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 Tutorials Encyclopedia Videos Books Software DVDs ## Tacit programming

Tacit programming is a programming paradigm in which a function definition does not include information regarding its arguments, using combinators and function composition (but not -abstraction) instead of variables. The simplicity behind this idea allows its use on several programming languages, such as APL and J and especially in stack or concatenative languages, such as PostScript, Forth, Joy, and Factor. Outside of the APL and J communities, tacit programming is referred to as point-free style, or more pithily as pointless programming, because of the lack of explicit arguments, or points.

The key idea in tacit programming is to assist in operating at the appropriate level of abstraction. That is, to translate the natural transformation given by currying:

\hom(A\times B, C) \equiv \hom(A,\hom(B,C))

into computer functions, where the left represents the uncurried form of a function and the right the curried. hom(X,Y) denotes the homomorphisms from X to Y while, A x B denotes the Cartesian product of A and B.

## Examples

### Functional programming

A simple example (in Haskell) is a program which takes a sum of a list. A programmer might define a sum recursively using a pointed (cf. value-level programming) method as:

However by noting this as a fold the programmer could replace this with:

and then the argument is not needed so this can be replaced with

which is point-free.

Another example is the use of the dot operator:

we can simply group

so

Finally to see a complex example imagine a map filter program which takes a list, applies a function to it, and then filters the elements based on a criterion

can be expressed point-free as

### APL family

In J, the same sort of point-free code occurs in a function made to compute the average of a list (array) of numbers: avg=: +/ % # # counts the number of items in the array. +/ sums the items of the array. % divides the sum by the number of items

### Stack-based

In stack-oriented programming languages (and concatenative ones, most of which are stack based), point-free methods are commonly used. For example a procedure to compute the Fibonacci numbers might look like:

/fib {    dup dup 1 eq exch 0 eq or not    {       dup 1 sub fib       exch 2 sub fib       add    } if } def

## References

es:Programaci n t cita

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