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Garden strawberry

The garden strawberry, Fragaria ananassa, is a hybrid species that is cultivated worldwide for its fruit, the (common) strawberry. The fruit (which is not a botanical berry, but an aggregate accessory fruit) is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in prepared foods such as preserves, fruit juice, pies, ice creams, and milkshakes. Artificial strawberry aroma is also widely used in many industrialized food products.

The garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, which was brought from Chile by Am d e-Fran ois Fr zier in 1714.[1]

Cultivars of Fragaria ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, which was the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century.[2]

The strawberry is, in technical terms, an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the "receptacle" that holds the ovaries.[3] Each apparent "seed" (achene) on the outside of the fruit is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it.[3] In both culinary and botanical terms, the entire structure is considered a fruit.[3]

Contents


History

The first garden strawberry was grown in France during the late 18th century.[4] Prior to this wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source for the fruit.

Cultivation

alt=Garden strawberry flower
alt=Garden strawberry flower
Fragaria ananassa 'Gariguette,' a cultivar grown in southern France
Fragaria ananassa 'Gariguette,' a cultivar grown in southern France
Strawberry cultivars vary widely in size, color, flavor, shape, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.[5] Some vary in foliage, and some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female.[6] For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners (stolons) and, in general, distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models, annual plasticulture[7] or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds.[8] A small amount of strawberries are also produced in greenhouses during the off season.[9]

A garden using the plasticulture method
A garden using the plasticulture method
The bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year, fumigated, and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants, usually obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, and irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development. At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground.[7][10] Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings.[7][10] However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for establishment of the plants each year, and because of the increased costs in terms of forming and covering the mounds and purchasing plants each year, it is not always practical in all areas.[10]

The other major method, which uses the same plants from year to year growing in rows or on mounds, is most common in colder climates.[7][8] It has lower investment costs, and lower overall maintenance requirements.[8] Yields are typically lower than in plasticulture.[8]

A third method uses a compost sock. Plants grown in compost socks have been shown to produce significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), flavonoids, anthocyanins, fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, and citric acid than fruit produced in the black plastic mulch or matted row systems.[11] Similar results in an earlier 2003 study conducted by the US Dept of Agriculture, at the Agricultural Research Service, in Beltsville Maryland, confirms how compost plays a role in the bioactive qualities of two strawberry cultivars.[12]

Strawberries are often grouped according to their flowering habit.[5][13] Traditionally, this has consisted of a division between "June-bearing" strawberries, which bear their fruit in the early summer and "ever-bearing" strawberries, which often bear several crops of fruit throughout the season.[13] Research has shown recently that strawberries actually occur in three basic flowering habits: short-day, long-day, and day-neutral. These refer to the day-length sensitivity of the plant and the type of photoperiod that induces flower formation. Day-neutral cultivars produce flowers regardless of the photoperiod.[14]

Strawberries may also be propagated by seed, though this is primarily a hobby activity, and is not widely practiced commercially. A few seed-propagated cultivars have been developed for home use, and research into growing from seed commercially is ongoing.[15] Seeds (achenes) are acquired either via commercial seed suppliers, or by collecting and saving them from the fruit.

Strawberries can also be grown indoors in strawberry pots.

Manuring and harvesting

Harvest Most strawberry plants are now fed with artificial fertilizers, both before and after harvesting, and often before planting in plasticulture.[16]

The harvesting and cleaning process has not changed substantially over time. The delicate strawberries are still harvested by hand.[17] Grading and packing often occurs in the field, rather than in a processing facility.[17] In large operations, strawberries are cleaned by means of water streams and shaking conveyor belts.[18]

Pests

Around 200 species of pests are known to attack strawberries both directly and indirectly.[19] These pests include slugs, moths, fruit flies, chafers, strawberry root weevils, strawberry thrips, strawberry sap beetles, strawberry crown moth, mites, aphids, and others.[19][20]

A number of species of Lepidoptera feed on strawberry plants; for details see this list.

Diseases

Strawberry plants can fall victim to a number of diseases.[21] The leaves may be infected by powdery mildew, leaf spot (caused by the fungus Sphaerella fragariae), leaf blight (caused by the fungus Phomopsis obscurans), and by a variety of slime molds.[21] The crown and roots may fall victim to red stele, verticillium wilt, black root rot, and nematodes.[21] The fruits are subject to damage from gray mold, rhizopus rot, and leather rot.[21] The plants can also develop disease from temperature extremes during winter.[21] When watering your strawberries, be sure to water only the roots and not the leaves, as moisture on the leaves encourages growth of fungus. Ensure that the strawberries are grown in an open area to prevent fungal disease from occurring.

Production trends

Fragaria ananassa 'Chandler,' a short-day commercial cultivar grown in California
Fragaria ananassa 'Chandler,' a short-day commercial cultivar grown in California

World strawberry production in tonnes[22]
Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
USA 1,090,440 1,109,220 1,148,530 1,270,620 1,292,780
Turkey 211,127 250,316 261,078 291,996 299,940
Spain 330,485 269,139 281,240 263,700 275,300
Egypt 128,349 174,414 200,254 242,776 238,432
Korea, South 205,307 203,227 192,296 203,772 231,803
Mexico 191,843 176,396 207,485 233,041 226,657
Japan 190,700 191,400 190,700 184,700 177,500
Poland 193,666 174,578 200,723 198,907 176,748
Germany 173,230 158,658 150,854 158,563 166,911
Russia 227,000 230,400 180,000 185,000 165,000
Italy 143,315 160,558 155,583 163,044 153,875
Morocco 112,000 120,000 130,000 355,020 140,600
Total world 3,973,243 4,001,721 4,136,802 4,596,614 4,366,889

Agronomy

A diorama created from beeswax by Dr. Henry Brainerd Wright at the Louisiana State Exhibit Museum in Shreveport, Louisiana depicts strawberry harvesting. Strawberries are particularly grown in the southeastern portion of the state about Hammond.
A diorama created from beeswax by Dr. Henry Brainerd Wright at the Louisiana State Exhibit Museum in Shreveport, Louisiana depicts strawberry harvesting. Strawberries are particularly grown in the southeastern portion of the state about Hammond.

Strawberries are an easy plant to grow, and can be grown almost anywhere in the world. The best thing to do is to buy a plant in early to middle spring. Place the plant preferably in full sun, and in somewhat sandy soil. Strawberries are a strong plant that will survive many conditions, but, during the time that the plant is forming fruit, it is important for it to get enough water. Strawberries can also be grown as a potted plant, and will still produce fruit.

A strawberry plant will send out shoots in an attempt to propagate a new plant, and, if left alone, it will be successful in doing so, but this shoot can be cut off, and placed wherever you wish to start a new plant.

Uses

In addition to being consumed fresh, strawberries can be frozen, made into preserves, as well as dried and used in prepared foods, such as cereal bars. Strawberries are a popular addition to dairy products, as in strawberry-flavored ice cream, milkshakes, smoothies, and yogurts. Strawberries and cream is a popular dessert, famously consumed at Wimbledon. Depending on area, strawberry pie, strawberry rhubarb pie, or strawberry shortcake are also popular.

Strawberry pigment extract can be used as a natural acid/base indicator due to the different color of the conjugate acid and conjugate base of the pigment.[23]

Strawberries contain fisetin, an antioxidant that has been studied in relation to Alzheimer's disease and to kidney failure resulting from diabetes.[24]

Nutrition

One cup (144 g) of strawberries contains approximately 45 calories (188 kJ) and is an excellent source of vitamin C and flavonoids.[25][26][27]

Category Nutrient Units 1 cup (144 g) whole
Proximates Water g 132
Energy kcal 43
Energy kJ 181
Protein g 0.88
Total lipid (fat) 0.53
Carbohydrate, by difference 10.1
Fiber, total dietary 3.3
Ash 0.62
Minerals Calcium mg 20
Iron 0.55
Magnesium 14
Phosphorus 27
Potassium 240
Sodium 1.44
Zinc 0.19
Copper 0.07
Manganese 0.42
Selenium g 1.01
Vitamins Vitamin C, ascorbic acid mg 82
Thiamin 0.03
Riboflavin 0.1
Niacin 0.33
Pantothenic acid 0.49
Vitamin B-6 0.09
Folate g 25
Vitamin B-12 g 0
Vitamin A, IU IU 39
Vitamin A, RE g RE 4.3
Vitamin E mg ATE 0.20
Lipids Fatty acids, saturated g 0.03
16:0 0.02
18:0 0.006
Fatty acids, monounsaturated 0.075
16:1 0.001
18:1 0.073
Fatty acids, polyunsaturated 0.27
18:2 0.16
18:3 0.11
Cholesterol mg 0
Phytosterols 17
Amino acids Tryptophan g 0.01
Threonine 0.027
Isoleucine 0.02
Leucine 0.045
Lysine 0.036
Methionine 0.001
Cystine 0.007
Phenylalanine 0.026
Tyrosine 0.030
Valine 0.026
Arginine 0.037
Histidine 0.017
Alanine 0.045
Aspartic acid 0.20
Glutamic acid 0.13
Glycine 0.035
Proline 0.027
Serine 0.033

Allergy

Some people experience an anaphylactoid reaction to the consumption of strawberries.[28] The most common form of this reaction is oral allergy syndrome, but symptoms may also mimic hay fever or include dermatitis or hives, and, in severe cases, may cause breathing problems. Some research suggests that the allergen may be tied to a protein involved in the ripening of fruits, which was named Fra a1 (Fragaria allergen1). Homologous proteins are found in birch and apple, which suggests that people may develop cross-reactivity to all three species.

Pineberries]] White-fruited strawberry cultivars, lacking Fra a1, may be an option for strawberry allergy sufferers. Since they lack a protein necessary for normal ripening, they do not produce the flavonoids that turn the mature berries of other cultivars red. They ripen but remain white, pale yellow or "golden", appearing like immature berries; this also has the advantage of making them less attractive to birds. A virtually allergen-free cultivar named 'Sofar' is available.[29][30]

See also

References

Further reading

  • Hancock, J.F. (1999). Strawberries (Crop Production Science in Horticulture). CABI. ISBN 9780851993393

External links

ar: az:Ba iy l yi bn: ca:Maduixot cs:Jahoda da:Jordb r (frugt) de:Gartenerdbeere nv:Dah woozh dsb:Zagrodna s ynica et:Aedmaasikas es:Fragaria ananassa fa: fr:Fraise (fruit) gl:Amorodo hi: hsb:Zahrodna truskalca io:Frago it:Fragola csb: gardow p tr wnica mrj: lt:Bra k lij:Merello ml: my: no:Hagejordb r nn:Hagejordb r pl:Truskawka pt:Morango ru: sa: fi:Puutarhamansikka sv:Jordgubbe th: chr: uk: zh:






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