Samoan (Gagana S moa, (pronounced ) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the independent country of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa. It is an official language alongside English in both jurisdictions. Samoan, a Polynesian language, is the first language for most of the Samoa Islands' population of about 246,000. With many Samoan people living in other countries, the total number of speakers worldwide is estimated at 370,000. The language is notable for the phonological differences between formal and informal speech as well as a ceremonial form used in Samoan oratory.
Samoan is a member of the Austronesian family, and more specifically the Samoic branch of the Polynesian subphylum. It is closely related to other Polynesian languages with many shared cognate words such as ali'i, 'ava, atua, tapu and numerals as well as in the name of gods in mythology.
Linguists differ somewhat on the way they classify Samoan in relation to the other Polynesian languages. The "traditional" classification, based on shared innovations in grammar and vocabulary, places Samoan with Tokelauan, the Polynesian outlier languages and the languages of Eastern Polynesia, which include Rapanui, M ori, Tahitian and Hawaiian. Nuclear Polynesian and Tongic (the languages of Tonga and Niue) are the major subdivisions of Polynesian under this analysis. A revision by Marck reinterpreted the relationships among Samoan and the outlier languages. In 2008 an analysis, of basic vocabulary only, from the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database is contradictory in that while in part it suggests that Tongan and Samoan form a subgroup, the old subgroups Tongic and Nuclear Polynesian are still included in the classification search of the database itself.
All Polynesian languages show strong similarity, particularly in vocabulary. The vowels are often stable in the descendant languages, nearly always a, e, i, o and u. The legendary homeland of the M ori of New Zealand, where w is used instead of v, is Hawaiki; in the Cook Islands, where h is replaced with the glottal stop, it is Avaiki; in the Hawaiian Islands, where w is used and k is replaced with the glottal stop, the largest island of the group is named Hawai i; in Samoa, where s has not been substituted by h, v is used instead of w, and k is replaced with the glottal stop, the largest island is called Savai'i. In the Society Islands, k and ng are replaced by the glottal stop, so the name for the ancestral homeland is pronounced Havai i.
There are approximately 370,000 Samoan speakers worldwide, 69 per cent of whom live in the Samoan Islands. Thereafter, the greatest concentration is in New Zealand, where people of Samoan ethnicity comprise the largest group after New Zealand European, M ori, and Chinese: the 2006 New Zealand census recorded 95,428 speakers of the Samoan language, and 141,103 people of Samoan ethnicity. Among ethnic Samoans in New Zealand, 70.5 percent of the Samoan speakers (87,109 people) could speak Samoan. Samoan is the 4th most commonly spoken language in New Zealand after English, Maori, and Chinese. The majority of Samoans in New Zealand (66.4 per cent) reside in the commercial capital, Auckland. Of those who speak S moan, 67.4 percent live in Auckland, and 70.4 percent of people who are both of Samoan ethnicity and Samoan speakers live in that city.
According to the Australian census of 2006, there were 38,525 speakers of Samoan in Australia, and 39,992 people of Samoan ancestry.
Samoan Language Week (Vaiaso o le Gagana S moa) is an annual celebration of the language in New Zealand supported by the government and various organisations including UNESCO. Samoan Language Week was started in Australia for the first time in 2010.
Sentences have different types of word order and the four most commonly used are verb subject object (VSO), verb object subject (VOS), subject verb object (SVO) and object verb subject (OVS).
For example:- The girl went to the house. (SVO); girl (subject), went (verb), house (object).
Samoan word order;
Sa alu le teine 'i le fale.; sa alu (verb), teine (subject), fale (object).
Sa alu 'i le fale le teine.
Le fale sa alu 'i ai le teine.
Le teine sa alu 'i le fale.
Like many Austronesian languages, Samoan has separate words for inclusive and exclusive we, and distinguishes singular, dual, and plural. The root for the inclusive pronoun may occur in the singular, in which case it indicates emotional involvement on the part of the speaker.
|First person exclusive
||a u , ou
||m ua, m
|First person inclusive
||t ua, t
||ia / na
In formal speech, fuller forms of the roots m -, t -, and l - are im -, it -, and il -.
The definite article is le: o le Atua, God; indefinife e.g., o le ali i Pai, (the) chief (named) Pai. It is sometimes used where English would require the indefinite article: Ua tu mai le va a, a canoe appears. The article se is always a singular indefinite (ta mai se la au = cut me a stick), while "ni" is the plural indefinite ("ta mai ni la'au" = cut me some sticks). The article "le" is omitted before plural nouns: O le tagata, the man; O tagata, men.
Names of natural objects, such as men, trees and animals, are mostly primitive nouns, e.g. O le la, the sun; o le tagata, the man; o le talo, taro; o le i a, the fish; also manufactured articles, such as matau, an axe, va a, canoe, tao, spear, fale, house, etc.
Some nouns are derived from verbs by the addition of either ga, saga, taga, maga, or aga: such as tuli, to drive; tuliga, a driving; lulu u, to fill the hand; lu utaga, a handful; anu, to spit; anusaga, spittle; tanu, to bury; tanumaga, the part buried. These verbal nouns have an active participial meaning; e.g. O le faiga o le fale, the building of the house. Often they refer to the persons acting, in which case they govern the next noun in the genitive with a; O le faiga a fale, contracted into o le faiga fale, those who build the house, the builders. In some cases verbal nouns refer to either persons or things done by them: O le faiga a talo, the getting of taro, or the party getting the taro, or the taro itself which has been got. The context in such cases decides the meaning. Sometimes place is indicated by the termination; such as tof , to sleep; tof ga, a sleeping-place, a bed. O le ta elega is either the bathing-place or the party of bathers. The first would take o after it to govern the next noun, O le ta elega o le nu u, the bathing-place of the village; the latter would be followed by a, O le ta elega a teine, the bathing-place of the girls.
Sometimes such nouns have a passive meaning, such as being acted upon; O le taomaga a lau, the thatch that has been pressed; o le faupu ega a ma a, the heap of stones, that is, the stones which have been heaped up. Those nouns which take aga are rare, except on Tutuila; gata aga, the end; amata aga, the beginning; ola aga, lifetime; misa aga, quarrelling. Sometimes the addition of ga makes the signification intensive; such as ua and timu, rain; uaga and timuga, continued pouring (of rain).
The simple form of the verb is sometimes used as a noun: tatalo, to pray; o le tatalo, a prayer; poto, to be wise; o le poto, wisdom.
The reciprocal form of the verb is often used as a noun; e.g. O le fealofani, o femisaiga, quarrellings (from misa), fe umaiga; E lelei le fealofani, mutual love is good.
A few diminutives are made by reduplication, e.g. pa'apa'a, small crabs; pulepule, small shells; liilii, ripples; 'ili'ili, small stones.
Adjectives are made into abstract nouns by adding an article or pronoun; e.g. lelei, good; o le lelei, goodness; silisili, excellent or best; o lona lea silisili, that is his excellence or that is his best.
Many verbs may become participle-nouns by adding ga; as sau, come, sauga; e.g. O lona luai sauga, his first coming; mau to mauga, O le mauga muamua, the first dwelling.
Gender is sometimes expressed by distinct names:
O le ali i, a chief.
O le tam loa, a man.
O le tama, a boy.
O le po a, a male animal.
O le toea ina, an elderly man.
sole, colloquial male label.
O le tamaita i, a lady.
O le fafine, a woman.
O le teine, a girl.
O le manu fafine, a female animal.
O le lo omatua, an elderly female.
suga, funa, colloquial female label.
When no distinct name exists, the gender of animals is known by adding po a and fafine respectively. The gender of some few plants is distinguished by tane and fafine, as in o le esi tane; o le esi fafine. No other names of objects have any mark of gender.
The singular number is known by the article with the noun; e.g. o le tama, a boy.
Properly there is no dual. It is expressed by omitting the article and adding numbers e lua for things e.g. e to'alua teine, two girls, for persons; or o fale e lua, two houses; o tagata e to'alua, two persons; or o l 'ua, them/those two (people).
The plural is known by:
- the omission of the article; o ulu, breadfruits.
- particles denoting multitude, as au, vao, mou, and mo u, and such plural is emphatic; o le au i a, a shoal of fishes; o le vao tagata, a forest of men, i.e., a great company; o le mou mea, a great number of things; o le motu o tagata, a crowd of people. These particles cannot be used indiscriminately; motu could not be used with fish, nor au with men.
- lengthening, or more correctly doubling, a vowel in the word; tuafafine, instead of tuafafine, sisters of a brother. This method is rare.
Plurality is also expressed by internal reduplication in Samoan verbs (-CV- infix), by which the root or stem of a word, or part of it, is repeated.
||'he/she walks' (singular)
||'they walk' (plural)
||'he/she loves' (singular)
||'they love' (plural)
||(Moravcsik 1978, Broselow and McCarthy 1984)
||le tam loa
||'the man' (singular)
Possessive relations are indicated by the particles a or "o". Possessive pronouns also have a-forms and o-forms: lou, lau, lona, lana, lo and la matou, etc. Nineteenth century writers like Platt were unable to understand the underlying principles governing the use of the two forms: "There is no general rule which will apply to every case. The governing noun decides which should be used; thus O le poto o le tufuga fai fale, "the wisdom of the builder"; O le amio a le tama, "the conduct of the boy"; upu o f gogo, "words of f gogo" (a form of narrated and sung storytelling); but upu a tagata, "words of men." Pratt instead gives a rote list of uses and exceptions:
O is used with:
- Nouns denoting parts of the body; fofoga o le ali i, eyes of the chief. So of hands, legs, hair, etc.; except the beard, which takes a, lana ava; but a chief's is lona soesa. Different terms and words apply to chiefs and people of rank and status according to the 'polite' variant of the Samoan language, similar to the 'polite' variant in the Japanese language.
- The mind and its affections; o le to asa o le ali i, the wrath of the chief. So of the will, desire, love, fear, etc.; O le mana o o le nu u, the desire of the land; O le mata u o le tama, the fear of the boy.
- Houses, and all their parts; canoes, land, country, trees, plantations; thus, pou o le fale, posts of the house; lona fanua, lona na u, etc.
- People, relations, slaves; o ona tagata, his people; o le faletua o le ali i, the chief's wife. So also of a son, daughter, father, etc. Exceptions; Tane, husband; ava, wife (of a common man), and children, which take a; lana, ava, ma, ana, f nau.
- Garments, etc., if for use; ona ofu. Except when spoken of as property, riches, things laid up in store.
A is used with:
- Words denoting conduct, custom, etc.; amio, masani, tu.
- Language, words, speeches; gagana, upu, fetalaiga, afioga; O le upu a le tama.
- Property of every kind. Except garments, etc., for use.
- Those who serve, animals, men killed and carried off in war; lana tagata.
- Food of every kind.
- Weapons and implements, as clubs, knives, swords, bows, cups, tattooing instruments, etc. Except spears, axes, and oso (the stick used for planting taro), which take o.
- Work; as lana galuega. Except faiva, which takes o.
Some words take either a or o; as manatu, taofi, O se tali a Matautu, an answer given by Matautu; o se tali o Matautu, an answer given to Matautu.
- Nouns denoting the vessel and its contents do not take the particle between them: o le ato talo, a basket of taro; o le fale oloa, a house of property, shop, or store-house.
- Nouns denoting the material of which a thing is made: O le tupe auro, a coin of gold; o le va a ifi, a canoe of teak.
- Nouns indicating members of the body are rather compounded with other nouns instead of being followed by a possessive particle: O le mataivi, an eye of bone; o le isu va a, a nose of a canoe; o le gutu sumu, a mouth of the sumu (type of fish); o le loto alofa, a heart of love.
- Many other nouns are compounded in the same way: O le apaau tane, the male wing; o le pito pou, the end of the post.
- The country or town of a person omits the particle: O le tagata S moa, a man or person of Samoa.
- Nouns ending in a, lengthen (or double) that letter before other nouns in the possessive form: O le sua susu; o le maga ala, or maga a ala, a branch road.
- The sign of the possessive is not used between a town and its proper name, but the topic marker 'o is repeated; thus putting the two in apposition: O le a ai o Matautu, the commons of Matautu.
Some adjectives are primitive, as umi, long; poto, wise. Some are formed from nouns by the addition of a, meaning "covered with" or "infested with"; thus, ele ele, dirt; ele elea, dirty; palapala, mud; palapal , muddy.
Others are formed by doubling the noun; as pona, a knot; ponapona, knotty; fatu, a stone; fatufatu, stony.
Others are formed by prefixing fa a to the noun; as o le tu fa'asamoa, Samoan custom or fa'amatai. Like ly in English, the fa a often expresses similitude; o le amio fa apua a, behave like a pig (literally). In one or two cases a is prefixed; as apulupulu, sticky, from pulu, resin; avanoa, open; from v and noa. Verbs are also used as adjectives: o le ala faigat , a difficult road; o le vai tafe, a river, flowing water; o le la au ola, a live tree; also the passive: o le ali i m ta utia. Ma is the prefix of condition, sae, to tear; masae, torn; as, O le i e masae, torn cloth; Goto, to sink; magoto, sunk; o le va a magoto, a sunken canoe. A kind of compound adjective is formed by the union of a noun with an adjective; as o le tagata lima m losi, a strong man, literally, the stronghanded man; o le tagata loto vaivai, a weak-spirited man. Nouns denoting the materials out of which things are made are used as adjectives: o le mama auro, a gold ring; o le fale ma a, a stone house. Or they may be reckoned as nouns in the genitive. Adjectives expressive of colours are mostly reduplicated words; as sinasina' or "pa'epa'e" (white); uliuli (black); samasama (yellow); ena ena'" (brown); mumu" (red), etc.; but when they follow a noun they are usually found in their simple form; as o le ie sina, white cloth; o le pua a uli, a black pig. The plural is sometimes distinguished by doubling the first syllable; as sina, white; plural, sisina; tele, great; pl. tetele. In compound words the first syllable of the root is doubled; as maualuga, high; pl. maualuluga. Occasionally the reciprocal form is used as a plural; as lele, flying; o manu felelei, flying creatures, birds.
Comparison is generally effected by using two adjectives, both in the positive state; thus e lelei lenei, a e leaga lena, this is good but that is bad, not in itself, but in comparison with the other; e umi lenei, a e puupuu lena, this is long, that is short. The superlative is formed by the addition of an adverb, such as matu , tasi, sili, silisili ese a ia i, na u ; as ua lelei tasi, it alone is good that is, nothing equals it. Ua matu silisili ona lelei, it is very exceedingly good; ua tele na u , it is very great. Silisili ese, highest, ese, differing from all others. Naua has often the meaning of too much ; ua tele naua, it is greater than is required.
Formal versus colloquial register
The language has a polite or formal variant used in oratory and ceremony as well as in communication with elders, guests, people of rank and strangers.
The consonant system of colloquial Samoan ("casual Samoan," or "tautala leaga" as it is known) is slightly different from the literary language ("proper Samoan," or "tautala lelei"), and is referred to as K speech or K style. In colloquial speech, defined as taking place in casual social situations among intimates or in the home among familiars of equivalent social rank, /t/ is sometimes pronounced [k], and /n/ has merged with / / as [ ]. /l/ is pronounced following a back vowel (/a, o, u/) and preceding an /i/. /s/ is less sibilant than in English. /h/ and /r/ are found only in borrowings, and /s/ and /l/ are sometimes substituted for them.
Therefore, in colloquial Samoan speech, common consonant replacements occur such as;
t is pronounced k --. tama (child, boy) is pronounced kama; tautala' ("to speak") is pronounced kaukala; 'tul fale ("orator," "talking chief") is pronounced 'kul fale n is pronounced ng fono ("meeting," "assembly") is pronounced '"fongo; ono (the numeral "six") is pronounced ongo'; "m 'ona ("satisfied," "full") is pronounced "m 'onga"
Historically and culturally, an important form of the Samoan language is oratory, a ceremonial language sometimes referred to in publications as 'chiefly language', or "gagana fa'aaloalo" ("dignified language") which incorporates classical Samoan terms and prose as well as a different set of vocabulary, which is tied to the roles of orator chiefs (tul fale) and 'speechmaking' (fail uga) that remains part of the culture's continuing indigenous matai system of governance and social organization. The gagana fa'aaloalo (polite speech) register is used by lower ranking people to address people of higher status, such as their family matai chief, government officials, or clergy. It is also the formal register used among chiefs during ceremonial occasions and social rites such as funerals, weddings, chiefly title bestowals and village council meetings. It is not common for entire conversations to be held in chiefly register, instead the "dignified language" is mainly employed when making formal introductions between individuals, opening and concluding formal meetings, and executing ceremonial tasks (such as kava ceremonies). It is also considered proper to use the "polite" language when praying. Untitled people (those without matai chief titles) who are unfamiliar with each other will often greet each other in chiefly register as a common courtesy, while familiar individuals frequently use chiefly addresses in jest (as in humorously addressing friends with "talofa lava lau afioga" "respectful greetings your highness" instead of the more colloquial "malo sole!" "hey man!").
Examples of "polite" word variants according to social rank:
||In relation to a "High Chief"
||In relation to a "Talking Chief"
||In relation to a "Tufuga" artisan/builder
||lau susuga, lau afioga
||t lofa, m lo
||susu mai, afio mai
||maliu mai, sosopo mai
||tausami, talisua, talialo
||'au'au, fa'amalu, penapena
||loa, lagi, lagomau, 'oli'olisaga
||agatonu, fanua, uta, lupesina, l tasi
||agatonu, fanua, uta, lupesina, l tasi
|to meet, to receive a guest
||malelega, saunoaga, tuleiga, t noa
||fetalaiga, lafolafoga, moe, tu'u
||oti, mate, maliu
|to look, to see
Another polite form of speech in "polite" Samoan includes terms and phrases of self-abasement that are used by the speaker in order to show respect and flatter the listener. For example when praising the child of another woman, a mother might politely refer to her own children as "ui" (literally, "piglets"); in order to emphasize the beauty of a fine tapa cloth, the presenter might refer to it as a simple "vala" (plain cloth); the weaver of an especially fine mat might call it "launiu" (coconut leaf) or "l " (sail cloth) in order to not appear boastful. Overshadowing the dignity or prestige of higher ranking individuals is a grave offense in Samoan culture, so words are chosen very carefully in order to express individual feelings in a way that acknowledge relative statuses within social hierarchy.
The oldest pre-historic remains in Samoan archaeology have been dated by New Zealand scientists to circa 3,000 BP (Before Present) from a Lapita site at Mulifanua excavated during the 1970s.
Writing system and alphabet
Encounters with Europeans began in the 18th century followed by the era of colonialism in the Pacific. Samoan was only a spoken language until the early to mid-19th century when Christian missionaries began documenting the spoken language for religious texts and introduced writing using the Latin script. In 1834, an orthography of the language was distributed by the London Missionary Society who also set up a printing press by 1839. The first complete Bible (Tusi Pa'ia, Sacred Book) in the Samoan language was completed and published in 1862.
The first problem which faced the missionaries in Polynesia was that of learning the language of the island which they intended to convert to Christianity. The second was that of identifying the sounds in the local languages with the symbols employed in their own languages to establish alphabets for recording the spelling of native words. Having established more or less satisfactory alphabets and spelling, it was next necessary to teach the indigenous people how to write and read their own language. A printing press, with the alphabet keys used only in the English language, was part of the mission equipment, and it was possible not only to translate and write out portions of the Bible scriptures and hymns in the local language, but to print them for use as texts in teaching. Thus, the missionaries introduced writing for the first time within Polynesia, they were the first printers, and they established the first schools in villages.
The alphabet proper consists of only fourteen letters: five vowels, a e i o u, and nine consonants, f g l m n p s t v. In addition, there are two diacritics: a macron (fa'amamafa) is used to indicate the five long vowels, , as in manu 'animal', m nu 'float, afloat'. A reversed apostrophe, (koma liliu or 'okina), is used to write the glottal stop, as in many other Polynesian languages. Neither the long vowels nor the 'okina are considered separate letters of the alphabet; words beginning with a, , a, are all entered under 'A' in dictionaries. The additional letters h, k, r are used in foreign loan words, apart from the single interjection puke(ta)! 'gotcha!'; although the sound is found in native words in colloquial speech, it is spelled t.
The first grammar and dictionary of the Samoan language, A Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, with English and Samoan Vocabulary, was written by Reverend George Pratt in 1862. Pratt's valuable Samoan dictionary records many old words of special interest, specialist terminology, archaic words and names in Samoan tradition. It contains sections on Samoan proverbs and poetry, and an extensive grammatical sketch. Pratt was a missionary for the London Missionary Society and lived for forty years in Matautu on the island of Savai'i.
The Samoan alphabet consists of 14 letters and 'okina, excluding three (H, K, R) that are used only in loanwords.
The 5 vowels also have a long form denoted by the macron which affects the meaning of words with the exact same spelling.
eg tama = child or boy; tam = father.
The combination of u followed by a vowel in some words creates the sound of the English w, a letter not part of the Samoan alphabet.
eg uaua (artery, tendon) = wawa (pronunciation)
Short is pronounced in only a few words, such as mate or maliu 'dead', vave 'be quick'. Diphthongs are .
In formal Samoan, used for example in news broadcasts or sermons, the consonants are used. In colloquial Samoan, however, merge as and is pronounced .
The glottal stop is phonemic in Samoan. The presence or absence of the glottal stop affects the meaning of words with the same spelling, eg mai = from, originate from; ma'i = sickness, illness.
is pronounced as a flap following a back vowel () and preceding an ; otherwise it is . is less sibilant (hissing) than in English. are found in loan words.
Stress is somewhat variable, but generally falls on the penultimate mora; that is, on the last syllable if that contains a long vowel or diphthong or on the second-last syllable otherwise.
Every vowel is pronounced distinctly, whether short or long, similar to the sounds of the vowels of Japanese or Spanish.
Short /a/ is pronounced in a few words, such as mate or maliu 'dead', vave 'be quick'.
Consonants are pronounced as in English, with the exception of g, which is pronounced like the ng in the English word sing rather than the g in go. The incorrect pronunciation of g results in Pago Pago sounding like Pay-go Pay-go rather than the correct form, Pah-ngo Pah-ngo.
The glottal stop is pronounced in the same way as the interruption between the vowels in the word "uh-oh".
In foreign loanwords, the sound of letters remains similar:
k and qu and "hard c sounds are retained in some instances (Christ = "Keriso," club = "kalapu," coffee = "kofe"), and have become t in rare instances (such as "se totoni," from the English "stocking").
r is retained in some instances (eg Christ = "Keriso," January = "Ianuari," number = "numera"), and becomes l in others (January = "Ianuali," herring = "elegi").
d becomes t (David = "Tavita," diamond = "taimane")
ph becomes f (telephone = "telefoni")
g and hard c become k in some cases (gas = "kesi," company = "kamupani"), while soft g and ch and j sounds usually become s (George = "Siaosi," Charlotte = "Salata," James = "Semisi")
h is sometimes retained at the beginning of some proper names (Herod = "Herota") or Tongan/Hawaiian loanwords ("halu," "hula," "Hawai'i"), becomes s in some cases (hammer = "samala"), and is omitted in others (herring = "elegi," half-caste = "afakasi")
z becomes s (Zachariah = "Sakaria")
w becomes u (William = "Uiliamu," wire = "uaea"), except with German loanwords (Wilhelm = Viliamu)
b becomes p (Britain = "Peretania," butter = "pata")
Greek and Latin loanwords were added to the Samoan language with the introduction of Christianity, such as "evagelio" (gospel), "ekalesia" (church), "epikopo" (bishop), "satauro" (crucific), "tiakono" (deacon), "peteriaka" (patriarch), and "perofeta" (prophet). The Samoan Bible was translated from the English King James Bible supplemented with Greek tracts of the Septuagint, leading to the transliteration of Greek, Latin, and English terms into Samoan. Some words were also borrowed from native Polynesian missionaries from French Polynesia and the Cook Islands, most notably "moli" (lamp oil, from Tahitian "mori"), "solofanua" (horse, from Tahitian "horofanua"), "fa'aipoipoga" (marriage, from Rarotongan "akaipoipo"), and "tiputa" (poncho, from Tahitian). While many religious terms are used universally among the various denominations in Samoa, some churches have made conscious efforts to preserve the usage of pre-colonial indigenous religious terms rather than replace Samoan words with transliterated biblical loan words; for example, "malumalu" (temple) instead of "temipale" (as is commonly used in Tongan language); "ositaulaga" (priest) instead of "patele" (from "padre"); "fa'amanatuga" (sacraments) instead of "sakalameniti," etc. Several terms that applied to pre-colonial, indigenous Samoan religion have been adapted into Christian usage, such as "vavalo" (prophecy), "atua" (god), "agaga" (soul, spirit), "fa'atuatua" (faith, belief, dedication), and "anapogi" (fasting, meditation).
Pre-colonial Samoans and Tongans had intimate two-way contact and some English loanwords entered the Samoan lexicon via Tonga, where interaction with Europeans began much earlier than in Samoa. When Tongan words of English origin were adopted by Samoans, they were transliterated as if they were Tongan words; as such, the English "goat" became the Tongan "koti" and subsequently "oti" in Samoan. The same occurred with the Tongan word for the element iron ("ukamea," meaning "strong material") which became "u'amea" in Samoan, and the old Tongan word for clothing iron ("kauli," from English "coal") which became "auli" in Samoan.
Samoan syllable structure is (C)V, where V may be long or a diphthong. A sequence VV may occur only in derived forms and compound words; within roots, only the initial syllable may be of the form V. Metathesis of consonants is frequent, such as manu for namu 'scent', lava au for vala au 'to call', but vowels may not be mixed up in this way.
Every syllable ends in a vowel. No syllable consists of more than three letters, one consonant and two vowels, the two vowels making a diphthong; as fai, mai, tau. Roots are sometimes monosyllabic, but mostly disyllabic or a word consisting of two syllables. Polysyllabic words are nearly all derived or compound words; as nofogat from nofo (sit, seat) and gat , difficult of access; ta igaafi, from ta i, to attend, and afi, fire, the hearth, making to attend to the fire; talafa'asolopito, ("history") stories placed in order, faletalimalo, ("communal house") house for receiving guests.
Stress generally falls on the penultimate mora; that is, on the last syllable if that contains a long vowel or diphthong or on the second-last syllable otherwise. There are exceptions though, with many words ending in a long vowel taking the accent on the ultima; as ma'elega, zealous; on , to be intoxicated; faigat , difficult.
Verbs formed from nouns ending in a, and meaning to abound in, have properly two a s, as puaa (pua aa), pona, tagata, but are written with one.
In speaking of a place at some distance, the accent is placed on the last syllable; as O lo o i Safotu, he is at Safotu. The same thing is done in referring to a family; as Sa Muliaga, the family of Muliaga, the term Sa referring to a wide extended family of clan with a common ancestor. So most words ending in ga, not a sign of a noun, as tig , puapuaga, pologa, fa'ataga and aga. So also all words ending in a diphthong, as mamau, mafai, avai.
In speaking the voice is raised, and the emphasis falls on the last word in each sentence.
When a word receives an addition by means of an affixed particle, the accent is shifted forward; as alofa, love; alof ga, loving, or showing love; alofag a, beloved.
Reduplicated words have two accents; as palapala, mud; segisegi, twilight. Compound words may have even three or four, according to the number of words and affixes of which the compound word is composed; as tof tumo na n , to be engulfed.
The articles le and se are unaccented. When used to form a pronoun or participle, le and se are contractions for le e, se e, and so are accented; as O le ana le mea, the owner, literally the (person) whose (is) the thing, instead of O le e ana le mea. The sign of the nominative o, the prepositions o, a, i, e, and the euphonic particles i and te, are unaccented; as O i maua, ma te o alu ia te oe, we two will go to you.
Ina, the sign of the imperative, is accented on the ultima; na, the sign of the subjunctive, on the penultima. The preposition i is accented on the ultima, the pronoun ia on the penultima.
The cardinals are:
||noa, selo (English loanword)
||sefulu, gafulu, fulu
||sefulu ma le tasi, sefulu tasi
||sefulu ma le lua, sefulu lua
||luafulu, lua sefulu
||tolugafulu, tolu sefulu
||fagafulu, fa sefulu
||limagafulu, lima sefulu
||onogafulu, ono sefulu
||fitugafulu, fitu sefulu
||valugafulu, valu sefulu
||ivagafulu, iva sefulu
||lua lau, lua selau
||tolugalau, tolu selau
||mano, sefulu afe
||one hundred thousand
||miliona (English loan word)
The term mano was an utmost limit until the adoption of loan words like miliona (million) and piliona (billion). Otherwise, quantities beyond mano were referred to as manomano or ilu; that is, innumerable.
The prefix fa'a is also used to indicate the number of times. For example; fa'atolu three times. Or fa'afia? how many times?
The prefix "lona" or "le" indicates sequential numbering, as in "lona lua" (second), lona tolu (third), "le fa" (fourth); "muamua" or "ulua'i" denote "first." Familial sequence was denoted with terms such as ulumatua ("eldest"), ui'i ("youngest"), and ogatotonu ("middle child"); first and last born were also deemed honorifically, pa le manava ("opening the womb") and pupuni le manava ("sealing the womb"), respectively.
To denote the number of persons, the term to'a is used. For example; E to'afitu tagata e o i le pasi. Seven people are going/travelling by bus.
The suffix "lau" is used when formally counting fish, in reference to the customary plaiting of fish in leaves ("lau") before cooking. For example: "tolu lau" three fishes
There are also formal prefixes or suffixes used in the chiefly register when counting different species of fish, taro, yams, bananas, chickens, pigs, and other foodstuffs.
An Account of Samoan History up to 1918 by Teo Tuvale, NZ Licence CC-BY-SA 3.0, Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- Broselow, Ellen; and McCarthy, John J. (1984). A theory of internal reduplication. The linguistic review, 3, 25-88.
- Churchward, Spencer. 1951. A Samoan Grammar, 2nd ed. rev. and enl. Melbourne: Spectator Publishing Company.
- Milner, G.B. 1993, 1966. Samoan Dictionary. Polynesian Press. ISBN 0908597126
- Mosel, Ulrike and Even Hovdhaugen, 1992. Samoan reference grammar. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press/Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture.
- Mosel, La'i Ulrike and Ainslie So'o. Say it in Samoan. Pacific Linguistics D88. Canberra: ANU.
- Payne, Thomas E. 1997. Describing morphosyntax: a guide for field linguists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58224-5.
ar: bg: br:Samoaeg ca:Samo cy:Sam eg de:Samoische Sprache el: ( ) es:Idioma samoano eo:Samoa lingvo eu:Samoera fr:Samoan ko: haw: lelo S moa hr:Samoanski jezik id:Bahasa Samoa it:Lingua samoana kv: la:Lingua Samoana lv:Samo u valoda lt:Samoa kalba lij:Lengua samoann-a mk: ms:Bahasa Samoa nl:Samoaans ja: no:Samoansk nn:Samoisk pms:Lenga Samoan pl:J zyk samoa ski pt:L ngua samoana qu:Samwa simi ru: sm:Gagana fa'a S moa sk:Samoj ina sh:Samoanski jezik fi:Samoan kieli sv:Samoanska ta: to:Lea fakaha amoa uk: vi:Ti ng Samoa zh: