Nova Scotia (pronounced ; ; ) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the most populous province of the four in Atlantic Canada. The provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest province in Canada with an area of . As of 2011, the population is 921,727, which makes Nova Scotia the second-most-densely populated province.
Nova Scotia was already home to the Mi'kmaq people when French colonists established Port Royal, Nova Scotia, the first permanent European settlement in North America north of Florida in 1605. Almost one hundred and fifty years later, the first English and German settlers arrived with the founding of Halifax (1749). The first Scottish migration was on the Hector (1773) and then the first Black migration happened after the American Revolution (1783). Despite the diversity of the cultural heritage of Nova Scotia, much of the twentieth-century tourism efforts focused primarily on all things Scottish. Many recent tourism efforts embrace and showcase Nova Scotia's diversity.
In 1867 Nova Scotia was one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation.
The name of the province is Latin for "New Scotland," but "Nova Scotia" is the recognized, English-language name of the province. In French, it is called "Nouvelle-Ecosse", which is a literal translation from Latin to French. The province was named by Sir William Alexander in 1632.
Map of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is also part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks, approximately from the province's southern coast.
Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is almost surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental rather than maritime. The temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean.
Described on the provincial vehicle-licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, the sea is a major influence on Nova Scotia's climate. Nova Scotia's cold winters and warm summers are modified and generally moderated by ocean influences. The province is surrounded by three major bodies of water, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and east.
While the constant temperature of the Atlantic Ocean moderates the climate of the south and east coasts of Nova Scotia, heavy ice build-up in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence makes winters colder in northern Nova Scotia; the shallowness of the Gulf's waters mean that they warm up more than the Atlantic Ocean in the summer, warming the summers in northern Nova Scotia. Summer officially lasts from the first Sunday in April to the Saturday before the last Sunday in October. Although Nova Scotia has a somewhat moderated climate, there have been some very intense heatwaves and cold snaps recorded over the past 160 years. The highest temperature ever recorded in the province was 38.3 C (101 F) on August 19, 1935, at Collegeville, which is located about 15 km southwest of Antigonish. The coldest temperature ever recorded was 41.1 C ( 42 F) on January 31, 1920, at Upper Stewiacke.
The highest temperature ever recorded in the city of Halifax was 37.2 C (99 F) on July 10, 1912, and the lowest was 29.4 C ( 21 F) on Feb 18, 1922. For the city of Sydney, the highest temperature ever recorded was 36.7 C (98 F) on August 18, 1935, and the lowest was 31.7 C ( 25 F) on January 31, 1873, and January 29, 1877
A satellite photo of Nova Scotia Rainfall changes from in the south to elsewhere. Nova Scotia is also very foggy in places, with Halifax averaging 196 foggy days per year and Yarmouth 191.
The average annual temperatures are:
- Spring from to
- Summer from to 
- Fall about to
- Winter about to
Due to the ocean's moderating effect Nova Scotia is the warmest of the provinces in Canada. It has frequent coastal fog and marked changeability of weather from day to day. The main factors influencing Nova Scotia's climate are:
- The effects of the westerly winds
- The interaction between three main air masses which converge on the east coast
- Nova Scotia's location on the routes of the major eastward-moving storms
- The modifying influence of the sea.
Because Nova Scotia juts out into the Atlantic, it is prone to tropical storms and hurricanes in the summer and autumn. However due to the relatively cooler waters off the coast of Nova Scotia, tropical storms are usually weak by the time they reach Nova Scotia. There have been 33 such storms, including 12 hurricanes, since records were kept in 1871 about once every four years. The last hurricane was category-one Hurricane Earl in September 2010, and the last tropical storm was Tropical Storm Noel in 2007 (downgraded from Hurricane Noel by the time the storm reached Nova Scotia). The most destructive hurricane was Hurricane Juan in 2003.
The province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki (mi'gama'gi). Nova Scotia was already home to the Mi'kmaq people when the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in Canada and the first north of Florida at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British Conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. It was formally recognized in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht. Cape Breton Island ( le Royale) was returned to the French in the Treaty of Utrecht. What is now New Brunswick was still a part of the French colony of Acadia. The name of the capital was changed from Port Royal to Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. The capital of Nova Scotia was changed from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax in 1749. In 1755, the vast majority of the French population (the Acadians) were expelled and replaced by New England Planters who arrived between 1759-1768.
In 1763, most of Acadia (Cape Breton Island, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) and New Brunswick) became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province was established in 1784 after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867 Nova Scotia was one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation.
17th and 18th centuries
The history of Nova Scotia was significantly influenced by the warfare that took place on its soil during the 17th and 18th centuries. Until that time period, the Mi kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries. The French arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi kmaq and Acadians were the predominant populations in the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians were in Nova Scotia, there were nine significant battles as the English and Scottish (later British), Dutch and French fought for possession of the colony. These battles happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia), Jemseg and Baleine.
Beginning with King Williams War in 1689, there were six wars in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French, Acadians, and Mi kmaq:
The battles during these wars were primarily fought at Port Royal, Saint John, Canso, Chignecto, Dartmouth, Lunenburg and Grand-Pr .
Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. A generation later, Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. During the French and Indian War (part of the Seven Years' War 1757 1763), the British deported the Acadians and recruited New England Planters to resettle the colony. After the war, some Acadians were allowed to return and the British made treaties with the Mi kmaq. Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
The American Revolution (1776 1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by raiding many of the coastal communities. Raids happened regularly on Lunenburg, Annapolis Royal, Canso and Liverpool. There were also two naval battles: the Naval battle off Halifax and another off Sydney, Cape Breton. There was ambivalence in Nova Scotia the 14th American Colony, as some called it over whether or not the colony should join the Americans in the rebellion against Britain (See Battle of Fort Cumberland and the Siege of Saint John (1777)).
After the British were defeated, its troops helped evacuate approximately 30,000 United Empire Loyalists (American Tories), who settled in Nova Scotia, with land grants by the Crown as some compensation for their losses. (Nova Scotia was divided and the present-day province of New Brunswick created). Approximately 3,000 of this group were Black Loyalists.
During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia s contribution to the war effort was communities either purchasing or building various privateer ships to lay siege to American vessels. Perhaps the most dramatic moment in the war for Nova Scotia was when HMS Shannon escorted the captured American frigate USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour (1813). Many of the prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island, Halifax.
During this century, Nova Scotia was the first colony in British North America and in the British Empire to achieve responsible government in January February 1848 and become self-governing through the efforts of Joseph Howe. Nova Scotia had established representative government in 1758, an achievement that was later commemorated by erecting the Dingle Tower in 1908.
Thousands of Nova Scotians fought in the American Civil War (1861 1865), primarily for the North. The British Empire (including Nova Scotia) was declared neutral in the struggle between the North and the South. As a result, Britain (and Nova Scotia) continued to trade with both the South and the North. Nova Scotia s economy boomed during the Civil War.
Immediately after the Civil War, Pro-Confederation premier Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, along with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada. The Anti-Confederation Party was led by Joseph Howe. Almost three months later, in the election of September 18, 1867, the Anti-Confederation Party, won 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature.
In the 19th century, Nova Scotia became a world leader in both building and owning wooden sailing ships in the second half of the 19th century. Nova Scotia produced internationally recognized shipbuilders Donald McKay and William Dawson Lawrence. The fame Nova Scotia achieved from sailors was assured when Joshua Slocum became the first man to sail single-handedly around the world (1895). This international attention continued into the following century with the many racing victories of the Bluenose schooner. Nova Scotia was also the birthplace and home of Samuel Cunard, a British shipping magnate, born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, who founded the Cunard Line.
Population since 1851
Top ten counties by population
|Cape Breton (county)
Guysborough County, Add it in please.
According to the 2006 Canadian census the largest ethnic group in Nova Scotia is Scottish (28.3%), followed by English (28.1%), Irish (19.9%), French (17.7%), Aboriginal origin (10.2%), German (10.0%), Dutch (3.9%), African Canadian (2.3%), Italian (1.3%), and Acadian (1.2%). Almost half of respondents (47.4%) identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".
Nova Scotia has a long history of social justice work to address issues such as racism and sexism within its borders. The Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission was established in 1967. The province in Atlantic Canada continues to battle racism with an annual march to end racism against people of African descent.
Mother tongue in Nova Scotia: Red majority anglophone, Orange mixed, Blue majority francophone. The 2006 Canadian census showed a population of 913,462.
Of the 899,270 singular responses to the census question concerning "mother tongue" the most-commonly reported languages were:
In addition, there were also 105 responses of both English and a "non-official language"; 25 of both French and a "non-official language"; 495 of both English and French; 10 of English, French, and a "non-official language"; and about 10,300 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave another unenumerated response. Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.
The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 327,940 (37 %); the United Church of Canada with 142,520 (17 %); and the Anglican Church of Canada with 120,315 (13 %).
Nova Scotia's traditionally resource-based economy has become more diverse in recent decades. The rise of Nova Scotia as a viable jurisdiction in North America was driven by the ready availability of natural resources, especially the fish stocks off the Scotian shelf. The fishery was pillar of the economy since its development as part of the economy of New France in the 17th century; however, the fishery suffered a sharp decline due to overfishing in the late 20th century. The collapse of the cod stocks and the closure of this sector resulted in a loss of approximately 20,000 jobs in 1992. Per capita GDP in 2005 was $31,344, lower than the national average per capita GDP of $34,273 and less than half that of Canada's richest province, Alberta.
Mining, especially of gypsum and salt and to a lesser extent silica, peat and barite, is also a significant sector. Since 1991, offshore oil and gas has become an increasingly important part of the economy. Agriculture remains an important sector in the province. In the central part of Nova Scotia, lumber and paper industries are responsible for much of the employment opportunities.
Nova Scotia s defence and aerospace sector generates approximately $500 million in revenues and contributes about $1.5 billion to the provincial economy annually. To date, 40% of Canada s military assets reside in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia has the fourth-largest film industry in Canada hosting over 100 productions yearly, more than half of which are the products of international film and television producers. Recently, the video game industry has grown with the emergence of developers such as HB Studios and Silverback Productions. The province made international headlines with an investment by Longtail Studios in 2009.
The Nova Scotia tourism industry includes more than 6,500 direct businesses, supporting nearly 40,000 jobs. 200,000 cruise ship passengers from around the world flow through the Port of Halifax, Nova Scotia each year. This industry contributes approximately $1.3 billion annually to the economy. The province also boasts a rapidly developing Information & Communication Technology (ICT) sector which consists of over 500 companies, and employs roughly 15,000 people. The Life Sciences sector in the province is flourishing; some of the most innovative life sciences companies in the world can be found in Nova Scotia. In 2006, the manufacturing sector brought in over $2.6 billion in chained GDP, the largest output of any industrial sector in Nova Scotia. There are currently over 360 firms in the Insurance Industry of Nova Scotia; there is a forecasted 25% growth in employment for this industry in the province over the next three years.
The average income of a Nova Scotian family is $47,100, the gross ranking close to the national average; for Halifax, the average family income is $58,262, which far surpasses the national average. This, along with the province s highly affordable real estate, makes Nova Scotia a cost-effective place to live. Halifax ranks among the top five most cost-effective places to do business when compared to large international centres in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific.
Nova Scotia has a number of incentive programs, including tax refunds and credits that work to encourage small business growth. The province is attracting major companies from all over the world that will help fuel the economy and provide jobs; companies like Research in Motion (RIM) and Lockheed Martin have seen the value of Nova Scotia and established branches in the province.
Though only the second smallest province in Canada, Nova Scotia is a recognized exporter. The province is the world s largest exporter of Christmas trees, lobster, gypsum, and wild berries. Its export value of fish exceeds $1 billion, and fish products are received by 90 countries around the world.
Government and politics
Nova Scotia is ordered by a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Nova Scotia is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia (presently Mayann E. Francis), carries out most of the royal duties in Nova Scotia.
Halifax, the provincial capital
The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in any of these areas of governance is limited, though; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Executive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected House of Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Nova Scotia (presently Darrell Dexter), the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Stephen McNeil) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.
Each of the 52 Members of the Legislative Assembly in the House of Assembly is elected by single member plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the lieutenant governor on the advice of the premier, or may be triggered by the government losing a confidence vote in the House. There are three dominant political parties in Nova Scotia: the Liberal Party, the New Democratic Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party.
The province's revenue comes mainly from the taxation of personal and corporate income, although taxes on tobacco and alcohol, its stake in the Atlantic Lottery Corporation, and oil and gas royalties are also significant. In 2006 07, the province passed a budget of $6.9 billion, with a projected $72 million surplus. Federal equalization payments account for $1.385 billion, or 20.07% of the provincial revenue. The province participates in the HST, a blended sales tax collected by the federal government using the GST tax system.
Nova Scotia no longer has any incorporated cities; they were amalgamated into Regional Municipalities in 1996.
Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Halifax Nova Scotia has long been a centre for artistic and cultural excellence. The capital city of Halifax hosts institutions such as Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Neptune Theatre, Two Planks and a Passion Theatre, Ship's Company Theatre and the Symphony Nova Scotia. The province is home to avant-garde visual art and traditional crafting, writing and publishing and a film industry.
Film and television
Margaret's Museum Nova Scotia has produced numerous film actors. Academy Award nominee Ellen Page (Juno, Inception) lives in Nova Scotia; five time Academy Award nominee Arthur Kennedy (Lawrence of Arabia, High Sierra) called Nova Scotia his home; and two time Golden Globe winner Donald Sutherland (MASH, Ordinary People) spent most of his youth in the province. Other actors include John Paul Tremblay (Trailer Park Boys). Nova Scotia has also produced numerous film directors such as Thom Fitzgerald (The Hanging Garden) and Daniel Petrie (Resurrection Academy Award nominee).
Nova Scotian stories are the subject of numerous feature films: Margaret's Museum (starring Helena Bonham Carter); The Bay Boy (directed by Daniel Petrie and starring Kiefer Sutherland); New Waterford Girl; and Evangeline (starring Miriam Cooper).
There is a significant film industry in Nova Scotia. Some of the award winning feature films that have been made in the province are: Titanic (starring Leonardo Dicaprio and Kate Winslet); Bowling for Columbine (starring Michael Moore); and The Shipping News (starring Kevin Spacey and Cate Blanchett). Other films include K-19: The Widowmaker (starring Harrison Ford and Liam Neeson) and Amelia (starring Hillary Swank, Richard Gere and Ewan McGregor).
Nova Scotia has also produced numerous television series: This Hour has 22 Minutes, Don Messer's Jubilee, Black Harbour, Haven, Trailer Park Boys, Mr. D, and Theodore Tugboat. The Jesse Stone film series on CBS starring Tom Selleck is also routinely produced in the province.
There are numerous Nova Scotian authors who have achieved international fame: Thomas Chandler Haliburton (The Clockmaker); Alistair MacLeod (No Great Mischief); Margaret Marshall Saunders (Beautiful Joe) and Joshua Slocum (Sailing Alone Around the World). Other authors include Johanna Skibsrud (The Sentamentalist), Alden Nowlan (Bread, Wine and Salt), George Elliott Clarke (Execution Poems), Lesley Choyce (Nova Scotia: Shaped by the Sea), Thomas Raddall (Halifax: Warden of the North), Donna Morrissey (Kit's Law), Frank Parker Day (Rockbound).
Original cover 1900.
Nova Scotia has also been the subject of numerous literary books. Some of the international best-sellers are: Last Man Out: The Story of the Springhill Mining Disaster (by Melissa Fay Greene) ; Curse of the Narrows: The Halifax Explosion 1917 (by Laura MacDonald); "In the Village" (short story by Pulitzer Prize winning author Elizabeth Bishop); and National Book Critics Circle Award winner Rough Crossings (by Simon Schama). Other authors who have written novels about Nova Scotian stories include: Linden MacIntyre (The Bishop's Man); Hugh MacLennan (Barometer Rising); Ernest Buckler (The Valley and the Mountain); Archibald MacMechan (Red Snow on Grand Pr ), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (long poem Evangeline); Lawrence Hill (The Book of Negroes) and John Mack Faragher (Great and Nobel Scheme).
Denny Doherty (left) of the The Mamas & the Papas Nova Scotia has produced numerous musicians. The Grammy Award winners include Denny Doherty (from The Mamas & the Papas), Anne Murray, and Sarah McLachlan. Other musicians include: country singer George Canyon, jazz singer Holly Cole; multi-Juno nominated rapper Classified, Rita MacNeil, Sloan, The Rankin Family, Buck 65, Joel Plaskett and Grand Derangement.
There are numerous songs written about Nova Scotia: The Ballad of Springhill (written by Peggy Seeger and performed by Irish folk singer Luke Kelly a member of The Dubliners, U2 See video); numerous songs by Stan Rogers including Bluenose, Barrett's Privateers, and The Rawdon Hills (See Video); Farewell to Nova Scotia (traditional); She s Called Nova Scotia (by Rita MacNeil); Cape Breton (by David Myles); Acadian Driftwood (by Robbie Robertson); Acadie (by Daniel Lanois - See video); and My Nova Scotia Home (by Hank Snow).
Nova Scotia has also produced some significant song writers such as Grammy Award winning Gordie Sampson. Sampson has written songs for Carrie Underwood ("Jesus, Take the Wheel", "Just a Dream", "Get Out of This Town"), Martina McBride ("If I Had Your Name",You're Not Leavin Me"), LeAnn Rimes ("Long Night", "Save Myself"), and George Canyon ("My Name"). Another successful Nova Scotia song writer was Hank Snow whose songs have been recorded by The Rolling Stones, Elvis Presley, and Johnny Cash.
Music producer Brian Ahern is a Nova Scotian. He got his start by being music director for CBC televisions Singalong Jubilee. He later produced 12 albums for Anne Murray ( Snowbird, Danny s Song and You Won t See Me ); 11 albums for Emmylou Harris (whom he married at his home in Halifax on January 9, 1977). He also produced discs for Johnny Cash, George Jones, Roy Orbison, Glen Campbell, Don Williams, Jesse Winchester and Linda Ronstadt.
Sidney Crosby from Halifax Regional Municipality Sport is an important part of Nova Scotia culture. There are numerous professional sports teams. Nova Scotia has also produced numerous athletes such as Sidney Crosby (hockey), Brad Marchand (hockey), Colleen Jones (curling), Al MacInnis (hockey), Rocky Johnson (wrestling) and George Dixon (boxer). The achievements of Nova Scotian athletes are presented at the Nova Scotia Sport Hall of Fame.
Nova Scotia's tourism industry showcases Nova Scotia's culture, scenery and coastline.
Skyline Hiking Trail]] Nova Scotia has many museums reflecting its ethnic heritage, including the Glooscap Heritage Centre, Grand-Pr National Historic Site, Hector Heritage Quay and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia. Others museums tell the story of its working history, such as the Cape Breton Miners' Museum, and the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic.
Nova Scotia is home to several internationally renowned musicians and there are visitor centers in the home towns of Hank Snow, Rita MacNeil, and Anne Murray Centre. There are also numerous music and cultural festivals such as the Stan Rogers Folk Festival, Celtic Colours, the Nova Scotia Gaelic Mod, Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo, the Atlantic Film Festival and the Atlantic Fringe Festival.
The province has numerous National Historic Sites, the most notable being the Habitation at Port-Royal, the Fortress of Louisbourg and Citadel Hill (Fort George) in Halifax.
Nova Scotia has two national parks, Kejimkujik and Cape Breton Highlands, and many other protected areas. The Bay of Fundy has the highest tidal range in the world, and the iconic Peggys Cove is internationally recognized and receives 600,000 plus visitors a year.
Cruise ships pay regular visits to the province. In 2010, Halifax received 261,000 passengers and Sydney 69,000.
The Minister of Education is responsible for the administration and delivery of education, as defined by the Education Act and other acts relating to colleges, universities and private schools. The powers of the Minister and the Department of Education are defined by the Ministerial regulations and constrained by the Governor-In-Council regulations.
Nova Scotia has more than 450 public schools for children. The public system offers primary to Grade 12. There are also private schools in the province. Public education is administered by seven regional school boards, responsible primarily for English instruction and French immersion, and also province-wide by the Conseil Scolaire Acadien Provincial, which administer French instruction to students for whom the primary language is French.
The Nova Scotia Community College system has 13 campuses around the province. The community college, with its focus on training and education, was established in 1988 by amalgamating the province's former vocational schools.
In addition to its community college system the province has 11 universities, including Dalhousie University, University of King's College, Saint Mary's University (Halifax), Mount Saint Vincent University, NSCAD University, Acadia University, Universit Sainte-Anne, Saint Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Cape Breton University and the Atlantic School of Theology.
There are also more than 90 registered private commercial colleges in Nova Scotia.
- Brebner, John Bartlet. New England's Outpost. Acadia before the Conquest of Canada (1927)
- Brebner, John Bartlet. The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal Colony During the Revolutionary Years (1937)
- Griffiths, Naomi. E. S. From Migrant to Acadian, 1604 1755: A North American Border People. Montreal and Kingston, McGill / Queen's University Press, 2004.
- Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710 1760. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2008. (ISBN 9780806138763)
- Landry, Peter. The Lion & The Lily. Vol. 1, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC., 2007. (ISBN 1425154506)
- Murdoch, Beamish. History of Nova Scotia, Or Acadie. Vol 2. BiblioBazaar, LaVergne, TN, 1865.
- Pryke, Kenneth G. Nova Scotia and Confederation, 1864 74 (1979) (ISBN 0-8020-5389-0)
- Thomas Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition) (ISBN 1141698536)
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