Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC). The Andronovo, BMAC and Yaz cultures have often been associated with Indo-Iranian migrations. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan movements. The Painted Grey Ware culture (PGW) is an Iron Age culture of Gangetic plain, lasting from roughly 1200 BC to 600 BC. It is contemporary to, and a successor of the Black and red ware culture. It probably corresponds to the later Vedic period. It is succeeded by Northern Black Polished Ware from ca. 500 BC.
B.B. Lal associated Hastinapura, Mathura, Ahichatra, Kampilya, Barnawa, Kurukshetra and other sites with the PGW culture, the (post-) Mahabharata period and the Aryans in the 1950s. Furthermore, he pointed out that the Mahabharata mentions a flood and a layer of flooding debris was found in Hastinapura. However, B.B. Lal considered his theories to be provisional and based upon a limited body of evidence, and he later reconsidered his statements on the nature of this culture (Kenneth Kennedy 1995).
The pottery style of this culture is different from the pottery of the Iranian Plateau and Afghanistan (Bryant 2001). In some sites, PGW pottery and Late Harappan pottery are contemporaneous.
The archaeologist Jim Shaffer (1984:84-85) has noted that "at present, the archaeological record indicates no cultural discontinuities separating Painted Grey Ware from the indigenous protohistoric culture."
According to Chakrabarti (1968) and other scholars, the origins of the subsistence patterns (e.g. rice use) and most other characteristics of the Painted Grey Ware culture are in eastern India or even Southeast Asia.
↑ http://books.google.com/books?id=tzU3RIV2BWIC&pg=PA310&dq=Painted+Grey+Ware+culture+1200+bc&as_brr=3&cd=8#v=onepage&q=Painted%20Grey%20Ware%20culture%201200%20bc&f=false "Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture" By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams
↑ http://books.google.com/books?id=ZR-J6-WOH4QC&pg=PA96&dq=Painted+Grey+Ware+culture+1200+bc&as_brr=3&cd=3#v=onepage&q=Painted%20Grey%20Ware%20culture%201200%20bc&f=false "Malwa Through the Ages" By Kailash Chand Jain
↑ Shaffer, Jim. 1993, Reurbanization: The eastern Punjab and beyond. In Urban Form and Meaning in South Asia: The Shaping of Cities from Prehistoric to Precolonial Times, ed. H. Spodek and D.M. Srinivasan.
- Chakrabarti, D.K. 1968. The Aryan hypothesis in Indian archaeology. Indian Studies Past and Present 4, 333-358.
Jim Shaffer. 1984. The Indo-Aryan Invasions: Cultural Myth and Archaeological Reality. In: J.R. Lukak. The People of South Asia. New York: Plenum. 1984.
Kennedy, Kenneth 1995. Have Aryans been identified in the prehistoric skeletal record from South Asia? , in George Erdosy, ed.: The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia, p. 49-54.
cs:Kultura ed malovan keramiky es:Cultura de la cer mica gris pintada it:Cultura della ceramica grigia dipinta ml: no:Den gr malte keramikk-kulturen ru: fi:Maalattu harmaa keramiikka