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Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (), known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States,[1] which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology. TI is the third largest manufacturer of semiconductors worldwide[2] after Intel and Samsung, the second largest supplier of chips for cellular handsets after Qualcomm, and the largest producer of digital signal processors (DSPs) and analog semiconductors, among a wide range of other semiconductor products,[3] including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors.

Texas Instruments was founded in 1951. It emerged after a reorganization of Geophysical Service. This company manufactured equipment for use in the seismic industry as well as defense electronics. TI researched infrared technology in the late 1950s and later made transistors, including the world's first workable silicon transistor, radar systems, guidance and control systems for both missiles and bombs. In 1954, Texas Instruments designed and manufactured the first transistor radio and Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit in 1958 while working at TI's Central Research Labs. The company produced the first integrated circuit-based computer for the U.S. Air Force in 1961. The hand-held calculator was introduced to the world by TI in 1967.

In the 1970s and 80s the company focused on consumer electronics including digital clocks, watches, hand-held calculators, home computers as well as various sensors. In 1997, its defense business was sold to Raytheon. In 2007, Texas Instruments was awarded the Manufacturer of the Year for Global Supply Chain Excellence by World Trade magazine. Texas Instruments is considered to be one of the most ethical companies in the world.[4]

After the acquisition of National Semiconductor in 2011, the company has a combined portfolio of nearly 45,000 analog products and customer design tools,[5] making it the world's largest maker of analog technology components. In 2011, Texas Instruments ranked 175 in the Fortune 500. TI is made up of two main divisions: Semiconductors (SC) and Educational Technology (ET) of which Semiconductor products account for approximately 96 % of TI's revenue.

Contents


History

A sign indicating a Texas Instruments facility in Stafford, Texas, near Houston.
A sign indicating a Texas Instruments facility in Stafford, Texas, near Houston.

Texas Instruments was founded by Cecil H. Green, J. Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott, and Patrick E. Haggerty in 1951. McDermott was one of the original founders of Geophysical Service in 1930. McDermott, Green, and Jonsson were GSI employees who purchased the company in 1941. In November, 1945, Patrick Haggerty was hired as general manager of the Laboratory and Manufacturing (L&M) division. By 1951, the L&M division, with its defense contracts, was growing faster than GSI's Geophysical division. The company was reorganized and initially renamed General Instruments Inc. Because there already existed a firm named General Instrument, the company was rechristened Texas Instruments that same year. Geophysical Service Inc. became a subsidiary of Texas Instruments which it remained until early 1988, when most of GSI was sold to the Halliburton Company.

Geophysical Service Incorporated

In 1930, J. Clarence Karcher and Eugene McDermott founded Geophysical Service, an early provider of seismic exploration services to the petroleum industry. In 1939 the company reorganized as Coronado Corp., an oil company with Geophysical Service Inc (GSI), now as a subsidiary. On December 6, 1941, McDermott along with three other GSI employees, J. Erik Jonsson, Cecil H. Green, and H.B. Peacock purchased GSI. During World War II, GSI expanded their services to include electronics for the U.S. Army, Signal Corps, and the U.S. Navy. In 1951 the company changed its name to Texas Instruments, GSI becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of the new company.

An early success story for TI-GSI came in the 1950s when GSI was able (under a Top Secret government contract) to monitor the Soviet Union's underground nuclear weapons testing from outcrop bedrock found in Oklahoma.

Texas Instruments also continued to manufacture equipment for use in the seismic industry, and GSI continued to provide seismic services. After selling (and repurchasing) GSI, TI finally sold the company to Halliburton in 1988, at which point GSI ceased to exist as a separate entity.

Defense electronics

Texas Instruments entered the defense electronics market in 1942 with submarine detection equipment, based on the seismic exploration technology previously developed for the oil industry. The division responsible for these products was known at different points in time as the Laboratory & Manufacturing Division, the Apparatus Division, the Equipment Group and the Defense Systems & Electronics Group (DSEG).

During the early 80s Texas Instruments instituted a quality program which included Juran training, as well as promoting Statistical process control, Taguchi methods and Design for Six Sigma. In the late 80s, the company, along with Eastman Kodak and Allied Signal, began involvement with Motorola institutionalizing Motorola's Six Sigma methodology.[6] Motorola, who originally developed the Six Sigma methodology, began this work in 1982. In 1992 the DSEG division of Texas Instruments' quality improvement efforts were rewarded by winning the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award for manufacturing.

The following are some of the major programs of the former TI defense group.[7]

Infrared and Radar systems

A Bolt-117, the first laser-guided bomb built by Texas Instruments.
A Bolt-117, the first laser-guided bomb built by Texas Instruments.

In 1956 TI began research on infrared technology that led to several line scanner contracts and with the addition of a second scan mirror the invention of the first forward looking infrared (FLIR) in 1963 with production beginning in 1966. In 1972 TI invented the Common Module FLIR concept, greatly reducing cost and allowing reuse of common components.

TI went on to produce side-looking radar systems, the first terrain following radar and surveillance radar systems for both the military and FAA. TI demonstrated the first solid-state radar called Molecular Electronics for Radar Applications (MERA). In 1976 TI developed a microwave landing system prototype. In 1984 TI developed the first inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). The first single-chip gallium arsenide radar module was developed. In 1991 the Military Microwave Integrated Circuit (MIMIC) program was initiated a joint effort with Raytheon.

Missiles and Laser-guided bombs

In 1961 TI won the guidance and control system contract for the defense suppression AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missile. This led later to the prime on the high-speed anti-radiation missile (AGM-88 HARM) development contract in 1974 and production in 1981.

In 1964 TI began development of the first laser guidance system for precision-guided munitions (PGM) leading to the Paveway series of laser-guided bombs (LGB)s. The first LGB was the BOLT-117.

In 1969 TI won the Harpoon (missile) Seeker contract. In 1986 TI won the Army FGM-148 Javelin fire-and-forget man portable anti-tank guided missile in a joint venture with Martin Marietta. In 1991 TI was awarded the contract for the AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW).

Military computers

Because of TI's research and development of military temperature range (silicon) transistors and integrated circuits (ICs), TI won contracts for the first IC-based computer for the U.S. Air Force in 1961 and for ICs for the Minuteman Missile the following year. In 1968 TI developed the data systems for Mariner Program. In 1991 TI won the F-22 Radar and Computer development contract.

Divestiture to Raytheon

As the defense industry consolidated, TI sold its defense business to Raytheon in 1997 for $2.95 billion. The Department of Justice required that Raytheon divest the TI Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) operations after closing the transaction.[8] The TI MMIC business accounted for less than $40 million in 1996 revenues, or roughly two percent of the $1.8 billion in total TI defense revenues was sold to TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc. Raytheon retained its own existing MMIC capabilities and has the right to license TI's MMIC technology for use in future product applications from TriQuint.[9]

Shortly after Raytheon acquired TI DSEG, Raytheon then acquired Hughes Aircraft from General Motors Raytheon then owned TI's Mercury Cadmium Telluride detector business and Infrared (IR) systems group. In California, it also had Hughes infrared detector and an IR systems business. When again the US government forced Raytheon to divest itself of a duplicate capability, the company kept the TI IR systems business and the Hughes detector business. As a result of these acquisitions these former arch rivals of TI systems and Hughes detectors work together.[10]

Immediately after acquisition, DSEG was known as Raytheon TI Systems (RTIS).[11] It is now fully integrated into Raytheon and this designation no longer exists.

Semiconductors

Early in 1952 Texas Instruments purchased a patent license to produce (germanium) transistors from Western Electric Co., the manufacturing arm of AT&T, for $25,000, beginning production by the end of the year.

On January 1, 1953, Haggerty brought Gordon Teal to the company as a research director. Gordon brought with him his expertise in growing semiconductor crystals. Teal's first assignment was to organize what became TI's Central Research Laboratories (CRL), which Teal based on his prior experience at Bell Labs.

Among his new hires was Willis Adcock who joined TI early in 1953. Adcock, who like Teal was a physical chemist, began leading a small research group focused on the task of fabricating "grown-junction silicon single-crystal small-signal transistors. Adcock later became the first TI Principal Fellow.[12]

First silicon transistor and integrated circuits

In January 1954, M Tanenbaum et al. at Bell Labs created the first workable silicon transistor.[13] This work was reported in the spring of 1954 at the IRE off-the-record conference on Solid State Devices and later published in the Journal of Applied Physics, 26, 686 691(1955). Working independently in April 1954, Gordon Teal at TI created the first commercial silicon transistor and tested it on April 14, 1954. On May 10, 1954 at the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) National Conference on Airborne Electronics, in Dayton, Ohio. Teal also presented a paper, "Some Recent Developments in Silicon and Germanium Materials and Devices," at this conference.[14]

In 1954, Texas Instruments designed and manufactured the first transistor radio. The Regency TR-1 used germanium transistors, as silicon transistors were much more expensive at the time. This was an effort by Haggerty to increase market demand for transistors.

Transistorized
Transistorized "logic" chip, an integrated circuit produced by TI
Jack Kilby, an employee at TI's Central Research Labs, invented the integrated circuit in 1958. Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 and successfully demonstrated the world's first working integrated circuit on September 12, 1958.[15] Six months later Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor (who went on to co-found Intel) independently developed the integrated circuit with integrated interconnect, and is also considered an inventor of the integrated circuit.[16] Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of the integrated circuit.[17] Noyce's chip, made at Fairchild, was made of silicon, while Kilby's chip was made of germanium. In 2008 TI named its new development laboratory "Kilby Labs" after Jack Kilby.[18]

In 2011, Intel, Samsung, LG, ST-Ericsson, Huawei's HiSilicon Technologies subsidiary, Via Telecom and three other undisclosed chipmakers licensed the C2C link specification developed by Arteris Inc. and Texas Instruments.[19]

Standard TTL

Texas Instruments and other brands of 7400 series TTL and CMOS logic.
Texas Instruments and other brands of 7400 series TTL and CMOS logic.
Texas Instruments Speak & Spell using a TMC0280 speech synthesizer.
Texas Instruments Speak & Spell using a TMC0280 speech synthesizer.
TI-30 electronic calculator, 1976
TI-30 electronic calculator, 1976

The 7400 series of transistor-transistor logic (TTL) chips, developed by Texas Instruments in the 1960s, popularized the use of integrated circuits in computer logic. The military grade version of this was the 5400 series.

Microprocessor

Texas Instruments invented the hand-held calculator (a prototype called "Cal Tech") in 1967 and the single-chip microcomputer in 1971, and was assigned the first patent on a single-chip microprocessor (invented by Gary Boone) on September 4, 1973.[20] This was disputed by Gilbert Hyatt, formerly of the Micro Computer Company, in August 1990 when he was awarded a patent superseding TI's. This was over-turned on June 19, 1996 in favor of TI.[21] (Note: Intel is usually given credit with Texas Instruments for the almost-simultaneous invention of the microprocessor.)

First speech synthesis chip

In 1978, Texas Instruments introduced the first single-chip LPC speech synthesizer.[22] In 1976 TI began a feasibility study memory intensive applications for bubble memory then being developed. They soon focused on speech applications. This resulted in the development the TMC0280 one-chip Linear predictive coding (LPC) speech synthesizer which was the first time a single silicon chip had electronically replicated the human voice.[7][23] This was used in several TI commercial products beginning with Speak & Spell which was introduced at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1978. In 2001 TI left the speech synthesis business, selling it to Sensory Inc. of Santa Clara, California.[24]

Consumer electronics and computers

In May 1954, Texas Instruments designed and built a prototype of the world's first transistor radio, and, through a partnership with Industrial Development Engineering Associates (I.D.E.A.) of Indianapolis, Indiana, the 100% solid-state radio was sold to the public beginning in November of that year.

TI continued to be active in the consumer electronics market through the 1970s and 1980s. Early on this also included two digital clock models one for desk and the other a bedside alarm. From this sprang what became the Time Products Division with the LED watches. Though these LED watches enjoyed early commercial success thanks to excellent quality, it was short lived due to poor battery life. LEDs were replaced with LCD watches for a short time but these could not compete because of styling issues, excessive makes and models, and price points. The watches were manufactured in Dallas and then Lubbock Texas. In 1978, Texas Instruments introduced the first single chip speech synthesizer and incorporated it in a product called Speak & Spell, which was later immortalized in the movie E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Several spin-offs, such as the Speak & Read and Speak & Math, were introduced soon thereafter.

In 1979, TI entered the home computer market with the TI99/4, a competitor to such entries as the Apple II, Tandy/RadioShack TRS-80 and the later Atari 400/800 series, Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore 64. It discontinued the TI-99/4A (1981), the sequel to the 99/4, in late 1983 amidst an intense price war waged primarily against Commodore. At the 1983 Winter CES, TI showed models 99/2 and the Compact Computer 40 (CC-40), the latter aimed at professional users. The TI Professional (1983) ultimately joined the ranks of the many unsuccessful DOS and x86-based but non-compatible competitors to the IBM PC. (The founders of Compaq, an early leader in PC compatibles, all came from TI.) The company for years successfully made and sold PC-compatible laptops before withdrawing from the market and selling its product line to Acer in 1997.

Artificial intelligence

Texas Instruments was active in the 1980s in the area of artificial intelligence. It developed and sold the Explorer computer family of LISP machines. For the Explorer a special 32bit LISP microprocessor was developed, which was used in the Explorer II and the TI MicroExplorer (a LISP Machine on a NuBus board for the Apple Macintosh).

Sensors and controls

Texas Instruments was a major OEM of sensor, control, protection, and RFID products for the automotive, appliance, aircraft, and other industries. The S&C division was headquartered in Attleboro, Massachusetts.

In 2006, Bain Capital LLC, a private equity firm, purchased the Sensors & Controls division for $3.0 billion in cash.[25] The RFID portion of the division remained part of TI, transferring to the Application Specific Products business unit of the Semiconductor division, with the newly formed independent company based in Attleboro taking the name Sensata Technologies.

Software

TI sold its software division (along with its main product, the IEF) to Sterling Software in 1997. It is now part of Computer Associates. TI still owns small pieces of software though such as the software for calculators like TI Interactive!. TI also creates a significant amount of target software for its Digital Signal Processors, along with host based tools for creating DSP applications.

Company Divisions

Today, TI is made up of two main divisions: Semiconductors (SC) and Educational Technology (ET).

Semiconductors

Semiconductor products account for approximately 96 percent of TI's revenues. TI's semiconductor-related product areas include digital signal processors in the TMS320 series, high speed digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, power management solutions, and high performance analog circuits.

TI s Wireless Business Unit (WBU) produces wireless solutions for products such as smartphones and eBooks, tablets, consumer electronics and other portable devices. Wireless communications has been a primary focus for TI, with around 50 percent of all cellular phones sold worldwide containing TI chips.

The Mixed Signal Automotive group is a business unit that manufactures mixed signal and analog solutions for transportation and automotive applications. In the power space, this unit produces DC/DC Controllers and Converters, LDOs (Low Dropout Voltage Regulators), Voltage References and Voltage Supervisors. In the networking space, MSA has solutions for CAN and LIN. Safety-related solutions include airbags and anti-lock braking.

Signal Processing

Digital Light Processing is a trademark under which Texas Instruments sells technology regarding TVs, video projectors and digital cinema:[26] on February 2, 2000, Philippe Binant, technical manager of Digital Cinema Project at Gaumont in France, realized the first digital cinema projection in Europe[27] with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by TI.

Another business unit of the Semiconductor division called Application Specific Products (ASP) develops specific products that cater to a broad range of DSP applications, such as digital still cameras, cable modems, Voice over IP (VOIP), streaming media, speech compression and recognition, wireless LAN and gateway products (residential and central office), and RFID.

TI makes a broad range of digital signal processors and a suite of tools called eXpressDSP, used to develop applications on these chips.

Microcontrollers and Processors

Texas Instruments maintains several lines of microcontrollers, including:[28]

  • MSP430: low cost, low power consumption, and general purpose 16-bit MCU for use in embedded applications
  • TMS320C2xxx: 16 and 32 bit MCU family optimized for real-time control applications.
    • C24X: 16 bit, fixed point, 20 to 40 MHz
    • C28X: 32 bit, fixed or floating point, 100 to 150 MHz
  • Stellaris ARM Cortex-M3 based 32-bit MCU family

In the past, TI has also sold microcontrollers based on ARM7 (TMS470) and 8051 cores.

In addition to its microcontrollers, Texas Instruments also produces several multi-core processor lines.

  • OMAP systems-on-chips (SoC's) are designed for low-powered applications, and originally targeted mobile phones. As a rule they contain an ARM application processor (currently Cortex-A8, previously ARM11 or ARM9), a DSP (currently C64x, previously often C55), and sometimes other cores.
  • DaVinci SoC's contain a C64 series DSP core, an ARM9 core for applications processing, and specialized video processing peripherals.

Competitors

TI has always been among the Top 10 of the semiconductor sales leaders. In 2005, TI was number 3, after Intel and Samsung, and ahead of Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. For more information, refer to the Semiconductor sales leaders by year. Some of its main competitors include Microchip Technology, Cypress Semiconductor, Integrated Device Technology, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, and Xilinx.

TI has the largest market share in the analog semiconductor industry which has an estimated market TAM exceeding US$37 Billion. TI is reported to have 14% of the market, leading ahead of competitors ST Microelectronics, Infineon and NXP Semiconductors according to latest reports[29] from Gartner.

Educational technology

Texas Instruments produces a range of calculators, with the TI-30 being one of the most popular early calculators. TI has also developed a line of graphing calculators, the first being the TI-81, and most popular being the TI-83 Plus (with the TI-84 Plus being an updated equivalent).

Texas Instruments calculator community

In the 1990s, with the advent of TI's graphing calculator series, programming became popular among some students. The TI-8x series of calculators (beginning with the TI-81) came with a built-in BASIC interpreter, through which simple programs could be created. The TI-85 was the first TI calculator to allow assembly programming (via a shell called "ZShell"), and the TI-83 was the first in the series to receive native assembly. While the earlier BASIC programs were relatively simple applications or small games, the modern assembly-based programs rival what one might find on a Game Boy or PDA.[30]

Around the same time that these programs were first being written, personal web pages were becoming popular (through services such as Angelfire and GeoCities), and programmers began creating websites to host their work, along with tutorials and other calculator-relevant information. This led to the formation of TI calculator webrings, and eventually a few large communities, including the now-defunct TI-Files, and active ticalc.org.[31]

The TI community reached the height of its popularity in the early 2000s, with new websites and programming groups being started almost daily. In fact, the aforementioned community sites were exploding with activity, with close to 100 programs being uploaded daily by users of the sites. There was also a competition between both sites to be the top site in the community, which helped increase interest and activity in the community.

One of the common unifying forces that has united the community over the years has been the rather contentious relationship with Texas Instruments regarding control over its graphing calculators. TI graphing calculators generally fall into two distinct groups, those powered by the Zilog Z80 and those running on the Motorola 68000 series. Both these lines of calculators are locked by TI to disable use of custom flash applications and custom operating systems (standard applications are however freely usable), through the signing of this software, with checks in the hardware. However, users employed brute force to find the keys and published them in 2009. TI responded by sending invalid DMCA takedown notices, causing the Texas Instruments signing key controversy. However, at least one of the receivers filed a DMCA Section 512 counter-notice, to which TI has not responded, and the keys are now available again. Enthusiasts had already been creating their own operating systems before the finding of the keys, which could be installed with other methods.[32]

In 2007, TI released the TI-Nspire family of calculators, as well as computer software that has similar capabilities to the calculators.

There are many TI calculators still selling without graphing capabilities.[33] The TI-30 has been replaced by the TI-30X IIS. There are some financial calculators for sale on the TI website.

Industry recognition

In 2007, Texas Instruments was awarded the Manufacturer of the Year for Global Supply Chain Excellence by World Trade magazine.[34]

In five consecutive years (2007 through 2011), TI made it to the list of most ethical companies in the world,[35][36][37][38][39] compiled by Ethisphere Institute. TI is the only company to appear in all five years' lists in the Electronics/Semiconductor category.

A more complete list of TI's awards and recognition can be found at the Texas Instruments website.[40]

Acquisitions

  • In 1997, TI acquired Amati Communications for $395 million.[41]
  • In 1998, TI acquired GO DSP.[42]
  • In 1999, TI acquired Libit Signal Processing Ltd. of Herzlia, Israel for approximately $365 million in cash.[43]
  • In 1999, TI acquired Butterfly VLSI, Ltd. for approximately $50 million.[44]
  • In 1999, TI acquired Telogy Networks for $457 million.[45]
  • In 2000, TI acquired Burr-Brown Corporation for $7.6 billion.[46]
  • In 2006, TI acquired Chipcon for approximately $200 million.[47]
  • In 2009, TI acquired Luminary Micro.[48][49]
  • In 2011, TI acquired National Semiconductor

National Semiconductor acquisition

On April 4, 2011, Texas Instruments announced that it has agreed to buy National Semiconductor for $6.5 billion in cash. Texas Instruments will pay $25 per share of National Semiconductor stock. This is an 80% premium over the share price of $14.07 as of April 4, 2011 close. The deal made Texas Instruments the world's largest maker of analog technology components.[50][51][52][53][54] The companies formally merged on September 23, 2011.[55]

Corporate governance

See also

References

Further reading

  • P. Binant, Au coeur de la projection num rique, Actions, 29, 12 13, Kodak, Paris, 2007.
  • T. R. Reid, The chip : how two americans invented the microchip and launched a revolution, Random House Trade Paperbacks, New York, 2001.
  • Nobel lectures, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 2000.

External links

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