One part per trillion (1 ppt) is a proportion equivalent to onetwentieth of a drop of water diluted into an Olympicsize swimming pool.
In science and engineering, the partsper notation is a set of pseudo units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction. Since these fractions are quantityperquantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement. Commonly used are ppm (partspermillion, ), ppb (partsperbillion, ), ppt (partspertrillion, ) and ppq (partsperquadrillion, ).
Warning
Usage of ppm (ppb, ppt, etc.) abbreviation is in conflict with technical standard ISO 800001:2009, clause 6.5.5, and therefore technically incorrect. Proper expression of particles ratio in certain volume or mass, i.e. the expression in compliance with technical standards suitable for use in technical documentation, is in powers of ten per cubic meter or per kilogram where appropriate.
Overview
Partsper notation is often used describing dilute solutions in chemistry, for instance, the relative abundance of dissolved minerals or pollutants in water. The unit 1 ppm can be used for a mass fraction if a waterborne pollutant is present at onemillionth of a gram per gram of sample solution.
Similarly, partsper notation is used also in physics and engineering to express the value of various proportional phenomena. For instance, a special metal alloy might expand 1.2 micrometers per meter of length for every degree Celsius and this would be expressed as = 1.2 ppm/ C. Partsper notation is also employed to denote the change, stability, or uncertainty in measurements. For instance, the accuracy of landsurvey distance measurements when using a laser rangefinder might be 1 millimeter per kilometer of distance; this could be expressed as Accuracy = 1 ppm. ^{[1]}
Partsper notations are all dimensionless quantities: in mathematical expressions, the units of measurement always cancel. In fractions like 2 nanometers per meter (2 nm/m = 2 nano = 2 10 ^{9} = 2 ppb = 2 0.000000001) so the quotients are purenumber coefficients with positive values less than 1. When partsper notations, including the percent symbol (%), are used in regular prose (as opposed to mathematical expressions), they are still purenumber dimensionless quantities. However, they generally take the literal parts per meaning of a comparative ratio (e.g., 2 ppb would generally be interpreted as two parts in a billion parts ).^{[2]}
Partsper notations may be expressed in terms of any unit of the same measure. For instance, the coefficient of thermal expansion of a certain brass alloy, = 18.7 ppm/ C, may be expressed as 18.7 ( m/m)/ C, or as 18.7 ( in/in)/ C; the numeric value representing a relative proportion does not change with the adoption of a different unit of measure.^{[3]} Similarly, a metering pump that injects a trace chemical into the main process line at the proportional flow rate Q_{p} = 125 ppm, is doing so at a rate that may be expressed in a variety of volumetric units, including 125 L/L, 125 gal/gal, 125 cm^{3}/m^{3}, etc.
Ppm is also a measure of the chemical shift in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and represents difference of the frequency in parts per million from the reference frequency (signal).
Partsper expressions

One part per hundred is generally represented by the percent (%) symbol and denotes one part per 100 parts, one part in 10^{2}, and a value of 1 10 ^{2}. This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into 5 milliliters (one spoonfull), or about fifteen minutes out of one day.

One part per thousand should generally spelled out in full and not as ppt (which is usually understood to represent parts per trillion ). It may also be denoted by the permille ( ) symbol. Note however, that specific disciplines such as the analysis of ocean water salt concentration and educational exercises occasionally use the ppt abbreviation. One part per thousand denotes one part per 1000 parts, one part in 10^{3}, and a value of 1 10 ^{3}. This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into 50 milliliters (ten spoonfulls), or about one and a half minutes out of one day.

One part per ten thousand is denoted by the permyriad ( ) symbol. It is used almost exclusively in finance, where it is known as the basis point and is typically used to denote fractional changes in percentages. For instance, a change in an interest rate from 5.15% to 5.35% would be denoted as a change of 20 basis points or 20 . Although rarely used in science (ppm is typically used instead), one permyriad has an unambiguous value of one part per 10,000 parts, one part in 10^{4}, and a value of 1 10 ^{4}. This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into half a liter, or about nine seconds out of one day.

One part per million (ppm) denotes one part per 1,000,000 parts, one part in 10^{6}, 1/1,000,000 * 100% = 0.0001% (or 1% = 10,000 ppm), and a value of 1 10 ^{6}. This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into 50 liters (roughly the fuel tank capacity of a compact car), or about 32 seconds out of a year.

One part per billion (ppb) denotes one part per 1,000,000,000 parts, one part in 10^{9}, 1/1,000,000,000 * 100% = 0.0000001% (or 1% = 10,000,000 ppb) and a value of 1 10 ^{9}. This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into 250 chemical drums (50 m^{3}), or about three seconds out of a century.

One part per trillion (ppt) denotes one part per 1,000,000,000,000 parts, one part in 10^{12}, and a value of 1 10 ^{12}. This is equivalent to one drop of water diluted into 20 Olympicsize swimming pools (50,000 m^{3}), or about three seconds out of every hundred thousand years.

One part per quadrillion (ppq) denotes one part per 1,000,000,000,000,000 parts, one part in 10^{15}, and a value of 1 10 ^{15}. This is equivalent to 1 drop of water diluted into a cube of water measuring approximately 368 meters on a side (fifty million cubic meters, which is a cube about as tall as the Empire State Building's 102 stories), or two and a half minutes out of the age of the Earth (4.5 billion years). Although relatively uncommon in analytic chemistry, measurements at the ppq level are performed.^{[4]}
Measurements of dioxin are routinely made at the subppq level. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently sets a hard limit of 30 ppq for dioxin in drinking water but once recommended a voluntary limit of 0.013 ppq. Also, radioactive contaminants in drinking water, which are quantified by measuring their radiation, are often reported in terms of ppq. The ability to chemically detect contaminants at this level is truly an impressive feat; 0.013 ppq is equivalent to the thickness of a sheet of paper versus a journey of 146,000 trips around the world._{ }
Criticism
Although the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (an international standards organization known also by its Frenchlanguage initials BIPM) recognizes the use of partsper notation, it is not formally part of the International System of Units (SI).^{[2]} Note that although percent (%) is not formally part of the SI, both the BIPM and the ISO take the position that in mathematical expressions, the internationally recognized symbol % (percent) may be used with the SI to represent the number 0.01 for dimensionless quantities.^{[2]}^{[5]} According to IUPAP, a continued source of annoyance to unit purists has been the continued use of percent, ppm, ppb, and ppt. ^{[6]}. Although SIcompliant expressions should be used as an alternative, the partsper notation remains nevertheless widely used in technical disciplines. The main problems with the partsper notation are the following:
Long and short scales
Because the named numbers starting with a billion have different values in different countries, the BIPM suggests avoiding the use of ppb and ppt to prevent misunderstanding. In the English language, named numbers have a consistent meaning only up to million . Starting with billion , there are two numbering conventions: the long and short scales, and billion can mean either 10^{9} or 10^{12}. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) takes the stringent position, stating that the languagedependent terms [ . . . ] are not acceptable for use with the SI to express the values of quantities. ^{[7]}
Thousand vs trillion
Although "ppt usually means "parts per trillion", it occasionally means parts per thousand . Unless the meaning of "ppt" is defined explicitly, it has to be guessed from the context.
Mass fraction vs mole fraction
Another problem of the partsper notation is that it may refer to either a mass fraction or a mole fraction. Since it is usually not stated which quantity is used, it is better to write the unit as kg/kg, or mol/mol (even though they are all dimensionless).^{[8]} For example, the conversion factor between a mass fraction of 1 ppb and a mole fraction of 1 ppb is about 4.7 for the greenhouse gas CFC11 in air. The usage is generally quite fixed inside most specific branches of science, leading some researchers to draw the conclusion that their own usage (mass/mass, mol/mol or others) is the only correct one. This, in turn, leads them to not specify their usage in their publications, and others may therefore misinterpret their results. For example, electrochemists often use volume/volume, while chemical engineers may use mass/mass as well as volume/volume. Many academic papers of otherwise excellent level fail to specify their usage of the partsper notation. The difference between expressing concentrations as mass/mass or volume/volume is quite significant when dealing with gases and it is very important to specify which is being used.
SIcompliant expressions
SIcompliant units that can be used as alternatives are shown in the chart below. Expressions that the BIPM does not explicitly recognize as being suitable for denoting dimensionless quantities with the SI are shown in underlined green text.
NOTATIONS FOR DIMENSIONLESS QUANTITIES 
Measure 
SI
units 
Named
partsper ratio 
Partsper
abbreviation
or symbol 
Value in
scientific
notation 
A strain of 
2 cm/m 
2 parts per hundred 
2% ^{[9]}

2 10 ^{2}

A sensitivity of 
2 mV/V 
2 parts per thousand 
2 
2 10 ^{3}

A sensitivity of 
0.2 mV/V 
2 parts per ten thousand 
2 
2 10 ^{4}

A sensitivity of 
2 V/V 
2 parts per million 
2 ppm 
2 10 ^{6}

A sensitivity of 
2 nV/V 
2 parts per billion 
2 ppb 
2 10 ^{9}

A sensitivity of 
2 pV/V 
2 parts per trillion 
2 ppt 
2 10 ^{12}

A mass fraction of 
2 mg/kg 
2 parts per million 
2 ppm 
2 10 ^{6}

A mass fraction of 
2 g/kg 
2 parts per billion 
2 ppb 
2 10 ^{9}

A mass fraction of 
2 ng/kg 
2 parts per trillion 
2 ppt 
2 10 ^{12}

A mass fraction of 
2 pg/kg 
2 parts per quadrillion 
2 ppq 
2 10 ^{15}

A volume fraction of 
5.2 L/L 
5.2 parts per million 
5.2 ppm 
5.2 10 ^{6}

A mole fraction of 
5.24 mol/mol 
5.24 parts per million 
5.24 ppm 
5.24 10 ^{6}

A mole fraction of 
5.24 nmol/mol 
5.24 parts per billion 
5.24 ppb 
5.24 10 ^{9}

A mole fraction of 
5.24 pmol/mol 
5.24 parts per trillion 
5.24 ppt 
5.24 10 ^{12}

A stability of 
1 ( A/A)/min. 
1 part per million per min. 
1 ppm/min. 
1 10 ^{6}/min. 
A change of 
5 n / 
5 parts per billion 
5 ppb 
5 10 ^{9}

An uncertainty of 
9 g/kg 
9 parts per billion 
9 ppb 
9 10 ^{9}

A shift of 
1 nm/m 
1 part per billion 
1 ppb 
1 10 ^{9}

A strain of 
1 m/m 
1 part per million 
1 ppm 
1 10 ^{6}

A temperature coefficient of 
0.3 ( Hz/Hz)/ C 
0.3 part per million per C 
0.3 ppm/ C 
0.3 10 ^{6}/ C 
A frequency change of 
0.35 10 ^{9}

0.35 part per billion 
0.35 ppb 
0.35 10 ^{9}

Note that the notations in the SI units column above are all dimensionless quantities; that is, the units of measurement factor out in expressions like 1 nm/m (1 nm/m = 1 nano = 1 10 ^{9}) so the quotients are purenumber coefficients with values less than 1.
Uno
Because of the cumbersome nature of expressing certain dimensionless quantities per SI guidelines, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) in 1999 proposed the adoption of the special name uno (symbol: U) to represent the number 1 in dimensionless quantities.^{[6]} This symbol is not to be confused with the alwaysitalicized symbol for the variable uncertainty (symbol: U). This unit name uno and its symbol could be used in combination with the SI prefixes to express the values of dimensionless quantities which are much less or even greater than one.^{[10]}
Common partsper notations in terms of the uno are given in the table below.
IUPAP s uno proposal
Coefficient 
Partsper example 
Uno equiv. 
Symbol form 
Value of quantity 
10 ^{2}

2% 
2 centiuno 
2 cU 
2 10 ^{2}

10 ^{3}

2 
2 milliuno 
2 mU 
2 10 ^{3}

10 ^{6}

2 ppm 
2 microuno 
2 U 
2 10 ^{6}

10 ^{9}

2 ppb 
2 nanouno 
2 nU 
2 10 ^{9}

10 ^{12}

2 ppt 
2 picouno 
2 pU 
2 10 ^{12}

In 2004, a report to the International Committee for Weights and Measures (known also by its Frenchlanguage initials CIPM) stated that response to the proposal of the uno had been almost entirely negative and the principal proponent recommended dropping the idea. ^{[11]} To date, the uno has not been adopted by any standards organization and it appears unlikely it will ever become an officially sanctioned way to express lowvalue (highratio) dimensionless quantities. The proposal was instructive, however, as to the perceived shortcomings of the current options for denoting dimensionless quantities.
Improper applications of partsper notation
Partsper notation may properly be used only to express true dimensionless quantities; that is, the units of measurement must cancel in expressions like "1 mg/kg" so that the quotients are pure numbers with values less than 1. Mixedunit quantities such as "a radon concentration of 15 pCi/L" are not dimensionless quantities and may not be expressed using any form of partsper notation, such as "15 ppt". Other examples of measures that are not dimensionless quantities are as follows:
Note however, that it is not uncommon to express aqueous concentrations particularly in drinkingwater reports intended for the general public using partsper notation (2.1 ppm, 0.8 ppb, etc.) and further, for those reports to state that the notations denote milligrams per liter or micrograms per liter. Whereas "2.1 mg/L" is technically not a dimensionless quantity on the face of it, it is well understood in scientific circles that one liter of water has a mass of one kilogram and that "2.1 mg/kg" (2.1 ppm) is the true measure. The goal in all technical writing (including drinkingwater reports for the general public) is to clearly communicate to the intended audience with minimal confusion. Drinking water is intuitively a volumetric quantity in the public s mind so measures of contamination expressed on a perliter basis are considered to be easier to grasp. Still, it is technically possible, for example, to "dissolve" more than one liter of a very hydrophilic chemical in 1 liter of water; partsper notation would be confusing when describing its solubility in water (greater than a million parts per million), so one would simply state the volume (or mass) that will dissolve into a liter, instead.
When reporting airborne rather than waterborne densities, a slightly different convention is used since air is approximately 1000 times less dense than water. In water, 1 g/m^{3} is roughly equivalent to partspertrillion whereas in air, it is roughly equivalent to partsperbillion. Note also, that in the case of air, this convention is much less accurate. Whereas one liter of water is almost exactly 1 kg, one cubic meter of air is often taken as 1.143 kg much less accurate, but still close enough for many practical uses.
See also
References
External links
 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): Home page
 International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM): Home page
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