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Marduk-zakir-shumi I

Marduk-z kir- umi, inscribed mdPA-za-kir-MU in a reconstruction of two kinglists,[1][2] Marduk pronounced the name, [3] was a king of Babylon 855-819 BC during the mixed dynastic period referred to in antiquity as the dynasty of E. He was a contemporary of Assyrian kings, ulm nu-a ar du III)[4] (859 824 BC) and am i-Adad V (824 811 BC) with whom he was allied.[5]

Contents


Biography

There are few contemporary inscriptions bearing witness to his reign. A kudurru[6] granting Ibni-I tar, a kal -priest of the temple of Eanna in Uruk, land by Marduk-z kir- umi, is dated to his second year.[7] Nazi-Enlil was governor or andabakku (inscribed L G .EN.NA) of Nippur, the first appearance of this office since Kassite times, as he appears as a witness along with the crown prince, Marduk-bal ssu-iqbi. A second kudurru records a private land sale near Dilbat.[8] His son, Enlil-apla-u ur, was to succeed him in Marduk-bal ssu-iqbi s reign.[9] A lapis Lazuli seal of this king depicting Marduk's statue resting on his pet dragon, Mu u u, was an offering intended to be hung around an idol's neck.[10]

Marduk-b l-u ati s revolt

His younger brother, Marduk-b l-u ati (inscribed mdAMAR.UTU-EN- -sat), rebelled and established a brief regime in the Diy la region, seizing Daban.[11] Assyrian sources describe him as ar amm i, "usurper." During years 851 and 850 BC, the Assyrian king ulm nu-a ar du III came to Marduk-z kir- umi s aid (ana n r r ti u) and campaigned in concert[12] to force him to flee to Jasubu mountainous northeast area of lower Diy la. During the first of the campaigns, Marduk-b l-u ati made a stand at Ganannate but was defeated outside the city walls. He was able to take refuge within the city which remained unconquered. The second campaign resulted in the city s fall and he beat a hasty retreat with some of his officers, escaping "like a fox through a hole" to the city of Arman ( alman) which itself was taken after a siege.[13] ulm nu-a ar du left an account of these events on his Black Obelisk:

During his campaign, ulm nu-a ar du captured the city of Baqani, extracting tribute from Adini of Bit-Dakkuri,[14] also from Mu allim-Marduk of the Amukani and the leader of the Yakin tribes, the earliest attestation of these Chaldean groups and made a pilgrimage to Babylon where he recounted "I ascended to Esagila, the palace of the gods, the abode of the king of all "[15][16] He practiced his religious devotions at other cultic shrines as his Black Obelisk recalls I went to the great urban centers. I made sacrifices in Babylon, Borsippa and Kutha. [17][18] A relief from the front of his throne base[19] depicts him gripping Marduk-z kir- umi s hand in a public display of Assyro-Babylonian friendship.[16] The kings are flanked by beardless youths identified as the crown princes and presumed to be am i-Adad V and Marduk-bal ssu-iqbi, who would eventually come to conflict.

Babylonian intervention in the Assyrian succession

The opportunity came for Marduk-z kir- umi to return the favor when, in his 32nd year of rule, ca. 826 BC, ulm nu-a ar du's own son, A ur-danin-apli ("A ur has strengthened the son") rebelled against his father. am i-Adad V recalled:

The Synchronistic History remains curiously silent on these events, but a treaty[20] between am i-Adad and Marduk-z kir- umi seems to place the Assyrian in an inferior position, indicative of his reliance on and debt to the Babylonian king. It concludes with a series of curses apparently copied from the Code of Hammurabi[21] and notably omitting the god A ur:

It may well have been concluded while ulm nu-a ar du was still alive and been accompanied by the diplomatic marriage of Marduk-z kir- umi's daughter, Shammuramat, the inspiration for the legend of Semiramis, to am i-Adad. The consequences were, however, that am i-Adad resented his subordinate position and came to wreak a terrible revenge during the reign of Marduk-z kir- umi's son and heir, Marduk-bal ssu-iqbi.

See also

External links

Inscriptions

  1. Synchronistic Kinglist KAV 10 (VAT 11261) ii 9.
  2. Synchronistic Kinglist KAV 182 (Ass. 13956dh) iii 12.
  3. umu 1c CAD III p. 289.
  4. Synchronistic Kinglist, KAV 216 (Ass. 14616c), iii 20.
  5. Eclectic Chronicle (ABC 24) BM 27859 reverse (r 5-7).
  6. Kudurru AO 6684 in the Louvre, published as RA 16 (1919) 125 126.
  7. 4 N-T 3:11'.
  8. Synchronistic Chronicle (ABC 21), K4401a + Rm 854, iii 27-35.
  9. The Assyrian account recalls: issu Marduk-z kir- umi ik uda g r u, after Marduk-z kir- umi had conquered his enemies.
  10. Door fitting from the Balawat Gates, BM 124660.
  11. e-li-ma ana -sag-ila .GAL DINGIR.ME u-bat MAN gim-ri
  12. a b iv 6.
  13. a-na ma- a-zi rab time a-lik niq (udu.siskur)me ina B biliki Barsipki Ku-te-eki pu .
  14. ND 1 1000 = IM 65574, throne base from Fort Shalmaneser (Nimrud).
  15. Stone tablet of treaty, Rm.II 427 (Weidner, AfO 8 (1932-33) 27-29; SAA II 001).

Notes

  1. Synchronistic Kinglist KAV 10 (VAT 11261) ii 9.
  2. Synchronistic Kinglist KAV 182 (Ass. 13956dh) iii 12.
  3. umu 1c CAD III p. 289.
  4. Synchronistic Kinglist, KAV 216 (Ass. 14616c), iii 20.
  5. Eclectic Chronicle (ABC 24) BM 27859 reverse (r 5-7).
  6. Kudurru AO 6684 in the Louvre, published as RA 16 (1919) 125 126.
  7. 4 N-T 3:11'.
  8. Synchronistic Chronicle (ABC 21), K4401a + Rm 854, iii 27-35.
  9. The Assyrian account recalls: issu Marduk-z kir- umi ik uda g r u, after Marduk-z kir- umi had conquered his enemies.
  10. Door fitting from the Balawat Gates, BM 124660.
  11. e-li-ma ana -sag-ila .GAL DINGIR.ME u-bat MAN gim-ri
  12. a b iv 6.
  13. a-na ma- a-zi rab time a-lik niq (udu.siskur)me ina B biliki Barsipki Ku-te-eki pu .
  14. ND 1 1000 = IM 65574, throne base from Fort Shalmaneser (Nimrud).
  15. Stone tablet of treaty, Rm.II 427 (Weidner, AfO 8 (1932-33) 27-29; SAA II 001).

References

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