Text sample from an early 15th century Bible manuscript.
Scribal abbreviations (sigla [plural], siglum and sigil [singular]) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medi val scribes writing in Latin and, later, in Greek and Old Norse. Modern manuscript editing (substantive and mechanical) employs sigla as symbols indicating the location of a source manuscript and to identify the copyist(s) of a work.
Abbreviated writing, via sigla, arose partly from the exigencies of the workable nature of the materials stone, metal, parchment, et cetera employed in record-making, and partly from their availability. Thus, lapidaries, engravers, and copyists made the most of the available writing space. Scribal abbreviations were infrequent when writing materials were plentiful. Consequently, scribes recorded texts in long form. However, by the third and fourth centuries AD, when writing materials were scarce and costly, the scribe-artists became sparing in their use of the limited writing surface when inscribing long texts to record.
During the time of the Roman Republic, several abbreviations, known as sigla (siglum=symbol/abbreviation), were in common use in inscriptions and increased in number during Roman Empire. Additionally, in this period shorthand entered general usage. The earliest western shorthand system known to us is that employed by the Greek historian, Xenophon in the memoir of Socrates, called notae socratae. In late republican times, the (nota = mark) short-hand writing system was developed possibly by Marcus Tullius Tiro, Cicero s amanuensis, in 63 BC in order to record information with fewer symbols; Tironian notes include a shorthand/syllabic alphabet notation different from the Latin minuscule hand and square and rustic capital letters, which is akin to modern stenographic writing systems, and also symbols for whole words or word roots and grammatical modifier marks and could either be used to write whole passages in shorthand or only certain words. In medieval times the symbols to represent words were widely used and the initial symbols, which were as low as 140 according to some sources, were expanded to 14,000 by the Carolingians who used them in conjunction with other abbreviations. However, the alphabet notation had a "murky existence" (C. Burnett) as it was often associated with witchcraft and magic and was eventually forgotten. Interest in it was rekindled by the archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Beckett in the 12th century and later in the 15th, when it was rediscovered by Johannes Trithemius, abbot of the benedictine abbey of Sponheim, in a psalm written entirely in Tironian shorthand and a Ciceronian lexicon, which were discovered in a Benedictine monastery (notae benensis).
To learn the Tironian note system, scribes required formal schooling in some 4,000 symbols; by the Classical period (ca. 7th c. BC AD 5th c.), the number increased to some 5,000 symbols, then to some 13,000 in the medieval period (AD 4th 15th c.); to date, the denotations of some characters remain uncertain. Sigla are mostly for lapidary inscription; in certain late historical periods (e.g. medieval Spain), scribal abbreviations were over-used to the extent that some are indecipherable.
Moreover, in the twenty-first century, sigla are a public matter, because, in re-establishing post Devolution Scots law, the Scottish Parliament must decipher their meaning(s) as used in the old, Latin-language Scottish law codes. Latinists who have not learned the palaeography of the language cannot decipher many of the thirteen thousand medieval sigla used to write these laws.
The identity and usage of abbreviations is not constant but changes from region to region. Scribal abbreviation increased in usage and reached its height in the Carolingian Renaissance (8-10th century). The most common abbreviations, called notae comunes, are encountered across most of Europe, whereas others appear in certain regions. Additionally in legal documents not only legal abbreviations, called notae juris, appear but also capricious abbreviations, which the scribe manufactures to avoid repeating names and places in the document.
Scribal abbreviations can be found in epigraphy, sacred and legal manuscripts, written in Latin or in vulgar (less frequent and fewer abbreviations) calligraphically or not.
In epigraphy, common abbreviations were comprehended in two observed classes:
Latin abbreviations of , , , and .
- The abbreviation of a word to its initial letter;
- The abbreviation of a word to its first consecutive letters, or to several letters, spaced in the word.
These two forms of abbreviation are called "suspensions" (as the scribe suspends the writing of the word). A separate form of abbreviation is by "contraction" and was mostly a Christian usage for sacred words, Nomina Sacra; non-Christian sigla usage usually limited the number of letters the abbreviation comprised, and omitted no intermediate letter. One practice was rendering an over-used, formulaic phrase only as a siglum, e.g. DM for Dis Manibus ( Dedicated to the Manes ); IHS from the first three letters of " "; and RIP for requiescat in pace ( Rest in Peace ), because the long-form written usage of the abbreviated phrase, itself, was rare. According to Trabe, these abbreviations are not really meant to lighten the burden of the scribe but rather to shroud in reverent obscurity the holiest words of the Christian religion.
Another practice was repeating the abbreviation s final consonant a given number of times to indicate a group of as many persons, for example: AVG denoted Augustus , thus, AVGG denoted Augusti duo ; however, lapidaries took typographic liberties with that rule, and, instead of using COSS to denote Consulibus duobus , invented the CCSS form. Still, when occasion required referring to three or four persons, the complex doubling of the final consonant yielded to the simple plural siglum. To that effect, a vinculum (overbar) above a letter or a letter-set also was so used, becoming a universal medieval typographic usage. Likewise the tilde (~), an undulated, curved-end line, came into standard late-medieval usage.
Besides the tilde and macron marks, above and below letters, modifying cross-bars and extended strokes were employed as scribal abbreviation marks used mostly for prefixes and verb, noun, and adjectival suffixes. These typographic abbreviations should not be confused with the phrasal abbreviations: i.e. (id est that is ); loc. cit. (loco citato in the passage already cited ); viz. (vide licet namely , that is to say , in other words formed with vi and the yogh-like glyph [ ], the siglum for the suffix -et and the conjunction et), and et cetera.
Moreover, besides scribal abbreviations, ancient texts also contain variant typographic characters, including digraphs (e.g. , , etc.), the long s ( ), and the half r, resembling an Arabic number two ( 2 ). The u and v characters originated as scribal variants for their respective letters, like-wise the i and j pair. Modern publishers printing Latin-language works replace variant typography and sigla with full-form Latin spellings; the convention of using u and i for vowels and v and j for consonants is a late typographic development.
Scribal sigla in modern use
Some ancient and medieval sigla are still used in English and other European languages; the Latin ampersand (&), replaces the conjunctions and in English, et in Latin and French, and y in Spanish (though its use in Spanish is frowned upon, since the y is already smaller and easier to write). The Tironian sign , resembling the number seven ( 7 ), represents the conjunction et, and is written only to the x-height; in current Irish language usage, this siglum denotes the conjunction and. (See Tironian notes.) Other scribal abbreviations in modern typographic use are: the percentage sign (%), from the Italian per cento ( per hundred ); the permille sign ( ), from the Italian per mille ( per thousand ); the pound sign ( , and #, all descending from or lb, librum); and the dollar sign ($), which derives from the Spanish word Peso. The commercial at symbol (@), denoting at the rate of , is a ligature derived from the English preposition at; it became widely known internationally only when it was made part of e-mail addresses.
Typographically, the ampersand (&), representing the word et, is a space-saving ligature of the letters e and t , its component graphemes. Since the establishment of movable-type printing in the fifteenth century, founders created many such ligatures for each set of record type (font) in order to communicate much information with fewer symbols. Moreover, during the Renaissance (ca. 14th 17th c.), when Ancient Greek-language manuscripts introduced that tongue to Western Europe, its scribal abbreviations were converted to ligatures, in imitation of the Latin scribal writing to which readers were accustomed. Later, in the sixteenth century, when the culture of publishing included Europe s vernacular languages, Gr co Roman scribal abbreviations disappeared an ideologic deletion ascribed to the anti-Latinist Protestant Reformation (1517 1648).
Church Slavonic]] After the invention of printing, manuscript copying abbreviations continued to be employed in the Church Slavonic language and today remain in use in printed books as well as on icons and inscriptions. Many common long roots as well as nouns describing sacred persons are abbreviated and written under the special diacritic symbol titlo, as shown in the figure at the right. This corresponds to the Nomina sacra (Latin: "Sacred names") tradition of using contractions for certain frequently occurring names in Greek ecclesiastical texts. However, sigla for personal nouns are restricted to "good" beings and the same words, when referring to "bad" beings are spelled out; for example, while "God" in the sense of the one true God is abbreviated as , "god" referring to "false" gods is spelled out; likewise, while the word for "angel" is generally abbreviated as , angels is spelled out for performed by evil angels in Psalm 77.
Adriano Cappelli, author of lexicon abbreviarum: dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane, enumerates the various mediaeval brachigraphic signs found in Latin and Italian vulgar texts, which originate from the Roman sigla (a symbol to express a word) and notae Tironianae. Quite rarely abbreviations did not carry marks to indicate an abbreviation has occurred: if they did they were often copying errors. For example, e.g. is written with dots, but modern terms, such as PC , may be written uppercase instead.
It should be noted that the original manuscripts were not written in a modern sans-serif or serif font, but in roman capitals, rustic, uncial, insular, Carolingian or blackletter styles. For more refer to Western calligraphy or a beginner's guide.
Additionally, abbreviation varied across Europe. In Nordic texts for instance two runes were used in text written in the Latin alphabet, which are for f cattle, goods and for ma r man .
Cappelli divides abbreviations into 6 overlapping categories:
- by suspension (troncamento)
- by contraction (contrazione)
- with independent meaning (con significato proprio)
- with relative meaning (con significato relativo)
- by nested letters (per lettere sovraposte)
- by convention (segni convenzionali)
Examples for suspension type These are terms where only the first part is written, whilst the last part is substituted by a mark, which can be of two types:
- indicating there has been an abbreviation but not how. These marks are placed above or across the ascender of the letters.
- The final three of this series are knot-like and are used in papal or regal documents.
- indicate that a truncation has occurred
- The third case is a stylistic alternative found in several fonts, here Andron (Unicode chart extended D).
The largest class of these are single letters standing for a word starting with that letter.
A dot at the baseline following a capital letter may stand for a title if used in front of names, a person's name in mediaeval legal documents or other. However not all sigla use the beginning of the word. 150px
For plural words, the sigla often is doubled, e.g. F. = frater and FF. = fratres. Often tripled sigla stand for three, e.g. DDD = domini tres.
Letters which are lying on their side or mirrored often indicate female titles, however, a mirrored C, , stands generally for con or contra (the latter sometimes with a macron above, ).
To avoid confusion with abbreviations and numerals the latter are often written with a bar above, however in some contexts numbers with a line above indicate that number times a thousand whilst others several abbreviations have a line above, such as (Greek letters chi+rho) = Christus or IHS = Jesus, the latter two for a special case of abbreviations known as nomina sacra.
From the 8 9th century, single letters sigla were less common and longer less ambiguous ones were used with bars above.
Abbreviations by contractions have one or more middle letters omitted and were often represented with a general mark of abbreviation (above) such as a line above. These can be divided into two subtypes.
- Pure contractions keep only the first (one or more) and last (one or more) letters but not letters in between. A special case of these is when they keep only the first and last letter resulting in a 2-letter sigla.
- Mixed contractions keep one or more intermediate letters.
Marks with independent meaning
Examples of independent marks These marks inform the reader of the identity of the missing part of the word independently of its meaning. Some of them may be interpreted as contextual alternative glyphs of the respective letters.
- The straight or curved macron above a letter means that an n or m is missing. A remnant of this can be seen in Spanish where an n with a tilde ( ) is used for . In Visigoth texts before the 9th century, however, a dot is placed above the macron to indicate m , without a dot meaning n . The line with dot became the general mark after the 9th century in Visigoth texts.
- A mark that looks like the Arabic numeral 9 or a mirrored C in gothic texts is one of the oldest signs and can be found in the texts of Marcus Valerius Probus and Tironian notes with the same meaning of con.
- Another mark, similar to a bold comma placed after the letter on the median line represented us or os, generally at the end of the word being the nominative case affix of the second declension, sometimes is or simply s. The apostrophe used today originated from various marks in sigla, hence its current use in elision, such as in the Saxon genitive.
- A wave-like or omicron-like mark stands for a missing r (rhotic consonant) or ra. Sometimes a similar wave-like mark at the end of a word indicated a missing -a or syllable ending in -a. This is, however, a coincidence as one of these marks stems from a small r -like mark and the other from an a -like. In later texts this became a diaeresis (two dots) or a broken line.
- A mark resembling the Arabic numeral 2 and placed on the median line after the letter indicates tur or ur, which occur generally at the end of the word. Alternatively it could stand for ter or er but not at the end of the word. (Nordic languages, such as Old English, has a lightning bolt like mark for words ending in er.)
- The r rotunda with a cut generally stood for rum, but could also stand for a truncation after an r.
- A last mark, which could either be 7 -like (see and written in gaelic (agus)) or the ampersand & , was used equally as the conjunction et (and) or as et in any part of the word. The 7 -like symbol at the end of a word refers to the enclitic -que (and). A corruption occurs in some manuscripts between the us / os mark and this one.
Marks with relative meaning
Examples for relative marks The meaning of these marks depends on the letter they are on.
- A macron that is not fully above the character but crosses the descender or ascender. Specifically these are:
- b , b bre-, ber-, -ub
- c (with a link on the right) cum, con, cen-
- con mark (above) quondam
- d , d de-, der, -ud (a crossed d , i.e. , either with a straight or uncial (curved) ascender, is a Nordic letter called eth and usually represents a voiced dental fricative)
- h , h haec, hoc, her
- l vel, ul-, -el
- m (above) mem-, mun-
- n (above) non, nun-
- o (crossed horizontally, not Danish ) oblit
- p per, par-, por-
- p (above) prae, pre- (alternatively a mark similar to -us comma above, but with little spiral glyph, could be used for this meaning, also valid for above q )
- p p (above) or p p (below) propter, papa
- q qui and, in Italy, que, but in England quam, quia
- q above quae
- q q (above) or q q (below) quoque
- q (tilde above and line below) quam
- t ter-, tem-, ten-
- , v (above) ven-, ver, -vit
- A dot, two dots, comma and dot (different than a semicolon), and the Arabic numeral 3 -like mark were generally at the end of a word on the baseline. After b they mean -us (semicolon-like and 3-like also could mean -et). After q they for the conjunction -que (meaning and but attached to the end of the last world) with semicolon-like and 3 -like the q could be omitted. Semicolon-like, in Lombard documents, above s meant -sis. The dot above median line on an h hoc. Dot above u ut or uti. The 3 -like could mean -est, or after a , e , u vowels meant -m not us or ei, if after an o it meant -nem. In certain papers the 3 -like mark can be confused with a cut r rotunda (handwritten 4 -like).
- A dot to the left and right of a letter gave the following meanings: e .e. est, i .i. idest, n .n. enim, q .q. quasi, s .s. scilicet, t .t. tune, 9 -like (con) quondam, 7 -like (et) . . etiam.
- A diagonal line, often hooked, mark crossing nearly all the letters gives a different meaning. Commonly a missing er, ar, re. Variants of which were placed above and were -like, tilde (crossing ascender) and similar to the us mark. These in combination gave additional meanings.
- 2 -like mark, after a q q quia. After 15th century alone et (being similar to 7 -like ) and alone with line above etiam. After u and a at the end of a word ( u , a ) m, after s s , et or ed.
Stacked or nested letters
A superscript letter generally referred to the letter missing, but in some instances, in the case of vowel letters, it may refer to a missing vowel and r before or after it. Note that only in English r before consonants is silent and the preceding vowel is r-colored .
However, a , i , and o above g meant g gna, g gni and g gno respectively. This may seem counter-intuitive to an English speaker where the g is silent in gn, but in other languages it is not. Vowel letters above q meant qu + vowel: q , q , q , q , q .
- a on r : r regula
- o on m : m modo
Vowels were the most common superscripts, but consonants could be placed above letters without ascenders, too, the most common being c , e.g. n . A cut l above an n , n , meant nihil for instance.
These marks are non alphabet letters with a particular meaning, several of which have survived to this day such as the monetary symbols. Unicode calls them letter-like glyphs. Additionally, several authors believe roman numeral for example were nothing but abbreviations of the words of those numbers. Another examples of not-fully lost symbols are alchemical symbol and zodiac symbols, which were used rarely (only in alchemy and astrology texts).
In addition to the signs used to signify abbreviations, other features of medieval manuscripts, which are not sigla, are:
Unicode encoding of abbreviation marks
In the Unicode Standard v. 5.1 (4 April 2008), 152 medieval and classical glyphs were given specific locations outside of the deprecated private use group. Specifically, they are located in the charts Combining Diacritical Marks Supplement (26 chars.), Latin Extended Additional (10 chars.), Supplemental Punctuation (15 chars.), Ancient Symbols (12 chars.) and especially Latin Extended-D (89 chars.). These consist in both precomposed characters and modifiers for other characters, called combining diacritical marks, (e.g. writing in LaTeX or using overstrike in MS Word). Note about terminology: Characters are the smallest components of written language that have semantic value , while glyphs are the shapes that characters can have when they are rendered or displayed 
Examples of Latin abbreviations from 8-9th century across Europe
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