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Lucknow

Lucknow (, , , ) is a city in India and capital of the state of Uttar Pradesh.[1] Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division. Located in what was originally known as the Awadh (Oudh) region, Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city, and flourished as a cultural and artistic capital of North India in the 18th and 19th centuries. Courtly manners, beautiful gardens, poetry, music, and fine cuisine patronised by the Shia Nawabs of Iranian origin,[2][3] are well known amongst Indians and students of South Asian culture and history.[4] Lucknow is popularly known as The City of Nawabs. It is also known as the "Golden City of the East," "Shiraz-i-Hind" and "The Constantinople of India."[5]

Contents


History

Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah]] (1775 1797)[6] The ancient history of Lucknow is mired in mystries and folk sayings. It is popularly believed that Lucknow ( ) derives its name from Lakshman ( ) (also known as Lakhan ( )), younger brother of Lord Rama, greatest hero of Suryawanshi kshatriya clan of India. Ram ordered Lakshman to establish a new town near Ayodhya, the capital of Rama. Lakshman came and built a strong fort. The present Lakshman Teela ( ) in Lucknow is believed to be the site of ancient city of Lakhanpur built by Lakshman.

Since 1350 AD Lucknow and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, East India Company and the British Raj. Lucknow was one of the major centres of Indian rebellion of 1857, participated actively in India's Independence movement, and emerged as an important city of North India.

Until 1719, subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Saadat Khan also called Burhan-ul-Mulk a Persian adventurer was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad[7] near Lucknow.

Awadh, known as the granary of India, was important strategically for the control of the fertile plain between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers known as the Doab. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula, fell out with the British after aiding the fugitive Nawab of Bengal Mir Qasim. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, which forced him to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. The British appointed a resident in 1773 and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were, however, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and be brought face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.

Many independent kingdoms, such as Awadh, were established when the Mughal empire disintegrated. Awadh s capital, Lucknow rose to prominence when Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth nawab, shifted his court here from Faizabad in 1775. The city was also North India s cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagnt lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under them music and dance flourished, and many monuments were erected.[8] Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb.

W. Daniell]], 1801 Nawab Saadat Khan II]] In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though it nationally continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819.

The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control of Awadh.

Wajid Ali Shah (1847 1856)[6] In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state, which was placed under a chief commissioner Sir Henry Lawrence. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Revolt of 1857 his 14-year old son Birjis Qadra son of Begum Hazrat Mahal was crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders obtained asylum in Nepal.

Those company troops who were recruited from the state, along with some of the nobility of the state, were major players in the events of 1857. The rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow. Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.

This sketch of Lucknow's Alam Bagh was made by Late CH Mecham on 25 December 1857 while fierce fighting raged on, as that time the Revolt of 1857 was going on. In a note at the bottom of the sketch, the artist wishes "my future readers many happy returns of this festive season".

The province of Awadh (anglicised to Oudh) was annexed by the East India Company in 1856 under the Doctrine of Lapse and placed under the control of a chief commissioner. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the stirring events of 1857.

Because of its historical importance, commercial activity, and cultural activity, Lucknow has frequently been a center of political activity, prominent in the independence movement. The Lucknow Pact of 1916 was negotiated there, between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League to support pressuring the Raj for greater autonomy, a marked shift for the Muslim League.

The Khilafat Movement had an active base of support in Lucknow, creating a united platform against the British rule. In the Khilafat Movement Maulana Abdul Bari of Firangi Mahal, Lucknow actively participated and cooperated with Mahatama Gandhi and Maulana Mohammad Ali.

In 1901, after remaining the capital of Oudh since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged in the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[9] However, it became the provincial capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad. Upon Indian independence in 1947, Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the erstwhile United Provinces.

The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in 11 April 1936 with the legendary nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President,[10] in order to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights, and thus sparking the Farmers' movement in India.[11][12]

Geography

Situated in the heart of the great Gangetic plain, Lucknow city is surrounded by its rural towns and villages like the orchard town of Malihabad, historic Kakori, Mohanlal ganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat, Itaunja. On its eastern side lies Barabanki District, on the western side is Unnao District, on the southern side Raebareli District, and on the northern side the Sitapur and Hardoi districts. The Gomti River, the chief geographical feature, meanders through the city, dividing it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Lucknow city is located in the seismic zone III.[13]

Climate

Lucknow has a warm humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from December to February and dry, hot summers from April to June. The rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September, when Lucknow gets an average rainfall of from the south-west monsoon winds, and occasionally frontal rainfall will occur in January. In winter the maximum temperature is around and the minimum is in the 2 to 3 degrees Celsius range. Fog is quite common from late December to late January. Summers are extremely hot with temperatures rising to the 40 to 45 degree Celsius range, the average highs being in the high 30s.

Pollution

According to the World Bank's survey in 2004, Lucknow ranks 7th in the world regarding air pollution, three other Indian cities precede it, they are Delhi at second position, Kolkata at third position and Kanpur at sixth position.[14]

Demographics

The majority of Lucknow's population comprises people from Central and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. However, Bengalis, Punjabis and Anglo-Indians have also settled in large numbers. Hindus comprise about 71% and Muslims about 26%.Rest 3% are small groups of Sikhs, Jains, Christians and Buddhists. As per 2001 census literacy rate of Lucknow is 69.39% (61.22% for females and 76.63% for males).[15]

Government

Civic administration

Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha Lucknow is the political and administrative capital of Uttar Pradesh. The city elects members to the Lok Sabha as well as the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly). Lucknow has two lok sabha Constituencies named Lucknow & Mohanlalganj and 9 Vidhan Sabha constituencies. The Chief Minister of the state for the 2012 Vidhan Sabha is currently Shri Akhilesh Yadav.

The city is under the jurisdiction of a District Magistrate, who is an IAS officer. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city. The Collector is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city. The city is administered by the Lucknow Municipal Corporation with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner of Lucknow, who is an administrative officer. The corporation comprises elected members (corporators elected from the wards directly by the people) with City Mayor as its head. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes.

The Lucknow Police is headed by a Deputy Inspector General, who is an IPS officer. The Lucknow Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into several police zones and traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Lucknow Police. The Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers. Former Prime Minister A.B.Vajpayee had been member of Parliament for the Lucknow Parliamentary constituency until recently where he has been replaced by Lalji Tandon in elections of 2009.

Federal government

The Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety of India, the National Agency under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, has its head office in the Northeast Railway Compound in Lucknow.[16]

Economy

Ranked 6th among all the cities in India for fastest job-creation,[17] Lucknow is not only a major market & trading city in Northern India, but is also an emerging hub for producers of goods and services. Being the capital of Uttar Pradesh state, the Government departments and the public sector undertakings are the principal employers of the salaried middle class. Liberalization has created many more opportunities in the business and service sector and self-employed professionals are burgeoning in the city.

The city is the headquarters of both:

  • The Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) and
  • The Pradeshiya Industrial and Investment Corporation of Uttar Pradesh (PICUP).
  • The Regional office of the Uttar Pradesh State Industries Development Corporation (UPSIDC) is also located here.

The other business-promoting institutions that have a presence in Lucknow are the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDII).

Manufacturing and processing

Among the bigger manufacturing units, Lucknow has:

Omax Auto

The city's small-scale and medium-scale industrial units are located in the industrial enclaves of

  • Chinhat,
  • Aishbagh,
  • Talkatora,
  • Amausi.

Real Estate

Real estate is one of the many booming sectors of the Lucknow's economy.Lucknow has one of the fastest growing property rates in almost all the areas due to redevelopment of several areas (like Gomtinagar and Alambagh) by the present government. There are several malls like:

  • SaharaGanj Mall,
  • Fun Republic Mall,
  • Riverside Mall,
  • Phoenix United Mall,
  • Westend Mall
  • Singapore Mall,
  • Felix Square Mall,
  • City Mall,
  • Gardens Galleria,

Traditional trade

  • Traditionally, Lucknow has been a mandi town for mangoes, melons, and grains grown in the surrounding areas. Sugarcane-growing plantations and sugar industries are also in close proximity. This attracted Edward Dyer to set up a unit based on molasses in the city. Dyer Breweries was incorporated in 1855 and was Asia's first commercial brewery.The company name was changed to Mohan Meakin Brewery in 1967 (the word "Breweries" was dropped in the eighties as the company diversified into other industries).[18]
  • Lucknow is famous for its small scale industries that are based on unique styles of embroidery, namely, Chikan and Lakhnawi Zardozi, both of which are significant foreign exchange earners. Chikan has caught the fancy of fashion designers in Bollywood and abroad.It is very popular in Indian markets and have very high demand.
  • During the period of the Nawabs, kite-making reached a high level of artistry,[19]

and is still a small-scale industry.

  • Lucknow has also been an industrial producer of tobacco products like 'Kivam', edible fragrances like 'attars' and handicrafts such as pottery, earthen toys, silver and gold foil work, and bone carving products.

Emerging businesses

  • Lucknow, with its excellent education, commercial, banking and legal infrastructure, is witnessing rapid growth in information technology, banking, retailing, construction and other service sectors.
  • Commercial property,
  • SEZs,
  • Business centres,
  • Multiplexes,
  • Clubs,
  • Banks,
  • Food courts,
  • Entertainment centres,
  • Finance institutions.

The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology set up Software Technology Parks of India[20] in 2001. .Currently, biotechnology and information technology are the two focus areas to promote economic development in and around the city. The Ministry of Science and Technology is setting up a biotech park[21] in the city. Lucknow is also one of the selected cities for the Smart City project of STPI .

Cityscape

Ambedkar Memorial Gateway to Bara Imambara

The famous 'Bhul Bhulaiyan' (Labyrinth) is part of Asafi Imambara complex.

Some other places of interest are:

The British-built architectural sights in Lucknow include the Vidhan Sabha (State Legislative Assembly), and the Charbagh Railway Station, with its distinctive domes, arches and pillars. St Joseph's Cathedral in Lucknow is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucknow.

Lucknow has several well-kept parks.

The bigger parks are:

  • Ambedkar Memorial,
  • Lohia Park,
  • Swarn Jayanti Park,
  • Aurobindo Park in Indiranagar,
  • Dilkusha Park,
  • Begum Hazrat Mahal Park,
  • Globe Park, Mukherjee Phuhaar,
  • Haathi Park,
  • Buddha park,
  • Neebu Park.

There is a sprawling National Botanical Garden at Sikandarbagh on the banks of Gomti river.

The city also has a Reserve Forest, Kukrail Reserve Forest (a picnic spot and Gharial rehabilitation centre).[22] Moosa Bagh and Utretia are other popular picnic spots. Natural attractions accessible from Lucknow are Katarnia Ghat, Dudhwa National Park, Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary and Samaspur Bird Sanctuary.

Shopping

  • Aminabad is situated in the heart of the city. It is a large shopping centre.

The Hazratganj area is a shopping market with colonial- style buildings. It is popularly referred to in Hinglish as Ganjing. The Janpath market, Rovers, Lovers Lane, Mayfair building, Kwality, and Universal book store are some popular landmarks of the area.

  • The first shopping mall-cum-multiplex to open in Lucknow was the East End Mall in Gomti Nagar.

Now Lucknow has numerous Mall-cum-multiplexes and famous among them are:

Hazratganj, the main commercial area of Lucknow has completed its 200 years in 2010. On this occasion the district administration had given a facelift to Hazratganj. It is renovated on the lines of Connaught Place in Delhi, and done as per the recommendations of the famous architect Naseer Munji.[23] Pebbled pathways, piazzaz, green areas, fountains, rows of cast-iron lamp-posts now add to the Victorian style of Hazratganj.[24]

Localities

The urban area is spread equally on both sides of the Gomti River.

The commercial and residential areas on Cis-Gomti side are:Hazratganj, L.D.A. Colony,Alambagh,

  • RDSO Colony (Research Design and Standard Organisation), Charbagh, Aishbagh, Qaiserbagh, Aminabad, Husainganj, Model Houses, Lal Bagh,Golaganj, Wazirganj, Rajendra Nagar, Malviya Nagar, Sarojini Nagar, Tikait Ganj, Aishbagh, Rajajipuram, Haiderganj, Thakurganj, Chowk, Nakkhas, Husainabad, Dargah Hazrat Abbas,Muftiganj, Turia Ganj, Mansoor Nagar, Hasanpuria, Victoria Street, Campbell Road, Asharfabad, Kashmiri Mohalla, Akbari Gate and Saadatganj.
  • The residential settlements in the Trans-Gomti area are Nirala Nagar, Aliganj, kalyanpur, Daliganj, Mahanagar, Old & New Hyderabad, Nishatganj, Indira Nagar, Manas Enclave (near Kukrail picnic spot), Gomti Nagar and Gomti Nagar Extn., Nilmatha Cantt., Vikas Nagar, Khurram Nagar, Janakipuram, South City and Vrindavan Awas (on Raibareli road). Aminabad is the heart of the city and the oldest traditional marketplace after Chowk. It is one of the most crowded places of Lucknow.

Southcity, Eldeco, Omaxe city are coming up as the newly inhabited places of Lucknow. It has Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute, Sardar Patel Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences, Lucknow and Ambedkar University nearby.

Ambedkar Park

Culture

A small part of Lucknow's society still possesses much etiquette. This sublime cultural richness blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests and speaking a common language.

Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the Nawabs of Awadh, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication. The Raja Sahib of Mahmudabad, popularly known as Suleiman Mian, is a living example of all the great traditions of this region and has been written about by authors like V.S. Naipaul, William Dalrymple and many others.

Urdu literature

The City Homed the Great legends of Urdu poetry, especially in Marsiya Nigari like Mir Anees and Mirza Dabeer.

  • Marsiya is elegy composed in aspects of the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Husaain(as) grandson of Prophet Muhammed in Kerbala Iraq in 61ah.
  • Mir Anees and Mirza Dabeer composed most of the renowned marsiya in the history of Urdu language and are still being recited during Muharram in various Majalis and other Azadari events.

Lucknow is famous for Azadari because of its history of Shia Kingdom of Nawabs of Oudh who promoted Muharram and its religious events on very high regards. The culture of Urdu poetry is still popular, especially in Muharram and other occasions related with Islamic lunar calendar.

Lucknow hosts the most number of poetic events in India, and poets from various parts of the world come to participate in these events. Some of the famous poets of recent times are

  • Kazim Jarwali,
  • Sarwar Nawab Sarwar,
  • Arif Lucknowi
  • Nawab Baqar Ali Khan "Ravish Lakhnavi"
  • Nayyar Majidi
  • Surror Lucknowi
  • Shauq Lucknowi
  • Sharib Kausar Alavi "Sharib Kakorwi"
  • People, especially Muslims, of Lucknow are known for their excellent Urdu and their Tehzeeb. Lucknow is famous for its Urdu literature and shayari.

Language and poetry

Lucknow is one of the world's great cities for Muslim culture. Two poets, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Muslim elegiacal poetry called Marsia centred on Imam Husain's supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram.

In recent years the use of Urdu has reduced significantly. Day-to-day transactions in the city are typically performed in Hindi or English. Nevertheless, Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this city. The great revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil, who was hanged by the British at Gorakhpur jail, was largely influenced by the culture of Lucknow and remembered its name in his poetry.[25] The surrounding towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Tehseel Fatehpur, Barabanki, Rudauli and Malihabad produced many eminent poets and litt rateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz, Khumar Barabankvi and Josh Malihabadi. Recently in 2008 which is the 150th year of 'mutiny' of 1857 a novel has been released which uses 1857 as a backdrop. 'Recalcitrance' is the first English novel by a Lucknowite on the 'mutiny' of 1857.

Cuisine

The Awadh region has its own distinct Nawabi style cuisine, the most famous cuisine of Awadhi Region is Tunday Kabab with various kinds of biryanis, kebabs and breads. Kebabs are also of different types Kakori Kebabs, Galawati Kebabs, Shami Kebabs, Boti Kababs, Patili-ke-Kababs, Ghutwa Kababs and Seekh Kababs are among the known varieties.[26]

The city has a range of fine restaurants catering to all tastes and budgets.

Tundey Kebabs, named after the one-armed chef Haji Murad Ali,[27] and 'Kakori kebabs' are very popular with food lovers. Among sweets lucknow's rewadi is famous all over India.

Image:Dum Biryani Plate.jpg|Biryani Image:Vegetarian Curry.jpeg|Uttar Pradeshi thali with naan, sultani dal, raita, and shahi paneer. Image:Kebab.jpg|Kebabs are an important part of Uttar Pradesh's cuisine. Lucknow is known for its galawat ke kawab Image:Indian_naan_bread.jpg|Naan is one of the staple breads of Uttar Pradesh. Image:Koofteh tabrizi.jpg|The koftah is a popular main dish of Uttar Pradesh. File:Raita with cucumber and mint.jpg|Raita has its roots in Uttar Pradesh as well. Image:Samosa 1.jpg|The samosa is a popular snack from Uttar Pradesh. Image:Paan Making.jpg|Paan Shop

Muharram

Shiite Muslims take out a Muharram procession in Lucknow, Jan, 2007.

Lucknow is known as a seat of Shi'ism and the epitome of Shia culture in India. It is famous for Muharram and associated azadari movement. All the communities including Hindus, observe the Moharram on the 10th of Moharram in the memory of Imam Husain (the grandson of the prophet Muhammad). Fourteen hundred years back in Karbala Iraq Yazid's forces killed Immam Hussain and his family on the day of Ashura and imprisoned remaining family.

The processions of Muharram in Lucknow have a special significance. They were started during the reign of the Awadh Nawabs. The Majalises, processions and other rituals that are observed by the Shia community to commemorate the sacrifice of Husain are known as Azadari.

The processions like Shahi Zarih, Jaloos-e-Mehndi, Alam-e-Ashura and that of Chup Tazia have special significance for Shia community, which are taken out with great religious zeal and fervour. These processions which started during the reign of the Awadh Nawabs continued till the year 1977 when Government of Uttar Pradesh banned the Azadari processions in public. For next twenty years processions and gatherings were carried in private or community space like, Talkatora karbala, Imambara Asifi(Bara Imambara), Imambara Husainabad(Chhota Imambara), Dargah Hazrat Abbas, Shah Najaf, Ghufra'ma'ab etc. Ban was partially lifted in 1997 and Shias were successful in taking out the first Azadari procession in January 1998 (21st of Ramzan). Today the Shias have been given nine processions out of nine hundred that are registered in the festival register of the Shias.

Dance, drama and music

Kathak, the classical Indian dance form took shape here. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Lachhu Maharaj, Acchchan Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj have kept this tradition alive.

Lucknow is also the city of eminent Ghazal singer Begum Akhtar. She was a pioneer in Ghazal singing and took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times.

The Bhatkande Music Institute University at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. People from Sri Lanka, Nepal and other countries come to Bhatkhande to study music or dance.

Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts (BNA), also known as Bhartendu Natya Academy, a Theatre Training institute situated at Gomti Nagar in vikas khand-1, is deemed university and an autonomous organisation under Ministry of Culture, Government of Uttar Pradesh, set up in 1975 by the Sangeet Natak Akademy (Government of Uttar Pradesh), and became an independent Drama school in 1977. Official Website of The BNA

Lucknow has given music stars like Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anup Jalota and Baba Sehgal to the entertainment industry. It is also the birthplace of British pop star Sir Cliff Richard.

Sports

Lucknow has traditionally been a sports-loving city. In the past pehlwani, kabbadi, chess, kite flying, pigeon flying, and cock fighting were popular pastimes. For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, football, badminton, golf and hockey are among the most popular sports in the city.

The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced international-level cricketers such as Mohammed Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Anurag Singh, Suresh Raina, Gyanendra Pandey, Praveen Kumar and R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, Mohammed Shahid and Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon. There has been a proposal by the Indian Olympic Association to make joint bid from Lucknow Delhi for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Stadiums

K. D. Singh Babu Stadium, Lucknow

The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadium which also has a world-class swimming pool and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are at Babu Banarsi Das Engineering College, Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College and at Integral University.

The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martini re College, is a famous golf course.

An inspiration for films

Lucknow has been a major influence on the Hindi film industry of India. Many script writers and lyricists hailing from Awadh like Majrooh Sultanpuri, Kaifi Azmi, Javed Akhtar Ikram Akhtar (Writer of Films Like Ready, Thank you No problem And many more)Ali Raza, Bhagwati Charan Verma, Dr. Kumud Nagar, Dr. Achala Nagar Wajahat Mirza (writer of Mother India and Ganga Jamuna), Amritlal Nagar, Ali Sardar Jafri, K. P. Saxena and music famous music director Naushad Ali (Urdu: , Hindi: ) (25 December 1919 5 May 2006) have enriched Indian Cinema. Veteran Bollywood and Bengali film actor Pahadi Sanyal also hailed from Lucknow.

Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as Shashi Kapoor's Junoon, Muzaffar Ali's Umrao Jaan and Gaman, Satyajit Ray's Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Ismail Merchant's Shakespeare Wallah was also partly shot in Lucknow.

In the movie Gadar: Ek Prem Katha Lucknow has been used to depict Pakistan. Movie Anwar (2007) written and directed by Manish Jha, starring Siddharth Koirala And Manisha Koirala was shot in Lucknow and surrounded areas like Kakori and Bakhshi ka Talab. Places like Lal Pul, Taj Hotel, Roomi Darwaza (or Roman Gate) has been used in Tanu Weds Manu.

Education and research

IIM Lucknow]] IET Lucknow EUPHORIA performing at SPPGIDMS

Lucknow is a hub of education and research and many premier institutions are located in and around city. City has many universities, Engineering Colleges, Management Institutes, Research Institutes and Schools.

There are few old and reputed schools affiliated with State or Central Boards like:

St.Dominic Savio College,Lucknow,

Most prominent university is Lucknow University; others being Gautam Buddh Technical University (GBTU), Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia National Law University, Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaj Medical University (formerly King George Medical College/University).

Prominent institutes of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) like:

Other important institutes are:

Transport

Road transport

From Hazratganj intersection in Lucknow city, four Indian National Highways originate, viz, NH-24 to Delhi, NH-25 to Shivpuri, Jhansi (M.P. Border), NH-56 to Varanasi and NH-28 to Mokama (Bihar).The available multiple modes of public transport in the city are taxis, city buses, cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws and CNG Low Floor AC or Non AC Buses. CNG has been introduced recently as an auto fuel to keep the air pollution in control.

City bus service

Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (JNNURM of UPSRTC). It has a fleet of 300 buses. All are CNG.Off them

At present there are around 35 routes in the city. Terminals for city buses are Gudamba, Virajkhand, Alambagh, Scooter India, Engineering college, B.B.D., Pasi qila, Charbagh, Andhe ki chowki, Budheshwar choraha. There are 4 bus depots for city bus that are Gomti nagar, Charbagh, Amausi, Dubagga.

Suburban bus service

The suburban bus service is run by Lucknow upnagariya parivahan sewa. Its fleet is around 120 buses. These buses cater the need of suburban towns and tehsils in Lucknow and neighbouring districts. Suburban services is from Charbagh and Kaiserbagh. Towns connected by Charbagh are Barabanki city, Nigohan, Nayi jail, Nagram, Mohanlalganj, Subeha, Bachhrawan.Towns connected by Kaiserbagh are Malihabad, Itaunja, Mahmudabad, Amaniganj, Haidergarh, nayi jail. It is a division of Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation.

Inter-state bus service

One of Lucknow's major bus terminals is Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar bus station at Alambagh. It has very modern facilities and is the main inter- and intrastate terminal in Lucknow. Another important bus station is at Qaiserbagh. Earlier, another bus terminal operated at Charbagh, directly in front of the main railway station, but this has now been reestablished as a City bus depot. The move was taken to remove congestion in front of the railway station. Kanpur Lucknow Roadways Service is a very important service for commuters.Swanky VOLVO named Royal cruiser AC bus service is run by UPSRTC for many cities.Buses being very comfortble are very much in demand nowadays. Main cities they serve are Jaipur, agra, delhi, gorakhpur.Bus service to inter state cities is also very good. All the Main and important cities of north India is connected by bus. The cities outside Uttar Pradesh that are covered by bus service are Jaipur, New Delhi, Gwalior, Bharatpur, Singrauli, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Dausa, Ajmer, Dehradun, Haridwar.

Rail transport

Charbagh Railway Station at Lucknow

The city is served by several railway stations at different parts of the city. The main railway station is Lucknow Railway Station at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923. The main terminal belongs to Northern Railway (NR) (station code: LKO) division of Indian Railways and the second terminal is run by the North Eastern Railway (NER) (Station Code: LJN). Lucknow is a major junction with links to all major cities of the state and country such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur and many more. Lucknow has a further thirteen railway stations viz. Alamnagar, Malhaur, Utretia, Transport Nagar, Dilkhusha, Gomti Nagar, Badshahnagar, Manak Nagar, Amausi, Aishbagh junction, Lucknow City, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Now meter gauge services originate from Aishbagh and connect to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Except Mohibullapur all the stations are also connected to Broad gauge. All the stations are within city limits and are well connected with each other via road networks and public road transport. Other suburban stations include Bakshi Ka Talab and Kakori.Many stations are covered by Lucknow-Kanpur Suburban Railway. It serves daily commuters. Some of the trains are operated from Barabanki city.

Air transport

The Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport, Amausi serves as the city's main airport and is located about 20 km from the city center. Lucknow is directly connected by air with New Delhi, Bangalore,Patna, Kolkata, Mumbai and Hyderabad. Oman Air, FlyDubai, Buddha Airlines, Saudi Airlines, Indian Airlines and IndigoAir and many more international airlines that are operating international flights from Lucknow. International destinations include Dubai, Muscat, Sharjah, Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh and Kathmandu (Nepal). During Haj special flights are also operated from Lucknow.

Metro/Mono Rail service

Plans for high capacity mass transit system, The Lucknow Metro and Mono rail Services have been finalised. Delhi Metro rail (DMRC) is preparing plans for its constructions.

Media

Local channels

There are numerous local channels in Lucknow. Most of them show movies throughout the day and then news and educational programs in evening.There are many Muslim TV channels exclusively for Muslim population in the city. All the channels are run by local cable operarors.

Press

Lucknow has historically been a major center of journalism. The National Herald, the newspaper started by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru before World War II was published from Lucknow and edited by Manikonda Chalapathi Rau.

The prominent English dailies of the city are The Times of India, The Hindustan Times, The Pioneer and Indian Express. Several daily newspapers in Hindi and Urdu are published in the city. Among the Hindi papers are Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Hindustan, Rashtriya Sahara, Jansatta, I Next and Swatantra Bharat. The main Urdu papers are Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Avadhnama, Qaumi Khabrein, Aag,Roznama Urdu, "Subahnama Urdu" and Jayeza Daily,. The Press Trust of India and United News of India have their offices in the city and all major Indian newspapers have correspondents and stringers in Lucknow.

Radio

One of the earliest stations of All India Radio has been operational in Lucknow for quite some time.

FM radio transmission started in Lucknow in 2000, and the city today has following FM radio stations.[28]

Internet

The city has broadband internet connectivity and video conferencing facilities. Major companies like BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, Tata Communications & STPI, have a wide infrastructure to provide broadband Internet Bandwidth.

References

Further reading

  • Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. City of Illusion. Prestel Verlag, 2006, 295pp. ISBN 3-7913-3130-2. ISBN 978-3-7913-3130-0.
  • Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. Lucknow Then and Now. Marg Publications, India, 2003. ISBN 81-85026-61-0. ISBN 978-81-85026-61-9.
  • Anurag Kumar. Recalcitrance- a historical novel on events of Great Uprising of 1857 AIP Books, India, 2008.
  • Madan Lal Verma 'Krant' Krantikari Bismil Aur Unki Shayri (Urdu/Hindi), 2009, 1/1148A Subhash Park Extension, Naveen Shahdara Delhi 110032, Prakhar Prakashan

External links

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