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Lung cancer

Lung cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue and, eventually, into other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), also called oat cell cancer, and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.[1] Nonsmokers account for 15% of lung cancer cases,[2] and these cases are often attributed to a combination of genetic factors,[3][4] radon gas,[5] asbestos,[6] and air pollution[7][8][9] including secondhand smoke.[10][11]

The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss and shortness of breath.[12] Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT scan). The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy. This is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy. Treatment and prognosis depend on the histological type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the patient's general wellbeing, measured by performance status. Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery, whereas SCLC usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This is partly because SCLC often spreads quite early, and these treatments are generally better at getting to cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body.[13]

Survival depends on stage, overall health, and other factors, but overall 15% of people in the United States diagnosed with lung cancer survive five years after the diagnosis.[14] Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women, and is responsible for 1.3 million deaths annually, as of 2004.[15]

Contents


Classification

Frequency of histological types of lung cancer[16]
Histological type Frequency (%)
Non-small cell lung carcinoma 80.4
Small cell lung carcinoma 16.8
Carcinoid[17] 0.8
Unspecified lung cancer 1.9

Lung cancers are classified according to histological type. This classification has important implications for clinical management and prognosis of the disease. The vast majority of lung cancers are carcinomas malignancies that arise from epithelial cells. Lung carcinomas are categorized by the size and appearance of the malignant cells seen by a histopathologist under a microscope. The two broad classes are non-small cell and small cell lung carcinoma.[16]

Non-small cell lung carcinoma

Micrograph of squamous carcinoma, a type of non-small-cell carcinoma. FNA specimen. Pap stain.
Micrograph of squamous carcinoma, a type of non-small-cell carcinoma. FNA specimen. Pap stain.

The non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) are grouped together because their prognosis and management are similar. There are three main sub-types: squamous cell lung carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung carcinoma.

Accounting for 25% of lung cancers,[18] squamous cell lung carcinoma usually starts near a central bronchus. A hollow cavity and associated necrosis are commonly found at the center of the tumor. Well-differentiated squamous cell lung cancers often grow more slowly than other cancer types.[13]

Adenocarcinoma accounts for 40% of non-small cell lung cancers.[18] It usually originates in peripheral lung tissue. Most cases of adenocarcinoma are associated with smoking; however, among people who have smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes in their lifetimes ("never-smokers"),[12] adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer.[19] A subtype of adenocarcinoma, the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, is more common in female never-smokers, and may have different responses to treatment.[20]

Small cell lung carcinoma

Small cell lung carcinoma (microscopic view of a core needle biopsy).
Small cell lung carcinoma (microscopic view of a core needle biopsy).

In small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), the cells contain dense neurosecretory granules (vesicles containing neuroendocrine hormones), which give this tumor an endocrine/paraneoplastic syndrome association.[21] Most cases arise in the larger airways (primary and secondary bronchi).[14] These cancers grow quickly and spread early in the course of the disease. 60–70% have metastatic disease at presentation. This type of lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking.[12]

Others

Four main histological subtypes are recognized, although some cancers may contain a combination of different subtypes.[22] Rare subtypes include glandular tumors, carcinoid tumors, and undifferentiated carcinomas.[12]

Metastasis

The lung is a common place for metastasis of tumors from other parts of the body. Secondary cancers are classified by the site of origin; e.g., breast cancer that has spread to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer. Metastases often have a characteristic round appearance on chest radiograph.[23]

Primary lung cancers themselves most commonly metastasize to the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone.[13] Immunostaining of a biopsy is often helpful to determine the original source.[24]

Typical immunostaining in lung cancer[12]
Histological type Immunostain
Squamous cell carcinoma CK5/6 positive
CK7 negative
Adenocarcinoma CK7 positive
TTF-1 positive
Large cell carcinoma TTF-1 negative
Small cell carcinoma TTF-1 positive
CD56 positive
Chromogranin positive
Synaptophysin positive

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms that may suggest lung cancer include:[25]

If the cancer grows in the airway, it may obstruct airflow, causing breathing difficulties. The obstruction can lead to accumulation of secretions behind the blockage, and predispose to pneumonia. Many lung cancers have a rich blood supply. The surface of the cancer may be fragile, leading to bleeding from the cancer into the airway. This blood may subsequently be coughed up.

Depending on the type of tumor, so-called paraneoplastic phenomena may initially attract attention to the disease.[26] In lung cancer, these phenomena may include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to auto-antibodies), hypercalcemia, or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Tumors in the top (apex) of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors,[27] may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to changed sweating patterns and eye muscle problems (a combination known as Horner's syndrome) as well as muscle weakness in the hands due to invasion of the brachial plexus.

Many of the symptoms of lung cancer (bone pain, fever, and weight loss) are nonspecific; in the elderly, these may be attributed to comorbid illness.[13] In many patients, the cancer has already spread beyond the original site by the time they have symptoms and seek medical attention. Common sites of metastasis include the brain, bone, adrenal glands, contralateral (opposite) lung, liver, pericardium, and kidneys.[28] About 10% of people with lung cancer do not have symptoms at diagnosis; these cancers are incidentally found on routine chest radiograph.[14]

Causes

The main causes of any cancer include carcinogens (such as those in tobacco smoke), ionizing radiation, and viral infection. This exposure causes cumulative changes to the DNA in the tissue lining the bronchi of the lungs (the bronchial epithelium). As more tissue becomes damaged, eventually a cancer develops.[13]

Smoking

NIH graph showing how a general increase in sales of tobacco products in the USA in the first four decades of the 20th century (cigarettes per person per year) led to a corresponding rapid increase in the incidence of lung cancer during the 1930s, 40s and 50s (lung cancer deaths per 100,000 male population per year).
NIH graph showing how a general increase in sales of tobacco products in the USA in the first four decades of the 20th century (cigarettes per person per year) led to a corresponding rapid increase in the incidence of lung cancer during the 1930s, 40s and 50s (lung cancer deaths per 100,000 male population per year).
Smoking, particularly of cigarettes, is by far the main contributor to lung cancer.[29] Cigarette smoke contains over 60 known carcinogens,[30] including radioisotopes from the radon decay sequence, nitrosamine, and benzopyrene. Additionally, nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue.[31] Across the developed world, 91% of lung cancer deaths in men during the year 2000 were attributed to smoking (71% for women).[32] In the United States, smoking is estimated to account for 87% of lung cancer cases (90% in men and 85% in women).[33] Among male smokers, the lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is 17.2%; among female smokers, the risk is 11.6%. This risk is significantly lower in nonsmokers: 1.3% in men and 1.4% in women.[34]

Women who smoke (former smokers and current smokers) and take hormone therapy are at a much higher risk of dying of lung cancer. In a study by Chlebowski et al. published in 2009, the women taking hormones were about 60% more likely to die of lung cancer than the women taking a placebo. Not surprisingly, the risk was highest for current smokers, followed by past smokers, and lowest for those who have never smoked. Among the women who smoked (former or current smokers), 3.4% of those taking hormone therapy died of lung cancer compared to 2.3% for women taking the placebo.[35]

The time a person smokes (as well as rate of smoking) increases the person's chance of developing lung cancer. If a person stops smoking, this chance steadily decreases as damage to the lungs is repaired and contaminant particles are gradually removed.[36] In addition, there is evidence that lung cancer in never-smokers has a better prognosis than in smokers,[37] and that patients who smoke at the time of diagnosis have shorter survival times than those who have quit.[38]

Passive smoking the inhalation of smoke from another's smoking is a cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers. A passive smoker can be classified as someone living or working with a smoker. Studies from the U.S.,[39] Europe,[40] the UK,[41] and Australia[42] have consistently shown a significant increase in relative risk among those exposed to passive smoke. Recent investigation of sidestream smoke suggests that it is more dangerous than direct smoke inhalation.[43]

10 15% of lung cancer patients have never smoked.[44] That means between 20,000 to 30,000 never-smokers are diagnosed with lung cancer in the United States each year. Because of the five-year survival rate, each year in the U.S. more never-smokers die of lung cancer than do patients of leukemia, ovarian cancer, or AIDS.[45]

Radon gas

Radon is a colorless and odorless gas generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium, which in turn is the decay product of uranium, found in the Earth's crust. The radiation decay products ionize genetic material, causing mutations that sometimes turn cancerous. Radon exposure is the second major cause of lung cancer in the general population, after smoking[5] with the risk increasing 8 16% for every 100 Bq/m increase in the radon concentration.[46] Radon gas levels vary by locality and the composition of the underlying soil and rocks. For example, in areas such as Cornwall in the UK (which has granite as substrata), radon gas is a major problem, and buildings have to be force-ventilated with fans to lower radon gas concentrations. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that one in 15 homes in the U.S. has radon levels above the recommended guideline of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) (148 Bq/m ).[47] Iowa has the highest average radon concentration in the United States; studies performed there have demonstrated a 50% increased lung cancer risk, with prolonged radon exposure above the EPA's action level of 4 pCi/L.[48][49]

Asbestos

Asbestos can cause a variety of lung diseases, including lung cancer. There is a synergistic effect between tobacco smoking and asbestos in the formation of lung cancer.[6] In the UK, asbestos accounts for 2 3% of male lung cancer deaths.[50] Asbestos can also cause cancer of the pleura, called mesothelioma (which is different from lung cancer).

Particulate matter

Studies of the American Cancer Society cohort directly link the exposure to particulate matter with lung cancer. For example, if the concentration of particles in the air increases by only 1%, the risk of developing a lung cancer increases by 14%.[51][52] Further, it has been established that particle size matters, as ultrafine particles penetrate further into the lungs.[53]

Genetics

There is a genetic predisposition to lung cancer. In relatives of people with lung cancer, the risk is increased 2.4 times. This may be due to genetic polymorphisms.[54]

Pathogenesis

Similar to many other cancers, lung cancer is initiated by activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.[55] Oncogenes are genes that are believed to make people more susceptible to cancer. Proto-oncogenes are believed to turn into oncogenes when exposed to particular carcinogens.[56] Mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene are responsible for 10 30% of lung adenocarcinomas.[57][58] The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion.[57] Mutations and amplification of EGFR are common in non-small-cell lung cancer and provide the basis for treatment with EGFR-inhibitors. Her2/neu is affected less frequently.[57] Chromosomal damage can lead to loss of heterozygosity. This can cause inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Damage to chromosomes 3p, 5q, 13q, and 17p are particularly common in small-cell lung carcinoma. The p53 tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 17p, is affected in 60-75% of cases.[59] Other genes that are often mutated or amplified are c-MET, NKX2-1, LKB1, PIK3CA, and BRAF.[57]

Diagnosis

Chest radiograph showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung.
Chest radiograph showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung.

Performing a chest radiograph is one of the first investigative steps if a patient reports symptoms that may suggest lung cancer. This may reveal an obvious mass, widening of the mediastinum (suggestive of spread to lymph nodes there), atelectasis (collapse), consolidation (pneumonia), or pleural effusion.[1] CT imaging is typically used to provide more information about the type and extent of disease. Bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy is often used to sample the tumor for histopathology.[14]

CT scan showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung.
CT scan showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung.

The differential diagnosis for patients who present with abnormalities on chest radiograph includes lung cancer as well as nonmalignant diseases. These include infectious causes such as tuberculosis or pneumonia, or inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis. These diseases can result in mediastinal lymphadenopathy or lung nodules, and sometimes mimic lung cancers.[13] Lung cancer can also be an incidental finding: a solitary pulmonary nodule on a chest radiograph or CT scan taken for an unrelated reason.[60] The definitive diagnosis of lung cancer is based on histological examination of the suspicious tissue in the context of the clinical and radiological features.[12]

Staging

Lung cancer staging is an assessment of the degree of spread of the cancer from its original source. It is one of the factors affecting the prognosis and potential treatment of lung cancer.[12]

The initial evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer staging uses the TNM classification. This based on the size of the primary tumor, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis. After this, a group is assigned, ranging from IA (one-A) to IV (four). This stage group assists with the choice of treatment and estimate of prognosis.[61]

Small cell lung carcinoma has traditionally been classified as limited stage (confined to one half of the chest and within the scope of a single tolerable radiotherapy field) or extensive stage (more widespread disease).[12] However the TNM classification and grouping are useful in estimating prognosis.[61]

For both NSCLC and SCLC, there are two general types of staging evaluations:

Clinical Staging: evaluated prior to definitive surgery, and typically based on the results of physical examination, imaging studies, and pertinent laboratory findings. Does not necessarily involve a pathologist.

Pathological Staging: usually evaluated either intra- or post-operatively, and based on the combined results of surgical and clinical findings.[14]

Prevention

Prevention is the most cost-effective means of mitigating lung cancer development. While in most countries industrial and domestic carcinogens have been identified and banned, tobacco smoking is still widespread. Eliminating tobacco smoking is a primary goal in the prevention of lung cancer, and smoking cessation is an important preventive tool in this process.[62]

Policy interventions to decrease passive smoking in public areas such as restaurants and workplaces have become more common in many Western countries.[63] Bhutan has had a complete smoking ban since 2005.[64] India introduced a ban on smoking in public in October 2008.[65]

The World Health Organization has called for governments to institute a total ban on tobacco advertising to prevent young people from taking up smoking. They assess that such bans have reduced tobacco consumption by 16% where already instituted.[66]

The long-term use of supplemental vitamin A,[67][68] vitamin C,[67] vitamin D[69] or vitamin E[67] does not reduce the risk of lung cancer. Some studies suggest that people who eat diets with a higher proportion of vegetables and fruit tend have a lower risk. However this is likely due to confounding. More rigorous studies have not demonstrated a clear association.[70]

Screening

Screening refers to the use of medical tests to detect disease in asymptomatic people. Possible screening tests for lung cancer include sputum cytology, chest radiograph, and computed tomography (CT). Screening programs for lung cancer have not demonstrated any benefit.[71]

Treatment

Treatment for lung cancer depends on the cancer's specific cell type, how far it has spread, and the patient's performance status. Common treatments include palliative care,[72] surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.[12]

Surgery

Pneumonectomy specimen containing a squamous cell carcinoma, seen as a white area near the bronchi.
Pneumonectomy specimen containing a squamous cell carcinoma, seen as a white area near the bronchi.

If investigations confirm non-small cell lung cancer, the stage must be re-assessed to determine whether the disease is localized and amenable to surgery or whether it has spread to the point where it cannot be cured surgically. CT scan and positron emission tomography (PET) are used.[12] If mediastinal lymph node involvement is suspected, mediastinoscopy may be used to sample the nodes and assist staging.[73]

Blood tests and pulmonary function testing are also necessary to assess whether the patient is well enough to be operated on.[14] If pulmonary function tests reveal poor respiratory reserve, surgery may be contraindicated.[12]

In most cases of early stage non-small cell lung cancer, removal of a lobe of lung (lobectomy) is the surgical treatment of choice. In patients who are unfit for a full lobectomy, a smaller sublobar excision (wedge resection) may be performed. However wedge resection has a higher risk of recurrent disease than lobectomy.[74] Radioactive iodine brachytherapy at the margins of wedge excision may reduce the risk of recurrence.[75] Rarely, removal of a whole lung (pneumonectomy) is performed.[74]

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and VATS lobectomy use a minimally invasive approach to lung cancer surgery.[76] VATS lobectomy is equally effective compared to conventional open lobectomy, and with less post-operative illness.[77]

In small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy is typically used.[78] However the role of surgery in SCLC is being reconsidered. Surgery might improve outcomes when added to chemotherapy and radiation in early stage SCLC.[79]

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is often given together with chemotherapy, and may be used with curative intent in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma who are not eligible for surgery. This form of high intensity radiotherapy is called radical radiotherapy.[80] A refinement of this technique is continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART), in which a high dose of radiotherapy is given in a short time period.[81] For small-cell lung carcinoma cases that are potentially curable, chest radiation is often recommended in addition to chemotherapy.[82] Post-operative thoracic radiotherapy generally should not be used after curative intent surgery for non-small-cell lung carcinoma.[83] Some patients with mediastinal N2 lymph node involvement might benefit from post-operative radiotherapy.[84]

If cancer growth blocks a short section of bronchus, brachytherapy (localized radiotherapy) may be given directly inside the airway to open the passage.[85][86] Compared to external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy allows a reduction in treatment time and reduced radiation exposure to healthcare staff.[87]

Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a type of radiotherapy to the brain, used to reduce the risk of metastasis. PCI is most useful in small-cell lung carcinoma. In limited stage disease, PCI increases three-year survival from 15% to 20%; in extensive disease, one-year survival increases from 13% to 27%.[88]

Recent improvements in targeting and imaging have led to the development of stereotactic radiation in the treatment of early-stage lung cancer. In this form of radiotherapy, high doses are delivered in a small number of sessions using stereotactic targeting techniques. Its use is primarily in patients who are not surgical candidates due to medical comorbidities.[89]

For both non-small-cell lung carcinoma and small-cell lung carcinoma patients, smaller doses of radiation to the chest may be used for symptom control (palliative radiotherapy).[90]

Chemotherapy

The chemotherapy regimen depends on the tumor type.

Small cell lung carcinoma

Even if relatively early stage, small cell lung carcinoma is treated primarily with chemotherapy and radiation.[91] In small-cell lung carcinoma, cisplatin and etoposide are most commonly used.[92] Combinations with carboplatin, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, topotecan, and irinotecan are also used.[93][94]

Non-small cell lung carcinoma

In advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma, chemotherapy improves survival and is used as first-line treatment, provided the patient is well enough for the treatment.[95] Typically, two drugs are used, of which one is often platinum-based (either cisplatin or carboplatin). Other commonly used drugs are gemcitabine, paclitaxel and docetaxel.[96]

Advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma is often treated with cisplatin or carboplatin, in combination with gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, etoposide, or vinorelbine.[97] Recently, pemetrexed has become available.[98]

Adjuvant chemotherapy

Adjuvant chemotherapy refers to the use of chemotherapy after apparently curative surgery to improve the outcome. In non-small cell lung carcinoma, samples are taken of nearby lymph nodes during surgery to assist staging. If stage II or III disease is confirmed, adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival by 5% at 5 years.[99][100] The combination of vinorelbine and cisplatin is more effective than older regimens.[100]

Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage IB cancer is controversial, as clinical trials have not clearly demonstrated a survival benefit.[101][102] Trials of preoperative chemotherapy (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) in resectable non-small-cell lung carcinoma have been inconclusive.[103]

Palliative care

In patients with terminal disease, palliative care or hospice management may be appropriate.[14] These approaches allow additional discussion of treatment options and provide opportunities to arrive at well-considered decisions[104][105] and may avoid unhelpful but expensive care at the end of life.[105]

Chemotherapy may be combined with palliative care in the treatment of the non-small cell lung carcinoma. In advanced NSCLC, appropriate chemotherapy improves average survival over supportive care alone,[106] as well as improving quality of life.[107] With adequate physical fitness, maintaining chemotherapy during lung cancer palliation offers a 1.5 to 3 months prolongation of survival, symptomatic relief and an improvement in quality of life, with better results seen with modern agents.[108][109] The NSCLC Meta-Analyses Collaborative Group recommends that if the recipient wants and can tolerate treatment, then chemotherapy should be considered in advanced NSCLC.[95][110]

Prognosis

Prognosis in lung cancer according to clinical stage[61]
Clinical stage Five-year survival (%)
Non-small cell lung carcinoma Small cell lung carcinoma
IA 50 38
IB 47 21
IIA 36 38
IIB 26 18
IIIA 19 13
IIIB 7 9
IV 2 1

Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung carcinoma include presence or absence of pulmonary symptoms, tumor size, cell type (histology), degree of spread (stage) and metastases to multiple lymph nodes, and vascular invasion. For patients with inoperable disease, prognosis is adversely affected by poor performance status and weight loss of more than 10%.[111] Prognostic factors in small cell lung cancer include performance status, gender, stage of disease, and involvement of the central nervous system or liver at the time of diagnosis.[112]

For non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), prognosis is generally poor. Following complete surgical resection of stage IA disease, five-year survival is 67%.[113] For small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), prognosis is also generally poor. The overall five-year survival for patients with SCLC is about 5%.[12] Patients with extensive-stage SCLC have an average five-year survival rate of less than 1%. The median survival time for limited-stage disease is 20 months, with a five-year survival rate of 20%.[1]

According to data provided by the National Cancer Institute, the median age at diagnosis of lung cancer in the United States is 70 years,[114] and the median age at death is 72 years.[115] In the US, people with medical insurance are more likely to have a better outcome.[116]

Epidemiology

Age-standardized death from tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. <!-- Multicol --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- Multicol-break --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- legend --> <!-- Multicol-end -->
Age-standardized death from tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[117]
Lung cancer distribution in the United States
Lung cancer distribution in the United States

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer in terms of both incidence and mortality. In 2008, there were 1.61 million new cases, and 1.38 million deaths due to lung cancer. The highest rates are in Europe and North America.[118] For every 3–4 million cigarettes smoked, one lung cancer death occurs.[12][119]

The population segment most likely to develop lung cancer is over-fifties who have a history of smoking. Lung cancer is the second most commonly occurring form of cancer in most Western countries, and it is the leading cancer-related cause of death. In contrast to the mortality rate in men, which began declining more than 20 years ago, women's lung cancer mortality rates have been rising over the last decades, and are just recently beginning to stabilize.[120] The evolution of "Big Tobacco" plays a significant role in the smoking culture.[121] Young non-smokers who see tobacco advertisements are more likely to take up smoking.[122]

The role of passive smoking is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor for lung cancer leading to policy interventions to decrease undesired exposure of nonsmokers to others' tobacco smoke. Emissions from automobiles, factories, and power plants also pose potential risks.[7][9]

Eastern Europe has the highest lung cancer mortality among men, while northern Europe and the U.S. have the highest mortality among women. In the United States, black men and women have a higher incidence.[123] Lung cancer incidence is currently less common in developing countries.[124] With increased smoking in developing countries, the incidence is expected to increase in the next few years, notably in China[125] and India.[126]

From the 1960s, the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma started to rise relative to other types of lung cancer. This is partly due to the introduction of filter cigarettes. The use of filters removes larger particles from tobacco smoke, thus reducing deposition in larger airways. However the smoker has to inhale more deeply to receive the same amount of nicotine, increasing particle deposition in small airways where adenocarcinoma tends to arise.[127] The incidence of lung adenocarcinoma continues to rise.[128]

History

Lung cancer was uncommon before the advent of cigarette smoking; it was not even recognized as a distinct disease until 1761.[129] Different aspects of lung cancer were described further in 1810.[130] Malignant lung tumors made up only 1% of all cancers seen at autopsy in 1878, but had risen to 10 15% by the early 1900s.[131] Case reports in the medical literature numbered only 374 worldwide in 1912,[132] but a review of autopsies showed that the incidence of lung cancer had increased from 0.3% in 1852 to 5.66% in 1952.[133] In Germany in 1929, physician Fritz Lickint recognized the link between smoking and lung cancer,[131] which led to an aggressive antismoking campaign.[134] The British Doctors Study, published in the 1950s, was the first solid epidemiological evidence of the link between lung cancer and smoking.[135] As a result, in 1964 the Surgeon General of the United States recommended that smokers should stop smoking.[136]

The connection with radon gas was first recognized among miners in the Ore Mountains near Schneeberg, Saxony. Silver has been mined there since 1470, and these mines are rich in uranium, with its accompanying radium and radon gas.[137] Miners developed a disproportionate amount of lung disease, eventually recognized as lung cancer in the 1870s.[138] Despite this discovery, mining continued into the 1950s, due to the USSR's demand for uranium.[137]

The first successful pneumonectomy for lung cancer was performed in 1933.[139] Palliative radiotherapy has been used since the 1940s.[140] Radical radiotherapy, initially used in the 1950s, was an attempt to use larger radiation doses in patients with relatively early stage lung cancer but who were otherwise unfit for surgery.[141] In 1997, continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) was seen as an improvement over conventional radical radiotherapy.[142]

With small-cell lung carcinoma, initial attempts in the 1960s at surgical resection[143] and radical radiotherapy[144] were unsuccessful. In the 1970s, successful chemotherapy regimens were developed.[145]

References

External links

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