is dependent on its Tea Gardens. There are many Tea Gardens surrounding the town of Tezpur. The surrounding tea gardens and agriculture contribute to the local economy. Presently Tezpur is a commercial, administrative and educational centre apart from housing a major base of the Indian Army and Airforce (Salonibari).The distance from the state capital Dispur is about 190 kilometres. Tezpur is well connected by Road from Guwahati (Bus Service and Small Cab Service " Winger"). The nearest civilian airport is Saloni -- 8 km from the heart of the city. The town attracts tourists for its scenic beauty. The population is largely of heterogeneous nature. Assamese, Bengali, Nepali, Bihari, Marwari communities form the majority. People from various tribes such as the Tea-tribes (brought in by the colonial planters as indentured labourers from the Chhotanagpur plateau region), Bodos, Mishings etc. have also made it their home. Like other places in Assam, the issue of illegal migration from Bangladesh adds religious spice to the regular political debates and name-calling.Passing through Tezpur,at Dadhara the Jyoti-Bishnu khelpathar is an important attraction.The field belong to Pradip Sarmah of BamunChuburi.The fields are used for various cultural events.
In 1987 the Kolia Bhomora Setu, over the river Brahmaputra, was inaugurated connecting it to the southern district of Nagaon. The bridge is the longest bridge across the river and spans a total length of 3015 metres. It has become a tourist attraction by itself.
Education and Research
Tezpur University Tezpur has a central university (Tezpur University), apart from numerous colleges and schools.It has now received the tag "UNIVERSITY AT PAR EXELLENCE" from UGC (university grants commission). Tezpur also has many school, colleges of very high repute. Darrang college, Tezpur College are the leading colleges.
The Assam Valley School, situated at around 15 km from Tezpur is a very high standard residential school established by Williamson Magor Group. The school was ranked as the 7th best boarding-school in the country in a survey by an independent magazine. Further, it earned national laurel out of the board performance of its once Head Boy, Gaurav Agarwal, who topped the country in the ISC board in 2008-2009 with 98 percent. Gaurav had, in his class X board exams, secured the first rank in northeast India. In general too the school posts high standards in academics.
Other schools viz. Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1, Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2, Army Public School, Don Bosco High School,Sacred Heart High School, St. Joseph's Convent High School, Govt Boys Higher Secondary School, Govt Girls Higher Secondary School, Bengali Boys' H S School, Bengali Girls' High School, Guru Nanak Model School, Tezpur Academy, Children's Paradise School and Carmel Residential School are the leading institutes of education in the town of Tezpur. Situated by the side of the National Highway [NH-37] at Nikamul, Tezpur, Don Bosco High School has been doing exceptionally well in the educational sector producing exceptional results in the High School Leaving Certificate (H.S.L.C) conducted by the Board Of Secondary Education Assam (SEBA).
LGBRIMH (Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi Regional Institute of Mental Health)
Tezpur Medical College
NERIWALM (North Eastern Regional Institute of Water and Land Management)
North East Education (Authorized study center of Mahatma Gandhi University)
- Third Eye College (Study centre of Sikkim Manipal University)
- DOEACC Centre (Formerly CEDTI)
- DRL (Defence Research Laboratory)
- ISI ( Indian Statistical Institute)
New NIIT Mission Chariali Centre, Tezpur
Local areas/sites of interest
Nearby areas of interest
- From Tezpur by road Tawang (12 Hrs) / Bomdila (5 Hrs) / Kaziranga National Park (40 km) / Orang National Park (30 km)/ Nameri National Park (35 km) are very easily accessible.
- For Orchid lovers the Orchid sanctuary nearby i.e. Bhalukpung will be a bonus point for the hundreds of orchid varieties that are cultivated there.
- PAKKE (a Tiger sanctuary) & EAGLENEST (a birding point) are also nearby.
- Moreover the Bharali River is an anglers delight as angling / water rafting are allowed during winter seasons.
- Chariduar also host a number of Tourist Lodge amidst of tea garden.
- ECO camps are also present in Bhalukpung / Nameri .
How to get there
It is well connected by both Air and Road transport. There are direct flight from Calcutta thrice a week and there is daily bus service from Guwahati to Tezpur.
It is only 180 km and both Government and Tourist Buses ply regularly to and fro from Guwahati.
From Tezpur tourist vehicles are available for hire for all nearby destinations like Bhalukpong, Kaziranga.
As for Indian Railways, its really a tragedy, that even after 60 years of Independence they are not able to make their presence felt, this shows the attitude of the Indian mainlanders ( UP/ Bihar/ Bengal and others) towards ASSAM and North East as a whole. Even though it is a major ARMY, AIRFORCE there is no Broadguage Train Line Directly to it. Thus Indian Railways have not contributed in any way to upgrade lives of Tezpurians..socially, economically.
The rivers in and around Tezpur are very fast flowing ones, especially towards the Himalayas foothills. The town is situated beside the river Brahmaputra. Tezpur has a number of small hillocks, so that flooding doesn't occur during the monsoons.
Tezpur is part of Tezpur (Lok Sabha constituency).
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