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North Rhine-Westphalia

North Rhine-Westphalia ( ) is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is D sseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the Social Democrats and Greens.

Contents


History

Westphalia

Around 1 A.D. there were numerous incursions through Westphalia and perhaps even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements. The Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabr ck (as mentioned, it is disputed whether this is in Westphalia) and some of the tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in Paderborn and nearby parts. His Saxon Wars also partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Bielefeld, Lemgo, Osnabr ck and other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger, which is also a subject of a legend.

Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia (Westfalahi) was originally a district of the Duchy of Saxony. In 1180 Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa. The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area south of the Lippe River.

Ratification of the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 in M nster by Gerard Terborch Map of the Lower Rhenish Westphalian Circle in 1710 by Peter Schenck Parts of Westphalia came under Brandenburg-Prussian control during the 17th and 18th centuries, but most of it remained divided duchies and other feudal areas of power. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in M nster and Osnabr ck, ended the Thirty Years' War. The concept of nation-state sovereignty resulting from the treaty became known as "Westphalian sovereignty".

As a result of the Protestant Reformation, there is no dominant religion in Westphalia. Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism are on relatively equal footing. Lutheranism is strong in the eastern and northern parts with numerous free churches. M nster and especially Paderborn are thought of as Catholic. Osnabr ck is divided almost equally between Catholicism and Protestantism.

After the defeat of the Prussian Army at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 made the Westphalian territories part of the Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807 13. It was founded by Napoleon and was a French vassal state. This state only shared the name with the historical region; it contained only a relatively small part of Westphalia, consisting instead mostly of Hessian and Eastphalian regions.

After the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Prussia received a large amount of territory in the Westphalian region and created the province of Westphalia in 1815. The northernmost portions of the former kingdom, including the town of Osnabr ck, had become part of the states of Hanover and Oldenburg.

Rhineland

At the earliest historical period, the territories between the Ardennes and the Rhine were occupied by the Treveri, the Eburones and other Celtic tribes, who, however, were all more or less modified and influenced by their Germanic neighbours. On the right bank of the Rhine, between the Main and the Lahn, were the settlements of the Mattiaci, a branch of the Germanic Chatti, while farther to the north were the Usipetes and Tencteri.[1]

Julius Caesar conquered the tribes on the left bank, and Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the right bank. As the power of the Roman empire declined the Franks pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, and by the end of the 5th century had conquered all the lands that had formerly been under Roman influence. The Germanic conquerors of the Rhenish districts were singularly little affected by the culture of the Roman provincials they subdued, and all traces of Roman civilization were submerged. By the 8th century the Frankish dominion was firmly established in western Germany and northern Gaul.

On the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun the part of the province to the east of the river fell to East Francia, while that to the west remained with the kingdom of Lotharingia.[1]

By the time of Otto I. (d. 973) both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine, on the Mosel, and Lower Lorraine on the Meuse.

As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split up into numerous small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes and special chronicles. The old Lotharingian divisions became obsolete, and the name of Lorraine became restricted to the district that still bears it.

In spite of its dismembered condition, and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbours in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered greatly and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress. Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, and the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked largely in German history.[1]

Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century later Upper Guelders and Moers also became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795 the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was resigned to France, and in 1806 the Rhenish princes all joined the Confederation of the Rhine.

After the Congress of Vienna, Prussia was awarded with the entire Rhineland, which included the Grand Duchy of Berg, the ecclesiastic electorates of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aachen and Cologne, and nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys. The Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1822 and Prussia had the tact to leave them in undisturbed possession of the liberal institutions they had become accustomed to under the republican rule of the French.[1] In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium (see German-Speaking Community of Belgium).

North Rhine-Westphalia

Creation of the state

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia was established by the British military administration's "Operation Marriage" on 23 August 1946.[2][3] Originally, it consisted of Westphalia and the northern parts of the Rhine Province, both formerly part of Prussia. On 21 January 1947, the former state of Lippe was merged with North Rhine-Westphalia.[2] The constitution of North Rhine-Westphalia was then ratified through a referendum.

Geography

geographic map of North Rhine-Westphalia Rhine near Bonn Sunset near the Lower Rhine North Rhine-Westphalia includes the plains of the Lower Rhine region and parts of the Central Uplands (Mittelgebirge) up to the gorge of Porta Westfalica. The state comprises a land area of 34,083 km (13,158 square miles) and shares borders with Belgium in the southwest and the Netherlands in the west and northwest. It has borders with the German states of Lower Saxony to the north and northeast, Rhineland-Palatinate to the south and Hesse to the southeast.

Approximately half of the state is located in the relative shallow regions of the Westphalian Lowland or rather the Rhineland, both widely extending into the North German Plain. A few isolated mountain ranges are located within these lowlands, among them the Hohe Mark, the Beckum Hills, the Baumberge and the Stemmer Berge.
Towards the south as well as in the east of the state, the terrain rises. Here, the state has a stake in the Central Uplands, the Mittelgebirge. To this are counted the Weser Uplands with the Eggegebirge, the Wiehen Hills, the Wesergebirge and the Teutoburg Forest in the east, the Sauerland, the Bergisches Land, the Siegerland and the Siebengebirge in the south, as well as the left-Rhenish Eifel in the southwest of the state. The Rothaargebirge in the border region to Hesse exhibits elevations about 800 m above sea level. The highest among these mountains is the Langenberg with 843.2 m above sea level, then follow the Kahler Asten (840.7 m above sea level) and the Clemensberg (839.2 m above sea level).

The planimetrically ascertained centre of North Rhine-Westphalia is located in the south of Dortmund-Aplerbeck in the Aplerbecker Mark (51 28' N, 7 33' ). The westernmost point is situated near Selfkant close to the Dutch border, the easternmost near H xter on the Weser. The southernmost point lies near Hellenthal in the Eifel region. The northernmost point is the NRW-Nordpunkt near Rahden in the northeast of the state. The Nordpunkt is located only 100 km to the south of the North Sea coast. The deepest natural dip is arranged in the district Zyfflich in the city of Kranenburg with 9.2 m above sea level in the northwest of the state. Though, the deepest point overground results from mining. The open-pit Hambach reaches at Niederzier a deep of 293 m below sea level. At the same time, this is the deepest man-made dip in Germany.

The most important rivers flowing at least partially through North Rhine-Westphalia include: the Rhine, the Ruhr, the Ems, the Lippe, and the Weser. The Rhine is the by far most important river in North Rhine-Westphalia: it enters the state as Middle Rhine near Bad Honnef, where still being part of the Mittelrhein wine region. It changes into the Lower Rhine near Bad Godesberg and leaves North Rhine-Westphalia near Emmerich at a width of 730 metres. Almost immediately after entering the Netherlands, the Rhine splits into many branches.

The Pader, which flows entirely within the city of Paderborn, is considered Germany's shortest river.

For many, North Rhine-Westphalia is synonymous with industrial areas and urban agglomerations. However, the largest part of the state is used for agriculture (almost 52%) and forests (25%).[4]

Subdivisions

The state consists of five government regions (Regierungsbezirke), divided into 31 districts (Kreise) and 23 urban districts (kreisfreie St dte). In total, North Rhine-Westphalia has 396 municipalities (1997), including the urban districts, which are municipalities by themselves.Municipalities

The five government regions of North Rhine-Westphalia each belong to one of the two Landschaftsverb nde:

Landschaftsverband Rhineland
Landschaftsverband Westphalia-Lippe

300px
The regional authorities Rhineland (green) and
Westphalia-Lippe (red)
Government districts
(Regierungsbezirke)
historical regions
Government districts
(Regierungsbezirke)
historical regions
D sseldorf
Regierungsbezirk D sseldorf
Arnsberg
Regierungsbezirk Arnsberg
K ln
Regierungsbezirk K ln
Detmold
Regierungsbezirk Detmold
M nster
Regierungsbezirk M nster

Borders

The state's area covers a maximum distance of 291 km from north to south, and 266 km from east to west. The total length of the state's borders is 1,645 km. The following countries and states have a border with North Rhine-Westphalia:[5]

Demographics

Cologne (K ln) is the largest city of North Rhine-Westphalia D sseldorf is the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia and Germany's most livable city

North Rhine-Westphalia has a population of approximately 18 million inhabitants, and is centred around the polycentric Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, which includes the formerly industrial Ruhr region and the Rhenish cities of Bonn, Cologne and D sseldorf. 30 of the 80 largest cities in Germany are located within North Rhine-Westphalia. The state's capital is D sseldorf, the state's largest city is Cologne.

The following table shows the ten largest cities of North Rhine-Westphalia:

Pos. Name Pop. 2010 Area (km ) Pop. per km map
1 Cologne 1,000,660 405.15 2,470 250px
2 D sseldorf 586,564 217.01 2,703
3 Dortmund 580,688 280.37 2,071
4 Essen 575,027 210.38 2,733
5 Duisburg 501,564 232.81 2,154
6 Bochum 385,626 145.43 2,652
7 Wuppertal 359,237 168.37 2,134
8 Bielefeld 326,925 257.83 1,268
9 Bonn 312,818 141.22 2,215
10 M nster 270,868 302.91 894

Religion

Roman Catholics make up 42%[6] of the people, while 28%[7] of the people are members of the Evangelical Church in Germany.

Politics

The politics of North Rhine-Westphalia takes place within a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic. The two main parties are the Centre-right Christian Democratic Union and the Centre-left Social Democratic Party.

The task of legislating is split between the Landtag and the Bundestag.[8] The Landtag is responsible for cultural matters, the education system, matters of internal security, i.e. the police, building supervision, health supervision and the media within North Rhine-Westphalia.[8] The Landtag may enact laws as long as the Bundestag does not make use of its right to legislate.[8]

North Rhine-Westphalia uses a "Personalized proportional representation" for elections of the state's Landtag.[8] Every five years the citizens of North Rhine-Westphalia vote in a general election to elect at least 181 members of the Landtag.[8] Both, the members from the local constituency and the party-list members, are determined by one vote only.[8] Only parties who win at least 5% of the votes cast may be represented in parliament.[8]

The Landtag, the parliamentary parties and groups consisting of at least 7 members of parliament have the right to table legal proposals to the Landtag for deliberation.[8] The law that are passed by the Landtag is delivered to the Minister-President, who, together with the ministers involved, is required to sign it and announce it in the Law and Ordinance Gazette.[8] When the law comes into force is normally determined by the legislation itself, most usually the day after its announcement.[8]

Current executive branch

Position Minister Source
Minister-President Hannelore Kraft [9]
Deputy Minister-President Sylvia L hrmann
Minister of School and Further Education
Minister of Finance Dr. Norbert Walter-Borjans
Minister of Economic Affairs, Energy, Building,
Housing and Transport
Harry Kurt Voigtsberger
Minister of Home Affairs and Local Government Ralf J ger
Minister of Work, Social Integration and Welfare Guntram Schneider
Minister of Justice Thomas Kutschaty
Minister of Climate Protection, Environment, Agriculture,
Conservation and Consumer Affairs
Johannes Remmel
Minister of Innovation, Science and Research Svenja Schulze
Minister of Family, Children, Youth, Culture and Sport Ute Sch fer
Minister of Health, Equalities, Care and Ageing Barbara Steffens
Minister of Federal Affairs, Europe and the Media Dr. Angelica Schwall-D ren

List of Ministers-President

These are the Ministers-president of the Federal State of North-Rhine Westphalia:

Ministers-president of North Rhine-Westphalia
No. Name Born-Died Party affiliation Start of Tenure End of Tenure
1 Rudolf Amelunxen 1888 1969 Centre Party 1946 1947
2 Karl Arnold 1901 1958 CDU 1947 1956
3 Fritz Steinhoff 1897 1969 SPD 1956 1958
4 Franz Meyers 1908 2002 CDU 1958 1966
5 Heinz K hn 1912 1992 SPD 1966 1978
6 Johannes Rau 1931 2006 SPD 1978 1998
7 Wolfgang Clement
  • 1940
SPD 1998 2002
8 Peer Steinbr ck
  • 1947
SPD 2002 2005
9 J rgen R ttgers
  • 1951
CDU 2005 2010
10 Hannelore Kraft
  • 1961
SPD 2010 incumbent

Latest election results

The results of the 2010 North Rhine-Westphalia state election were as follows. Voter turnout was at 59%, a decrease of 4% over the previous election in 2005.

Culture

The flag of North Rhine-Westphalia is green-white-red with the combined coats of arms of the Rhineland (white line before green background, symbolizing the river Rhine), Westfalen (the white horse) and Lippe (the red rose).

According to legend the horse in the Westphalian coat of arms is the horse that the Saxon leader Widukind rode after his baptism. Other theories attribute the horse to Henry the Lion. Some connect it with the Germanic rulers Hengist and Horsa.

Architecture and building monuments

The state is not known for its castles like other regions in Germany.[10] However, North Rhine-Westphalia has a high concentration of museums, cultural centres, concert halls and theatres.[10]

Historic monuments

File:L wenstein House Aachen (Germany).jpg|Medieval architecture in Aachen File:Fr h Brauhaus K ln - Am Hof 12 und 14 (4626-28).jpg|C lner Hofbr u Fr h in Cologne File:Dortmund-alter-markt-reinoldikirche (mb).jpg|Reinoldikirche and Alter Markt in Dortmund File:Muenster-100725-16053-Rathaus.jpg|Historical City Hall in M nster File:Alt Monschau - geo.hlipp.de - 6903.jpg|Timber framing in Monschau

Modern architecture

File:Zeche-Zollern 2138.JPG| Art Nouveau Zeche Zollern in Dortmund File:D sseldorf, Medienhafen.jpg|Neuer Zollhof in D sseldorf File:Krefeld haus lange gartenseite04 12.jpg|Haus Lange and Haus Esters in Krefeld File:Langen Foundation Neuss 02.jpg|Langen Foundation in Neuss File:Schwebebahnstation Zoo-Stadion 13 ies.jpg|Schwebebahn in Wuppertal

World Heritage Sites

The state has Aachen Cathedral, the Cologne Cathedral, the Zeche Zollverein and Augustusburg Palace in Br hl which are all World Heritage Sites.[10]

File:Schloss Augustusburg Bruehl.jpg|Augustusburg and Falkenlust File:Aachen Cathedral North View at Evening.jpg|Aachen Cathedral File:Kdom.jpg|Cologne Cathedral File:Zollverein Schacht 12.jpg|Zollverein Coal Mine

Cuisine

Food

Drinks

Festivals

North Rhine-Westphalia hosts film festivals in Cologne, Bonn, Dortmund, Duisburg, M nster, Oberhausen and L nen.[10]

Other large Festivals include Renish carnivals, Ruhrtriennale.

Music

Economy

largest steel producer]] in Germany. Koelnmesse Cologne trade fair and exhibition centre in 2008 In the 1950s and 1960s, Westphalia was known as Land von Kohle und Stahl or the land of coal and steel. In the post-WWII recovery, the Ruhr was one of the most important industrial regions in Europe, and contributed to the German Wirtschaftswunder. As of the late 1960s, repeated crises led to contractions of these industrial branches. On the other hand, producing sectors, particularly in mechanical engineering and metal and iron working industry, experienced substantial growth. Despite this structural change and an economic growth which was under national average, the 2007 GDP of 529.4 billion euro (21.8 percent of the total German GDP) made the land the economically most important in Germany, as well as one of the most important economical areas in the world.[11] Of Germany s top 100 corporations, 37 are based in North Rhine-Westphalia. On a per capita base, however, Northrhine-Westphalia remains one of the weaker among the Western German states.[12] As of November 2010, the unemployment rate is 8.1%, second highest among all western German states.[13]

North Rhine-Westphalia attracts companies from both Germany and abroad. In 2009, the state had the most foreign direct investments (FDI) anywhere in Germany.[14] Around 13,100 foreign companies from the most important investment countries control their German or European operations from bases in North Rhine-Westphalia.

There has been many changes in the state's economy in recent times. Among the many changes in the economy, employment in the creative industries is up while the mining sector is employing fewer people.[10] Industrial heritage sites are now workplaces for designers, artists and the advertising industry.[10] The Ruhr region, formerly known as the "land of coal and steel" (Land von Kohle und Stahl), has since the 1960s undergone a significant structural change away from coal mining and steel industry. Many rural parts of Eastern Westphalia, Bergisches Land and the Lower Rhine ground their economy on "Hidden Champions" in various sectors.

Education

RWTH Aachen RWTH Aachen is one of Germany's leading universities of technology and was chosen by DFG as one of nine German Universities of Excellence North Rhine-Westphalia is home to 14 universities and over 50 partly postgraduate colleges, with a total of over 500,000 students.[15] Largest and oldest university is the University of Cologne (Universit t zu K ln), originally founded in 1388 AD.

Sports

Signal Iduna Park is the biggest stadium in Germany

Football

North Rhine-Westphalia is home to several association football clubs including current German champions Borussia Dortmund, as well as, Bayer 04 Leverkusen, 1. FC K ln, Borussia M nchengladbach, FC Schalke 04, MSV Duisburg, VfL Bochum, Arminia Bielefeld, Alemannia Aachen, Fortuna D sseldorf, Wuppertaler SV and SC Paderborn 07.

North Rhine-Westphalia have hosted several matches in the 1974 and 2006 FIFA World Cups and hosted matches in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. Matches were played at Rheinstadion in D sseldorf for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, RheinEnergieStadion in Cologne for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Parkstadion and Veltins-Arena in Gelsenkirchen and Signal Iduna Park in Dortmund for both World Cups. Borussia-Park in M nchengladbach, BayArena in Leverkusen and Ruhrstadion in Bochum hosted matches for the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Hockey

North Rhine-Westphalia is home to DEL teams K lner Haie, Krefeld Pinguine, DEG Metro Stars and Iserlohn Roosters.

See also

References

External links

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