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Salute state

The British Empire in the East, 1919, showing the princely states coloured green, British India coloured red

A Salute state was a princely state in India during the time of British rule which had been granted a gun salute by the British Crown (as paramount ruler); i.e., the protocollary privilege for its ruler to be greeted - originally by Royal Navy ships, later also on land - with a number of gun shots, as recognition of the state's relative status.

Contents


Salute states and equivalents

Overview

When the ruler of a princely state arrived at the Indian capital (originally at Calcutta (Kolkata), then at Delhi), he was greeted with a number of gun-firings. The number of these consecutive "gun salutes" changed from time to time, being increased or reduced depending on the degree of honour which the British chose to accord to a given ruler. The number of gun salutes accorded to a ruler was usually a reflection of the state of his relations with the British and/or his perceived degree of political power; a 21-gun salute was considered the highest. The King (or Queen) of the United Kingdom (who until 1948 was also the Emperor of India) was accorded a 101-gun salute, and 31 guns were used to salute the Viceroy of India.

The number of guns in a salute assumed particular importance at the time of holding of the Coronation Durbar in Delhi in the month of December, 1911. The Durbar was held to commemorate the Coronation of H.I.M. George V with the consequent firing of guns lasting almost all day and causing severe hearing disabilities to many attendees. H.E.H. The Nizam of Hyderabad was the highest with 23 gun salutes. At that time there were two Princely States that were given 21 gun salutes. These were: H.H. The Maharaja (Gaekwad) of Baroda State; H.H. The Maharaja of Mysore. Apart from these three, no other Princely State was given 21 gun salutes. There were, however, other Princely States, which enjoyed a salute of 21 gun within the limits of their own state and 19 guns in the rest of India. For example, H.H. the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir; H.H. The Maharaja (Scindhia) of Gwalior; H.H. The Maharaja (Holkar) of Indore; H.H. The Maharana of Udaipur (Mewar). The then Maharaja of Travancore also held a personal 21 gun salute.

In 1917, the Maharaja of Gwalior was upgraded to a permanent and hereditary 21-gun salute, and the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir was granted the same in 1921. Both were granted the increased ranks as a result of the meritorious services of their soldiers in the First World War.

The Nizam, Maharajas, Princes, etc. were all deeply keen on protocol and ensured that it was practiced as a matter of faith. Any departure from it was not taken kindly by them. Salute of guns was one such protocol that was strictly adhered to.

Salutes for the Indian Empire (royals, administrators and officers)

Sourced from a 1913 copy of the King's Regulations on salutes and ceremonial, with some updates. [1]

For British officers and administrators

  • 101-guns (Imperial Salute) - The King-Emperor
  • 31-guns - Members of the Royal Family; the Viceroy and Governor-General of India
  • 19-guns - Ambassadors; Governors-General; Commander-in-Chief, India (holding the rank of Field Marshal); Admirals of the Fleet, Field Marshals and Marshals of the Royal Air Force
  • 17-guns - Governors of the Bombay, Madras and Bengal Presidencies; Governors of Indian Provinces and Governors of Colonies; the President of the Council in India; Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary; Commander-in-Chief, India (holding the rank of General); Admirals, Generals and Air Chief Marshals
  • 15-guns - Lieutenant-Governors of Indian Provinces; Lieutenant-Governors of Colonies; Members of Council; Plenipotentiaries and Envoys; Ministers Resident; Army Commanders with the rank of Lieutenant-General; Vice-Admirals, Lieutenant-Generals and Air Marshals
  • 13-guns - Chief Commissioners of Indian Provinces and Commissioners; Agents to the Viceroy; Residents; Consuls-General; Divisional Commanders; Rear-Admirals , Major-Generals and Air Vice-Marshals
  • 11-guns - Political Agents and Charges d'Affaires; Brigade Commanders; Commodores, Brigadiers and Air Commodores

British salutes for French and Portuguese administrators in India

  • 17-guns - Governor of French India; Governor of Portuguese India
  • 11-guns - Governor of Daman; Governor of Diu

Salute states that acceded to India in 1947

In 1948 The Hindu Rajput Maharana of Udaipur was raised to first place in the Order of Precedence, displacing the Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar due to his stubborn stance of not acceding to the union .[2] The system of gun salutes continued in the Republic of India until 1971.

The gun salutes enjoyed by the states that acceded to the Union of India, then or later, were:

Serial No. Hereditary salute No. of guns Personal or Local salute No. of guns Title of Rais Name of state Clan of Rais Present Location
1. 21 H.E.H. the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar Siddiqui Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra
2. 21 H.H. the Maharaja of Mysore Rajput Karnataka
3. 21 H.H. the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir Rajput Dogra Jammu and Kashmir
4. 21 H.H. the Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda Maratha Gujarat
5. 21 H.H. the Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior Maratha Madhya Pradesh
6. 19 21 (Local) H.H. the Nawab of Bhopal Mirasi Khel Afghan Madhya Pradesh
7. 19 21 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja Holkar of Indore Maratha Dhangar Madhya Pradesh
8. 19 21 (Local) H.H. the Maharana of Udaipur (Mewar) Rajput Sisodia Rajasthan
9. 19 H.H. the Maharaja of Kolhapur Maratha Maharashtra
10. 19 21 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Travancore Samanta Kshatriya Kerala
11. 17 19 (Personal) H.H. the Maharao of Kotah Rajput, Chauhan, Hada Rajasthan
12. 17 19 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Bharatpur Jat Rajasthan
13. 17 19 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Bikaner Rajput, Rathore Rajasthan
14. 17 19 (Local) H.H. the Mirza Maharao of Cutch Rajput, Jadeja Gujarat
15. 17 19 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Pudukkottai Tondiman Tamilnadu
15. 17 19 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Jaipur Rajput, Kachwaha Rajasthan
16. 17 19 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Jodhpur Rajput, Rathore Rajasthan
17. 17 19 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Patiala Sikh, Punjab
18. 17 H.H. the Maha Rao Raja of Bundi Rajput, Chauhan, Hada Rajasthan
19. 17 H.H. the Maharaja of Kochi (India) Kshatriya Kerala
20. 17 H.H. the Maharaja of Karauli Rajput Jadon Rajasthan
21. 17 H.H. the Maharaja of Rewa Rajput, Baghela Madhya Pradesh
22. 17 H.H. the Nawab of Tonk Pathan Rajasthan
23. 15 17 (Personal) H.H. the Maharaj Rana of Dholpur Jat Rajasthan
24. 15 17 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Alwar Rajput, Kachwaha Rajasthan
25. 15 H.H. the Maharawal of Banswara Rajput, Sisodia Rajasthan
26. 15 H.H. the Maharaja of Datia Rajput, Bundela Madhya Pradesh
27. 15 H.H. the Raja of Dewas Senior Maratha Panwar Madhya Pradesh
28. 15 H.H. the Raja of Dewas Junior Maratha Panwar Madhya Pradesh
29. 15 H.H. the Maharaja of Dhar Maratha Panwar Madhya Pradesh
30. 15 H.H. the Maharawal of Dungarpur Rajput Sisodia Rajasthan
31 15 H.H. the Maharaja of Idar Rajput Rathore Gujarat
32 15 H.H. the Maharaja of Jaisalmer Rajput, Bhati Rajasthan
33 15 H.H. the Maharaja of Kishangarh Rajput, Rathore Rajasthan
34 15 H.H. the Maharaja of Orchha Rajput, Bundela Madhya Pradesh
35 15 H.H. the Maharawat of Pratapgarh Rajput, Sisodia Rajasthan
36 15 H.H. the Nawab of Rampur Pathan Uttar Pradesh
37. 15 H.H. the Raja of Sikkim Tipihar Sikkim
38 15 H.H. the Maharaol of Sirohi Rajput, Chauhan,Devda Rajasthan
39 13 H.H. the Maharaja Raol Sahib of Bhavnagar Rajput, Gohil Gujarat
40 13 15 (Personal and Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Jind [Sikh], Punjab
41 13 15 (Personal and Local) H.H. the Nawab of Junagadh Babi Gujarat
42 13 15 (Personal and Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Kapurthala Sikh, Punjab
43 13 15 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Benares Brahmin Goutam Uttar Pradesh
44 13 15 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja Raol of Bhavnagar Rajput, Gohil Gujarat
45 13 15 (Local) H.H. the Raja of Nabha Sikh, Punjab
46 13 15 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja Jam Sahib of Nawanagar Rajput, Jadeja Gujarat
47 13 15 (Local) H.H. the Maharaja of Ratlam Rajput, Rathore Madhya Pradesh
48 13 H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch Behar Rajput, Rajvanshi West Bengal
48 13 H.H. the Maharaja of Vizianagaram Rajput, Pusapati Andhra Pradesh
49 13 H.H. the Maharana Maharaja Shri Raj of Dhrangadhra Rajput, Jhala Gujarat
50 13 H.H. the Nawab of Jaora Pathan Madhya Pradesh
51 13 H.H. the Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar Rajput, Jhala Rajasthan
52 13 H.H. the Deewan of Palanpur Afghan Gujarat
53 13 H.H. the Maharaja Rana Sahib of Porbandar Rajput, Jethwa Gujarat
54 13 H.H. the Maharana of Rajpipla Rajput, Gohil Gujarat
55 13 H.H. the Raja of Tipra Rajput Tripura
56 11 13 (Local) H.H. the Nawab of Janjira Siddi Maharashtra
57 11 H.H. the Sawai Maharaja of Ajaigarh Rajput, Bundela Madhya Pradesh
58 11 H.H. the Maharana of Ali Rajpur Rajput, Sisodia Madhya Pradesh
59 11 H.H. the Nawab of Baoni Pathan Madhya Pradesh
60 11 H.H. the Maharaja of Barwani Rajput, Sisodia Madhya Pradesh
61 11 H.H. the Sawai Maharaja of Bijawar Rajput, Bundela Madhya Pradesh
62 11 H.H. the Nawab of Cambay (Khambhat) Pathan Gujarat
63 11 H.H. the Raja of Chamba Rajput Himachal Pradesh
64 11 H.H. the Maharaja of Charakhari Rajput, Bundela Madhya Pradesh
65 11 H.H. the Maharaja of Chhatarpur Rajput, Parmar Madhya Pradesh
66 11 H.H. the Raja of Faridkot Sikh, Punjab
67 11 H.H. the Thakur of Gondal Rajput, Jadeja Gujarat
68 11 H.H. the Raja of Bilaspur Rajput Himachal Pradesh
69 11 H.H. the Raja of Jhabua Rajput Rathore Madhya Pradesh
70 11 H.H. the Nawab of Maler Kotla Afghan Punjab
71 11 H.H. the Raja of Mandi Rajput Chandravanshi Punjab
72 11 H.H. the Maharaja of Manipur Rsjput Manipur
73 11 H.H. the Thakur of Morvi Rajput Jadeja Gujarat
74 11 H.H. the Raja of Narsinghgarh Rajput Umat Madhya Pradesh
75 11 H.H. the Maharaja of Panna Rajput Bundela Madhya Pradesh
77 11 H.H. the Nawab of Radhanpur Irani Gujarat
78 11 H.H. the Nawab of Rajgarh Muslim Madhya Pradesh
79 11 H.H. the Raja of Sailana Rajput Rathore Madhya Pradesh
80 11 H.H. the Raja of Samthar Rajput Bargujar Madhya Pradesh
81 11 H.H. the Maharaja of Sirmaur (Nahan) Rajput, Bhati Himachal Pradesh
82 11 H.H. the Raja of Sitamau Rajput Rathore Madhya Pradesh
83 11 H.H. the Raja of Suket (SunderNagar) Rajput Chandravanshi Himachal Pradesh
84 11 H.H. the Maharaja of Tehri Garhwal Rajput, Parmar Uttarakhand
85 11 H.H. the Maharana Raj Sahib of Wankaner Rajput, Jhala Gujarat
86 11 (Personal) H.H The Maharaja of Kangra-Lambagraon Rajput Himachal Pradesh
87 9 11 (Personal) H.H. the Maharaol of Baria Rajput, Chauhan Gujarat
88 9 11 (Personal) H.H. the Raja of Dharampur Rajput, Sisodia Gujarat
89 9 11 (Personal) H.H. the Raja of Sangli Brahmin, (Patwardhan) Maharashtra
90 9 11 (Local) H.H. the Sar Desai of Sawantwadi Maratha Maharashtra
91 9 H.H. the Thakore Sahib of Wadhwan Rajput Jhala Gujarat
92 9 H.H. the Nawab Babi of Balasinor Irani (Muslim) Gujarat
93 9 H.H. the Nawab of Banganapalle (Muslim Shia) Andhra Pradesh
94 9 H.H. the Maharawal of Bansda Rajput Solanki Gujarat
95 9 H.H. the Raja of Baraundha Rajput Bargujar Madhya Pradesh
96 9 H.H. the Raja of Bhor Brahmin Maharashtra
97 9 H.H. the Raja of Chota Udaipur Rajput, Chauhan Gujarat
98 9 H.H. the Maharana of Danta Rajput, Paramara Gujarat
99 9 H.H. the Thakore Sahib of Dhrol Rajput, Jadeja Gujarat
100 9 H.H. the Maharaja of Jawhar Maratha (Mukne) Maharashtra
101 9 H.H. the Maharaja of Kalahandi(Karod) Rajput, (Gangavanshi) Orissa
102 9 H.H. the Rao of Khilchipur Rajput, Chauhan,(Khinchi) Madhya Pradesh
103 9 H.H. the Thakore Sahib of Limbdi Rajput, Jhala Gujarat
104 9 H.H. the Nawab of Loharu (Muslim) Haryana
105 9 H.H. the Maharana of Lunawara Rajput, Solanki Gujarat
106 9 H.H. the Raja of Maihar Rajput, Kachwaha Madhya Pradesh
107 9 H.H. the Maharaja of Mayurbhanj Rajput, (Bhanj) Orissa
108 9 H.H. the Raja of Mudhol Maratha Bhonsle Karnataka
109 9 H.H. the Raja of Nagod Rajput, Parihar Madhya Pradesh
110 9 H.H. the Thakore Sahib of Palitana Rajput, Gohil Gujarat
111 9 H.H. the Maharaja of Patna Rajput, Chauhan Orissa
112 9 H.H. the Thakore Sahib of Rajkot Rajput, Jadeja Gujarat
113 9 H.H. the Raja of Ramgadi Kanyakubja Brahmin Uttar Pradesh
114 9 H.H. the Nawab of Sachin (princely state) Siddi Gujarat
115 9 H.H. the Maharana of Sant Rajput, Parmara Gujarat
116 9 H.H. the Rajadhiraj of Shahpura Rajput, Sisodia Rajasthan
117 9 H.H. the Maharaja of Sonepur Rajput Orissa
118 9 H.H. The Thakor Saheb of Muli Rajput Gujarat
119 9 (Personal) The Raja of Bashahr Rajput Himachal Pradesh

Although salutes with many more guns have been used for Western Monarchs (and dynastic and other associated occasions), the 21-gun salute has in modern times become customary for Sovereign Monarchs (hence also known as 'royal salute') and republic.

Some of the rulers not listed above were granted increased gun salutes after the independence, e.g. the Maharana of Mewar (at Udaipur, Maharajpramukh in Rajasthan) was raised to first place in the Order of Precedence, displacing the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar, and all 9-gun states were permitted the use of the style of Highness. However, it has not been possible to obtain complete details for all the rulers.

This system continued till 1971, when privileges and Privy Purses of ex-rulers were abolished by the Government of India.

Salute states that acceded to Pakistan in 1947

Twelve Muslim princely states in western India acceded on 15 August 1947 to the Dominion (a republic since 1956) of Pakistan as devised by independence from British India. Over time, they were amalgamated into larger federations and provinces culminating in the establishment of two large provinces, East and West Pakistan. Most of the princely states in the western part of the country merged into the Province of West Pakistan (the present Pakistan, the only other province then was East Pakistan, present Bangladesh) at its creation on 14 October 1955. Although some frontier states continued to be administered as separate units, these were eliminated in 1971; all styles and titles enjoyed by the former ruling families ceased to be officially recognised by the Government of Pakistan in January 1972.

The order of precedence of the salute states that acceded to Pakistan in 1947 was as follows:

Serial No. Hereditary salute No. of guns Personal salute No. of guns Title of Rais Name of state Clan of Rais Present Location
1. 19 H.H. the Khan of Kalat Muslim Balochistan
2. 17 H.H. the Nawab (later styled Rana or Rao) of Bahawalpur Muslim Daud Potra Panjab
3. 15 H.H. the Mir of Khairpur Muslim Billochi Sindh
4. 11 H.H. the Mehtar of Chitral Muslim Katur NWFP

After several promotions and two further post-colonial awardings - which India didn't do as a republic - the gun salutes enjoyed by the states in Pakistan were as follows in 1966:

  • Hereditary salute of 21-guns: H.H. the Amir of Bahawalpur
  • Hereditary salute of 19-guns: H.H. the Khan of Kalat
  • Hereditary salute of 17-guns: H.H. the Mir of Khairpur
  • Hereditary salute of 15-guns: H.H. the Mir of Hunza (granted by President Ayub Khan in 1966, previously non-salute)
  • Hereditary salute of 15-guns: H.H. the Wali of Swat (granted by President Ayub Khan in 1966, previously non-salute)
  • Hereditary salute of 11-guns: H.H. the Mehtar of Chitral

Salute dynasties on the Indian subcontinent without states

Personal salute of 11-guns: only H.H. the Aga Khan (in fact a religious leader of the Nizari Ismaili branch of Islam), the only salute not attached to any territorial principality.

Furthermore salutes were awarded to certain Political pensioners, notably:

Elsewhere

The information below (quite possibly incomplete) had to be puzzled from different sources, mainly one concerning the 1912 situation which seems to ignore the differences between hereditary, personal and local salutes.

  • 31 guns - This unusual class was reserved for truly sovereign and independent Absolutist oriental monarchies, not under full British control:
    • HH the Muslim King (styled Badshah or Emir) of Afghanistan (Durranni dynasty)
    • HH the Buddhist King of Siam (the present Thailand)
  • 21 guns:
    • HH the Sultan of Mascat [the Ibadi Imamate became a sovereign nation as Sultanate of (Muscat the core, named after the capital, of modern- and) Oman]
    • HM (since?) the King (a Maharajadhiraja) of Nepal (sovereign, Hindu kingdom in the Himalaya)
    • HM (since?) the Sultan/Hami of Zanzibar (an East African sultanate on the islands now part of Tanzania, set up by a branch of the Omani sultans)
    • HM the native (Indian tribal) King of Mosquito Coast (in present Nicaragua; styled His Majesty, most unusual as HM is normally reserved for the Paramount Ruler and its (independent) peers; under British protectorate since 1688, formalized in 1749 with appointment of a resident Superintendent; Britain relinquished control in 1783-87; Nicaraguan sovereignty was recognized in 1860 under the Treaty of Managua, hence the King considered a mere Chief, in 1894 militarily driven into exile to Jamaica)
  • 19 guns: HH the Dalai lama of Tibet, a semi-sovereign theocratic Buddhist nation before annexation by the People s Republic of China
  • 15 guns: HH the Druk Desi (since 1963 HM the Druk Gyalpo) & (since 1951) Maharaja of Bhutan [a sovereign Buddhist Himalayan nation]
  • 9 guns: the Kabaka (native, tribal king) of Buganda (in [Western] Uganda, granted after (?) 1912, before 1939 permanent grant)
  • 3 guns: all in peninsular Arabia: all in Trucial Oman, known as the Pirate Coast (- ?no agency? Persian Gulf residency?; now all among the 7 constitutive emirates of the sovereign nation UAE):

References

General
Specific

fr: tats princiers des Indes par nombre de coups de canon no:Saluttstat ru:






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