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Kunda culture

250px Kunda Culture, with its roots in Swiderian culture [1] is a mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the Baltic forest zone extending eastwards through Latvia into northern Russia dating to the period 8000 5000 BC by calibrated radiocarbon dating. It is named after the Estonian town of Kunda, about east of Tallinn along the Gulf of Finland, near where the first extensively studied settlement was discovered on Lammasm e Hill and in the surrounding peat bog.[2]

Most Kunda settlements are located near the edge of the forests beside rivers, lakes, or marshes. Elk were extensively hunted, perhaps helped by trained domestic hunting-dogs. On the coast seal hunting is represented. Pike and other fish were taken from the rivers. There is a rich bone and antler industry, especially in relation to fishing gear. Tools were decorated with simple geometric designs, lacking the complexity of the contemporary Maglemosian Culture communities to the southwest.

The Kunda Culture is succeeded by the Narva culture who use pottery and show some traces of food production. The oldest known Kunda culture settlement in Estonia is Pulli settlement.


Origin of culture

The Kunda culture appears to have undergone a transition from the Palaeolithic Swiderian culture located previously over much of the same range. One such transition settlement, Pasieniai 1C in Lithuania, features stone tools of both Late Swiderian and early Kunda. One shape manufactured in both cultures is the retouched tanged point. The final Swiderian is dated 7800-7600 BC by calibrated radiocarbon dating, which is in the Preboreal period, at the end of which time with no gap the early Kunda begins. Evidently the descendants of the Swiderians were the first to settle Estonia when it became habitable. Other post-Swiderian groups extended as far east as the Ural mountains.[3]

Locations of sites


See also

da:Kundakultur de:Kunda-Kultur et:Kunda kultuur es:Cultura de Kunda it:Cultura di Kunda lv:Kundas kult ra lt:Kundos kult ra no:Kundakulturen pl:Kultura kundajska ru: fi:Kundan kulttuuri sv:Kundakulturen

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