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Prague

Prague Astronomical Clock was first installed in 1410, making it the third-oldest astronomical clock in the world and the oldest one still working.

Prague (; ) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic and fourteenth largest city in European Union.[1] Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of nearly 2.0 million.[2] The city has a temperate oceanic climate with warm summers and chilly winters.

Prague has been a political, cultural, and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its 1,100 year existence. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Renaissance eras, Prague was the seat of two Holy Roman Emperors and thus then also the capital of the Holy Roman Empire.[3][4] It was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire and after World War I became the capital of Czechoslovakia. The city played major roles in the Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War, and in modern history generally as the principal conurbation in Bohemia and Moravia whose second city is Brno.

Prague is home to a number of famous cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of twentieth century Europe. Main attractions include the following: Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square, the Jewish Quarter, the Lennon Wall, and Pet n hill. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

Prague boasts more than ten major museums, along with countless theatres, galleries, cinemas, and other historical exhibits. A modern public transportation system connects the city. Also, Prague is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including the famous Charles University. Prague is classified as a Beta+ global city according to GaWC studies, comparable to Berlin, Rome, or Houston. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city receives more than 4.1 million international visitors annually, . In 2011, Prague was the sixth most visited city in Europe.[5][6][7]

Contents


History

During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vy ehrad in the south, becoming the multicultural capital of a modern European state, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.

Early history

A view of one of the bridge towers of the Charles Bridge The area on which Prague was founded was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. Around 200 BC the Celts established an oppidum (settlement) in the south, now called Z vist. By the end of the 1st century BC, the population was composed mostly of the Marcomanni (and possibly the Suebi), a Germanic people. In the 6th century AD, during the great migration period following the collapse of the Roman empire, the Marcomanni people migrated westwards or were assimilated into the invading West Slavic people.

According to legends, Prague was founded by Libu e and her husband, P emysl, founder of the dynasty of the same name. By the year 800 there was a simple fort fortified with wooden buildings, occupying about two-thirds of the area that is now Prague Castle.[8] The first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885.[9]

The other Prague fort, the P emyslid fort Vy ehrad[10] was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years later than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.

The region became the seat of the dukes, and later kings, of Bohemia. Under Roman-German Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973. Until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz.

Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub. The Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands. Prague contained an important slave market.[11]

At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus II had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, (Juditin most) named honor of his wife Judith of Thuringia. This bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342. Some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain.

In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Mal Strana ("Lesser Quarter") was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hrad any (Prague Castle) area. This was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights. The new district was on the bank opposite of the Star M sto ("Old Town"), which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications.

The era of Charles IV

St. Vitus Cathedral at Hrad any The precious Czech Crown Jewels are the fourth oldest in Europe. Prague flourished during the 14th century reign (1346 1378) of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Bohemia of the new Luxembourg dynasty. As King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, he transformed Prague into an imperial capital. He ordered the building of the New Town (Nov M sto) adjacent to the Old Town and laid out the design himself. The Charles Bridge, replacing the Judith Bridge destroyed in the flood just prior to his reign, was erected to connect the right bank districts to the Mal Strana and castle area. On 9 July 1357 at 5:31 am Charles IV personally laid the first foundation stone for the Charles Bridge. The exact time of laying the first foundation stone is known because the palindromic number 135797531 was carved into the Old Town bridge tower having been chosen by the royal astrologists and numerologists as the best time for starting the bridge construction.[12] In 1347 he founded Charles University which remains today the oldest university in Central Europe.

He began construction of the Gothic Saint Vitus Cathedral, within the largest of the Prague Castle courtyards, on the site of the Romanesque rotunda there. Prague was elevated to an archbishopric in 1344, the year the cathedral was begun.

The city had a mint and was a centre of trade for German and Italian bankers and merchants. The social order, however, became more turbulent due to the rising power of the craftsmen's guilds (themselves often torn by internal fights), and the increasing number of poor people. The Hunger Wall, a substantial fortification wall south of Mal Strana and the Castle area, was built during a famine in the 1360s. The work is reputed to have been ordered by Charles IV as a means of providing employment and food to the workers and their families. Prague was at that time the third-largest city in Europe.

Charles IV died in 1378. During the reign of his son, King Wenceslaus IV (1378 1419), a period of intense turmoil ensued. During Easter 1389, members of the Prague clergy announced that Jews had desecrated the host (Eucharistic wafer) and the clergy encouraged mobs to pillage, ransack and burn the Jewish quarter. Nearly the entire Jewish population of Prague (3,000 people) perished.[13][14]

Jan Hus, a theologian and rector at the Charles University, preached in Prague. In 1402, he began giving sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel. Inspired by John Wycliffe, these sermons focused on what were seen as radical reforms of a corrupt Church. Having become too dangerous for the political and religious establishment, Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance, put on trial for heresy, and burned at the stake in Constanz in 1415.

Four years later Prague experienced its first defenestration, when the people rebelled under the command of the Prague priest Jan elivsk . Hus' death, coupled with Czech proto-nationalism and proto-Protestantism, had spurred the Hussite Wars. Peasant rebels, led by the general Jan i ka, along with Hussite troops from Prague, defeated King Sigismund, in the Battle of V tkov Hill.

In the following two centuries, Prague strengthened its role as a merchant city. Many noteworthy Gothic buildings[15] were erected and Vladislav Hall of the Prague Castle was added.

Habsburg era

Prague panorama in 1650 In 1526, the Bohemian estates elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg. The fervent Catholicism of its members was to bring them into conflict in Bohemia, and then in Prague, where Protestant ideas were gaining popularity.[16] These problems were not pre-eminent under Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, elected King of Bohemia in 1576, who chose Prague as his home. He lived in the Prague Castle where his court saw invitations to astrologers and magicians, but also scientists, musicians, and artists. Rudolf was an art lover too and Prague became the capital of European culture. This was a prosperous period for the city: famous people living there in that age include the astronomers Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler, the painter Arcimboldo, the alchemists Edward Kelley and John Dee, the poetess Elizabeth Jane Weston, and others.

In 1618, the famous second defenestration of Prague provoked the Thirty Years' War, a particularly harsh period for Prague and the Bohemia. Ferdinand II of Habsburg was deposed, and his place as King of Bohemia taken by Frederick V, Elector Palatine; however the Czech Army under him was crushed in the Battle of White Mountain (1620) not far from the city. Following this in 1621 was an execution of 27 Czech leaders (involved in the uprising) in Old Town Square and an exiling of many others. The city suffered subsequently during the war under Saxon (1631) and Battle of Prague (1648).[17] Prague began a steady decline which reduced the population from the 60,000 it had had in the years before the war to 20,000. In the second half of the 17th century Prague's population began to grow again. Jews have been in Prague since the end of the 10th century and, by 1708, they accounted for about a quarter of Prague s population.[18] Stiassny]]'s Jubilee Synagogue built in 1906 is the largest in Prague In 1689, a great fire devastated Prague, but this spurred a renovation and a rebuilding of the city. In 1713 14, a major outbreak of plague hit Prague one last time, killing 12 13,000 people.[19]

The economic rise continued through the 18th century, and the city in 1771 had 80,000 inhabitants. Many of these were rich merchants and nobles who enriched the city with a host of palaces, churches and gardens full of art and music, creating a Baroque style renowned throughout the world. After the Battle of Prague in 1757 the city was badly damaged during a Prussian bombardment.[20] In 1784, under Joseph II, the four municipalities of Mal Strana, Nov M sto, Star M sto, and Hrad any were merged into a single entity. The Jewish district, called Josefov, was included only in 1850. The Industrial Revolution had a strong effect in Prague, as factories could take advantage of the coal mines and ironworks of the nearby region. A first suburb, Karl n, was created in 1817, and twenty years later population exceeded 100,000.

The revolutions that shocked all Europe around 1848 touched Prague too, but they were fiercely suppressed. In the following years the Czech nationalist movement began its rise, until it gained the majority in the town council in 1861. Prague had a German speaking majority in 1848, but by 1880 the German population had decreased to 14% (42,000), and by 1910 to 6.7% (37,000), due to a massive increase of the city's overall population caused by the influx of Czechs from the rest of Bohemia and Moravia and also due to ethnic mixing and assimilation.[21]

20th century

The First Republic

Prague liberated by Red Army in May 1945 World War I ended with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the creation of Czechoslovakia. Prague was chosen as its capital and Prague Castle as the seat of president (Tom Masaryk). At this time Prague was a true European capital with highly developed industry. By 1930, the population had risen to 850,000.

Second World War

Hitler ordered the German Army to enter Prague on 15 March 1939 and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. For most of its history Prague had been a multi-ethnic city with important Czech, German and (mostly Czech- and/or German-speaking) Jewish populations. From 1939, when the country was occupied by Nazi Germany, and during World War II, most Jews fled the city or were deported.

In 1942, Prague was witness to the assassination of one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany Reinhard Heydrich (during Operation Anthropoid). Hitler ordered bloody reprisals. At the end of the war Prague suffered several bombing raids by the USAAF. Over 1,000 people were injured, 701 people were killed, and hundreds of buildings, factories and historical landmarks were destroyed (however the damage was small compared to the total destruction of many other cities in that time).[22] On 5 May 1945, two days before Germany capitulated, an uprising against Germany occurred. Four days later the 3rd Shock Army entered the city. The majority of the German population either fled or was expelled by the Bene decrees in the aftermath of the war.

Cold War

Prague skyscrapers at Pankr c Prague was a city in the territory of military and political control of the Soviet Union (see Iron Curtain). The 4th Czechoslovakian Writers' Congress held in the city in 1967 took a strong position against the regime. This spurred the new secretary of the Communist Party, Alexander Dub ek to proclaim a new deal in his city's and country's life, starting the short-lived season of the "socialism with a human face". It was the "Prague Spring", which aimed at the renovation of institutions in a democratic way. The Soviet Union and its allies reacted with the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the capital on 21 August 1968 by tanks, suppressing any attempt at reform.

Era after the Velvet Revolution

In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague and the Czechoslovak capital benefited greatly from the new mood. In 1993, after the split of Czechoslovakia, Prague became the capital city of the new Czech Republic. In the late 1990s Prague again became an important cultural centre of Europe and was notably influenced by globalisation. In 2000 anti-globalisation protests in Prague (some 15,000 protesters) turned violent during the IMF and World Bank summits. In 2002 Prague suffered from widespread floods that damaged buildings and also its underground transport system. Prague launched a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics,[23] but failed to make the candidate city shortlist. Due to low political support, Prague's officials chose in June 2009 to cancel the city's planned bid for 2020 Summer Olympics as well.[24]

Etymology and other names

Bridges over the Vltava river, as seen from Letn

The name Prague is derived from an old Slavic root, praga, which means ford , referring to the city's origin at a crossing point of the Vltava river.

The native name of the city, Praha, however, is also related to the modern Czech word pr h (threshold) and a legendary etymology connects the name of the city with princess Libu e, prophetess and a wife of mythical founder of the P emyslid dynasty. She is said to have ordered the city "to be built where a man hews a threshold of his house".[25] The Czech pr h might thus be understood to refer to rapids or a cataract in the river, the edge of which could have acted as a means of fording the river thus providing a "threshold" to the castle. However, no geological ridge in the river has ever been located directly beneath the castle.

Another derivation of the name Praha is suggested from na praz , the original term for the shale hillside rock upon which the original castle was built. At that time, the castle was surrounded by forests, covering the nine hills of the future city the Old Town on the opposite side of the river, as well as the Lesser Town beneath the existing castle, appeared only later.[26]

Nicknames for Prague have included: Praga mater urbium/Praha matka m st ("Prague Mother of Cities") in Latin/Czech, Stov at Praha ("City of a Hundred Spires") based on count by 19 century mathematician Bernard Bolzano. Today's count is estimated at 500.[27]

Other nicknames: Zlat m sto/Goldene Stadt ("Golden City") in Czech/German.[28]

Main sights

Wenceslas Square Miluni and Gehry's Dancing House. Spanish synagogue]], sculptor Jaroslav Rona Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Prague has become one of the world's most popular tourist destinations. It is the sixth most-visited European city after London, Paris, Rome, Madrid and Berlin.[29] Prague suffered considerably less damage during World War II than some other major cities in the region, allowing most of its historic architecture to stay true to form. It contains one of the world's most pristine and varied collections of architecture, from Art Nouveau to Baroque, Renaissance, Cubist, Gothic, Neo-Classical and ultra-modern. Some popular sights include:

Hrad any and Lesser Town (Mal Strana)

Old Town (Star M sto) and Josefov

New Town (Nov m sto)

Vinohrady and i kov

Other Places

Geography

Prague is situated on the Vltava river, at 50 05"N and 14 27"E.[31] in the centre of the Bohemian Basin. Prague is approximately at the same latitude as Frankfurt, Germany;[32] Paris, France;[33] and Vancouver, Canada.[34]

Climate

satellite]] The city of Prague has borderline oceanic climate (K ppen Cfb). The winters are relatively cold with very little sunshine. Snow cover is common between mid-November to late March but is usually not too heavy. Summers usually bring fine sunny days with highs being around 25 degrees. Nights can be quite cool even in summer, though. Precipitation in Prague is rather low (it is less rainy than Rome and Paris) as the shadow of the Ore Mountains and the Czech Central Highlands takes effect. The driest season is usually winter while the summers can bring quite heavy rain especially in form of violent storms and showers. Temperature inversions are relatively common between mid-October and mid-March bringing often cloudy, cold days in comparison with mountains or highlands and can be often connected with air pollution.

Culture

Saint Wenceslas I]] Rudolfinum, a concert and exhibition hall Prague Congress Centre hosted IMF-WBG meeting or NATO summit Prague is traditionally one of the cultural centres of Europe, hosting many cultural events. Some of the significant cultural institutions include the National Theatre (N rodn Divadlo) and the Estates Theatre (Stavovsk or Tylovo or Nosticovo divadlo), where the premi re of Mozart's Don Giovanni and La clemenza di Tito was held. Other major cultural institutions are the Rudolfinum which is home to the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra and the Municipal House which is home to the Prague Symphony Orchestra. The Prague State Opera (St tn opera) performs at the Smetana Theatre.

There are many world class museums in Prague including the National Museum (N rodn muzeum), the Museum of the Capital City of Prague, the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Alfons Mucha Museum, the African-Prague Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague the N prstek Museum (N prstkovo Muzeum, the Josef Sudek Gallery, the National Library and the National Gallery

There are hundreds of concert halls, galleries, cinemas and music clubs in the city. Prague hosts Music Festivals including the Prague Spring International Music Festival, the Prague Autumn International Music Festival and the Prague International Organ Festival. Film festivals include the Febiofest, the One World and Echoes of the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. Prague also hosts the Prague Writers' Festival, the Prague Folklore Days, Prague Advent Choral Meeting g, the Summer Shakespeare Festival,[35] the Prague Fringe Festival, the World Roma Festival, as well as the hundreds of Vernissages and fashion shows.

Many films have been made at the Barrandov Studios. Hollywood movies set in Prague include Mission Impossible, xXx, Blade II, Alien vs. Predator, Doom, Chronicles of Narnia and Van Helsing. Other Czech films shot in Prague include Empties, EuroTrip, Amadeus and The Fifth Horseman is Fear. Also, the music video to "Diamonds from Sierra Leone" by Kanye West was shot in Prague, and features shots of the Charles Bridge and the Astronomical Clock, among other famous landmarks. Rihanna's "Don't Stop the Music" video was filmed at Prague's Radost FX Club. Prague was also the setting for the film "Dungeons and Dragons" in 2000. The music video "Silver and Cold" by AFI, an American rock band, was also filmed in Prague. Many Indian films have also been filmed in Prague including Yuvraaj, Drona and Rockstar (2011 film).

Forbes Traveller Magazine listed Prague Zoo among the world's best zoos.[36]

With the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe, Prague has become a popular weekend city destination allowing tourists to visit its many museums and cultural sites as well as try its famous Czech beers and hearty cuisine.

Prague sites many buildings by renowned architects, including Adolf Loos (Villa M ller), Frank O. Gehry (Dancing House), or Jean Nouvel (Golden Angel).

Recent major events held in Prague:

Cuisine

Around 200 girls and boys in Czech national costumes servers in Czech Beer Festival The Prague restaurant Allegro received the first Michelin star in the whole of post-Communist Eastern Europe. Contemporary there are 2 Michellin-star restaurants in Prague (Alkrone and Degustacion Bohema). At Mal Strana, Star M sto, i kov or Nusle are hundreds of restaurants, bars and pubs, especially with a good Czech beer. Prague also hosts the Czech Beer Festival ( esk pivn festival), it is the biggest beer festival in the Czech Republic held for 17 days every year in May. There you can taste more than 70 best brands of great Czech beer.

Prague is home of number of beer breweries:

  • Prvn novom stsk restaura n pivovar (Praha1),
  • Pivovar U Flek (Praha1),
  • Kl tern pivovar Strahov (Praha1),
  • Pivovar Pra sk most u Val (Praha1),
  • Pivovarsk Hotel U Medv dk (Praha1),
  • Pivovarsk d m (Praha2) Jihom stsk pivovar (Praha4),
  • Sousedsk pivovar U Banseth (Praha4),
  • Pivovary Staropramen (Praha5),
  • Vyukov a v zkumn pivovar Suchdolsk Jen k (Praha6),
  • Pivovar U Bulovky (Praha8).

Economy

Head office of Czech Airlines in Ruzyn , Prague i kov Television Tower with crawling "babies" Prague's economy accounts for 25% of the Czech Republic's GDP[37] making it the highest performing regional economy of the country. According to the Eurostat, as of 2007, its GDP per capita in purchasing power standard is 42,800 . Prague ranked the 5th best-performing European NUTS 2 level region at 172 % of the EU-27 average.[38]

The city is the site of the European headquarters of many international companies.

Since 1990, Prague's economic structure has shifted from industrial to service-oriented. Industry is present in sectors such as pharmaceuticals, printing, food processing, manufacture of transport equipment, computer technology and electrical engineering. In services sector, most significant are financial services, commercial services, trade, restaurants and accommodations and public administration. Services account for around 80% of employment. There are 800,000 employees in Prague, including 120,000 commuters.[37] The number of (legally registered) foreign residents in Prague has been increasing in spite of the country's economic downturn. As of March 2010, 148,035 foreign workers were reported to be living in the city making up about 18% of the workforce, up from 131,132 in 2008.[39] Approximately one-fifth of all investment in the Czech Republic takes place in Prague city.

Almost one-half of the national income from tourism is spent in Prague. The city offers approximately 73,000 beds in accommodation facilities, most of which were built after 1990, including almost 51,000 beds in hotels and boarding houses.

From the late 1990s to late 2000s, Prague was a popular filming location for international productions and Hollywood, Bollywood motion pictures. A combination of architecture, low costs and the existing motion picture infrastructure have proven attractive to international film production companies.

The modern economy of Prague is largely service and export-based and, in a 2010 survey, the city was named the best city in East Europe for business.[40]

In 2005 Prague was deemed among the three best cities in eastern Europe according to the Economist's livability rankings.[41] The city was named as a top-tier nexus city for innovation across multiple sectors of the global innovation economy, placing 29th globally out of 289 cities, ahead of Brussels and Helsinki for innovation in 2010 in 2thinknow annual analysts Innovation Cities Index.[42] The street Na P kop in New Town is the most expensive in whole Central Europe.[43]

In the Eurostat research, Prague ranked fifth among Europe's 271 regions in terms of gross domestic product per inhabitant, achieving 172% of the EU average. It ranked just above Paris and well above the Czech Republic as a whole, which achieved 80% of the EU average.[44][45]

Prague is also the site of some of the most important offices and institutions of the Czech Republic.

Education

Charles University in Prague, founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe University of Economics]] in Prague was awarded the second place among Business Schools in selection in the Post-Communist European countries by the Financial Times Twelve universities, and a number of colleges and schools are located in the city, including:

Public universities

Public arts academies

Private schools

International institutions

Science, research and hi-tech centres

The region city of Prague is an important centre of research. It is the seat of 39 out of 54 institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences, including the largest ones, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Microbiology and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. It is also a seat of 10 public research institutes, four business incubators and large hospitals performing research and development activities such as the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine in Prague or the Motol University Hospital. Universities seated in Prague (see section Colleges and Universities) also represent important centres of science and research activities.

As of 2008, there were 13,000 researchers (out of 30,000 in the Czech Republic, counted in full-time equivalent), representing 3% share of Prague's economically active population. Gross expenditure on research and development accounted for 901.3 million (41.5% of country's total).[46]

Some well-known multinational companies have established research and development facilities in Prague, among them Siemens, Honeywell and Sun Microsystems.

In 2010, Prague was selected to host administration of the EU satellite navigation system Galileo.

Transport

St kov metro station]] on line C koda]] for the Prague tram system. Barrandov bridge, part of the City (inner) Ring Road Overview of Prague Ruzyn Airport at night, Terminal 2 behind control tower on the left and Terminal 1 on the right

Public transportation

The public transport infrastructure consists of an intensely used integrated transport system of Prague Metro (its length is 59 km with 57 stations in total), Prague Tram System (including the "nostalgic tram" no. 91), buses, the Pet n funicular to Pet n Hill, and six ferries: PID, Pra sk integrovan doprava (Prague integrated transport system). Prague has one of the highest rates of public transport usage in the world with 1.2 billion passenger journeys per annum. Per capita usage of the Prague metro is the highest in the world. According to its builder, the escalator at N m st M ru station is the longest escalator in Europe.

The Metro has three major lines extending throughout the city; in June 2010, construction began to extend the green line further into the northwest corner of Prague and eventually to the airport.[47] A fourth Metro line is planned, although a date for construction to begin has not yet been specified.[48]

Although Melbourne, Australia has the longest total tram system length in the world, Prague's tram network is one of the largest in the world by other measures. The Prague tram rolling stock consists of over 900 individual cars, of those around 700 are the T3 class, which are typically operated coupled together in pairs. The system carries more than 356 million passengers annually, the third highest tram patronage in the world after St Petersburg and Budapest. On a per capita basis, Prague has the second highest tram patronage after Zurich. All services have a common ticketing system, and are run by the Prague Public Transport Company (Dopravn podnik hl. m. Prahy, a. s.) and several other companies. Recently, the Regional Organiser of Prague Integrated Transport (ROPID) has franchised operation of ferries on the Vltava river, which are also a part of the public transport system with common fares. Taxi services operate from regulated taxi stands, and from independent drivers who make pick-ups on the street..

Roads

The main flow of traffic leads through the centre of the city and through inner and outer ring roads (only partially in operation).

Inner Ring Road (The City Ring "MO"): Once completed it will surround the wider central part of the city. The longest city tunnel in Europe with a proposed length of and five interchanges is now being built to relieve congestion in the north-western part of Prague. Called Tunel Blanka and to be part of the City Ring Road, it is estimated that it will now cost after several increases 38 billion CZK. Construction started in 2007 and the tunnel is scheduled to be completed in 2013/2014. This tunnel complex will complete major part of the inner ring road. The entire City Ring is estimated to be finished after 2020.

Outer Ring Road (The Prague Ring "R1"): This ring road will connect all major motorways and speedways that meet each other in Prague region and provide faster transit without a necessity to drive through the city. So far , out of total planned , is in operation. Full completion is estimated around 2017.[49] Most recently, the southern part of this road (with a length of more than ) was opened on 22 September 2010.

Rail

The city forms the hub of the Czech railway system, with services to all parts of the Czech Republic and abroad. The railway system links Prague with major European cities, including Munich (Germany); Berlin (Germany); Vienna (Austria); Warsaw (Poland); Budapest (Hungary); Copenhagen (Denmark); Zurich (Switzerland); Moscow (Russia) and Amsterdam (the Netherlands) (all of which can be reached without transfers). Travel times range between 4.5 hours to Berlin and approximately 8 hours to Warsaw.[50]

Prague's main international railway station is Hlavn n dra (formerly called Wilsonovo n dra ).[51] Rail services are also available from the main stations Praha Masarykovo n dra , Praha-Hole ovice and Praha-Sm chov, in addition to selected suburban stations.

Air

Prague is served by Prague Ruzyn Airport, the biggest airport in the Czech Republic and one of the busiest in Central and Eastern Europe. It is the hub of the flag carrier, Czech Airlines,[52] as well as of the low-cost airlines Smart Wings and Wizzair operating throughout Europe. This airport is planned to be renamed to Mezin rodn leti t V clava Havla v Praze (Prague V clav Havel International Airport) in October 2012, as a reminder of a former Czech president and fighter for human rights, V clav Havel. Other airports in Prague include the city's original airport at the Kbely north-east district, which is serviced by the Czech Air Force, internationally too: The runway (9 27) at Kbely is 2 km long. The airport also houses the Prague Aviation Museum. Close to town the Let any airport is mainly used for private aviation and aeroclub aviation. Another airport in the proximity is Aero Vodochody aircraft factory's on the north, used for testing purposes, as well as for aeroclub aviation. There are a few aeroclubs around Prague, such as the To n airfield.

Sport

HC Slavia Prague]]

Prague is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams.

International relations

The city of Prague also maintains its own EU delegation in Brussels called Prague House.[54] Pet n Lookout Tower, an observation tower built at Pet n hill.

Prague was the location of President of the United States Barack Obama's speech on 5 April 2009, which led to the New START treaty with Russia, signed in Prague on 8 April 2010. [55]

The annual conference Forum 2000, which was founded by former Czech President V clav Havel, Japanese philanthropist Yohei Sasakawa, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel in 1996, is held in Prague. Its main objective is to identify the key issues facing civilization and to explore ways to prevent the escalation of conflicts that have religion, culture or ethnicity as their primary components , and also intends to promote democracy in non-democratic countries and to support civil society. Conferences have attracted a number of prominent thinkers, Nobel laureates, former and acting politicians, business leaders and other individuals like: Frederik Willem de Klerk, Bill Clinton, Nicholas Winton, Oscar Arias S nchez, Dalai Lama, Hans K ng, Shimon Peres, and Madeleine Albright.

Twin towns and sister cities

Prague have a friendship agreement and is twinned with:[56]

Namesakes

Czech emigration has left a number of namesake cities scattered over the globe, though more heavily concentrated in the New World.

File:CharlesBridge-Prague.jpg|The Charles Bridge is a historic bridge from the 14th century File:St. Vitus Cathedral 2007.jpg|Prague Castle is the biggest ancient castle in the world File:Prague old town square panorama.jpg|Old Town Square featuring Church of Our Lady before T n and Old Town City Hall with Prague Orloj File:Parn k Vy ehrad pod Vy ehradem.jpg|Vy ehrad fortress contains Basilica of St Peter and St Paul, the Vy ehrad Cemetery and the Rotunda of St. Martin from 11th century File:Praha, Letn , pohled na Pa skou ulici.JPG|View of Pa sk st. from Letn in Prague File:N m st M ru.jpg|N m st M ru (Peace Square) with Vinohrady Theatre and Saint Ludmila Church File:Praha Narodni divadlo.jpg|National Theatre offers opera, ballet and drama performances File:Prazske-vystaviste-holesovice.jpg|V stavi t compound contains Pr myslov pal c and K i k's Light Fountain, host funfair Lunapark File:AltneuschulPrague.agr.jpg|Old New Synagogue is Europe's oldest active synagogue. Legend has Golem lying in the loft File:Praha, V tkov, pam tn k II.JPG|National Monument on V tkov Hill with the statue of Jan i ka is the third largest bronze equestrian statue in the world File:Prague Zoo main entrance.JPG|Prague Zoo, selected as the seventh best zoo in the world by Forbes magazine File:P5080116.JPG|A portion of the Lennon Wall

See also

References

Further reading

Culture and society

  • Becker, Edwin et al., ed. Prague 1900: Poetry and Ecstasy. (2000). 224 pp.
  • Burton, Richard D. E. Prague: A Cultural and Literary History. (2003). 268 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Cohen, Gary B. The Politics of Ethnic Survival: Germans in Prague, 1861 1914. (1981). 344 pp.
  • Fuc kov , Eliska, ed. Rudolf II and Prague: The Court and the City. (1997). 792 pp.
  • Holz, Keith. Modern German Art for Thirties Paris, Prague, and London: Resistance and Acquiescence in a Democratic Public Sphere. (2004). 359 pp.
  • Iggers, Wilma Abeles. Women of Prague: Ethnic Diversity and Social Change from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. (1995). 381 pp. online edition
  • Porizka, Lubomir; Hojda, Zdenek; and Pesek, Jir . The Palaces of Prague. (1995). 216 pp.
  • Sayer, Derek. "The Language of Nationality and the Nationality of Language: Prague 1780 1920." Past & Present 1996 (153): 164 210. Issn: 0031-2746 Fulltext: in Jstor
  • Spector, Scott. Prague Territories: National Conflict and Cultural Innovation in Kafka's Fin de Si cle. (2000). 331 pp. online edition
  • Sv cha, Rostislav. The Architecture of New Prague, 1895 1945. (1995). 573 pp.
  • Wittlich, Peter. Prague: Fin de Si cle. (1992). 280 pp.

External links

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