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Jodhpur

Jodhpur ( ; ) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located west from the state capital, Jaipur and from the city of Ajmer. It was formerly the seat of a princely state of the same name, the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces, forts and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar desert.

The city is known as the "Sun City" for the bright, sunny weather it enjoys all year. It is also referred to as the "Blue City" due to the blue-painted houses around the Mehrangarh Fort. The old city circles the fort and is bounded by a wall with several gates. However, the city has expanded greatly outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic centre of Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists.

Contents


History

Jodhpur Panorama, seen from the Mehrangarh Fort.
Jodhpur Panorama, seen from the Mehrangarh Fort.
According to Rajasthan district Gazetteers of Jodhpur and the Hindu epic Ramayana (composed up to 4th century AD), Abhiras were the original inhabitants of Jodhpur and later Aryans spread to this region.[1][2]

Jodhpur was also part of the Gurjara - Pratihara empire and until 1100 CE was ruled by a powerful Bargujar King. Jodhpur was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a state which came to be known as Marwar. As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town initially served as the capital of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandals, date palms and coffee.

Early in its history, the state became a fief under the Mughal Empire, owing fealty to them while enjoying some internal autonomy. During this period, the state furnished the Mughals with several notable generals such as Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world: new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India.

View of the Rajasthan High Court, Sardar museum in Umaid Park and upper right is Jodhpur fort in 1960.
View of the Rajasthan High Court, Sardar museum in Umaid Park and upper right is Jodhpur fort in 1960.
Aurangzeb briefly sequestrated the state (c.1679) on the pretext of a minority, but the rightful ruler Maharaja Ajit Singh was restored to the throne by Veer Durgadas Rathore after Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a great struggle of 30 years. The Mughal empire declined gradually after 1707, but the Jodhpur court was beset by intrigue; rather than benefiting from circumstances, Marwar descended into strife and invited the intervention of the Marathas, who soon supplanted the Mughals as overlords of the region. This did not make for stability or peace, however; 50 years of wars and treaties dissipated the wealth of the state, which sought and gratefully entered into subsidiary alliance with the British in 1818.

During the British Raj, the state of Jodhpur had the largest land area of any in Rajputana. Jodhpur prospered under the peace and stability that were a hallmark of this era.The land area of the state was its population in 1901 was 44,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of 35,29,000/. Its merchants, the Marwaris, flourished without let or limit and came to occupy a position of dominance in trade across India. In 1947, when India became independent, the state merged into the union of India and Jodhpur became the second city of Rajasthan.

Oswal Jains were mainly concentrated in Gorwar Region which was again ruled by Maharaja of Jodhpur . And Oswal jains also played main role in strengthening foundation of Jodhpur by donating mass wealth, gems to Maharaja of Jodhpur & in turn Maharaja of Jodhpur used to honour these wealthy Oswal Jain Merchants as Nagar Seth or various other honourable titles.

At the time of partition, ruler of Jodhpur Hanwant Singh did not want to join India, but finally due to the effective persuasion Maharana of Mewar and Sardar Vallab Patel the then Home Minister at centre princely state of Jodhpur was included in Indian Republic. Later after State Reorganization Act, 1956 it was made part of the state of Rajasthan.[3]

Demographics

As per provisional reports of Census India,[4] population of Jodhpur is 1,033,918 in 2011; of which male and female nearly constitute 52.62 percent and 47.38 percent respectively. Average literacy rate of Jodhpur city is 81.56 percent of which male and female literacy was 88.42 and 73.93 percent respectively. Total children under 6 years of age constitute nearly 12.24 percent of city population. Jodhpur city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Jodhpur Urban Agglomeration. The Jodhpur Urban/Metropolitan area include Jodhpur, Kuri Bhagtasani, Mandor Ind. Area, Nandri, Pal Village and Sangariya. Its Urban/Metropolitan population is 1,137,815 of which 599,332 are males and 538,483 are females.

Climate

Economy

Industrial plant near Jodhpur, Rajasthan.
Industrial plant near Jodhpur, Rajasthan.
The Handicrafts industry has in recent years eclipsed all other industries in the city. By some estimates, the furniture export segment is a $200 million industry, directly or indirectly employing as many as 200,000 people. Other items manufactured include textiles, metal utensils, bicycles, ink and sporting goods. A flourishing cottage industry exists for the manufacture of such items as glass bangles, cutlery, carpets and marble products.

After handicrafts, tourism is the second largest industry of Jodhpur. Crops grown in the district include wheat and the famous Mathania red chillies. Gypsum and salt are mined. The city serves as an important marketplace for wool and agricultural products. The Indian Air Force, Indian Army and Border Security Force maintain training centers at Jodhpur.

The administration of Jodhpur is consisting of a District Collector, followed by 4 Additional District Magistrates (I,II, Land Conversion and City ADM). Presently, the Collector and District Magistrate is Mr. Siddharth Mahajan (I.A.S).The city is also under Police Commissioner system,with "MR.Bhupinder Kumar Dak (I.P.S)" as Police commissioner of the city.

Elected representatives

The present Member of Parliament from Jodhpur is Chandresh Kumari of Congress, who is the sister of Gaj Singh, the former Maharaja of Jodhpur. The current MLAs from the 3 constituencies of Jodhpur are from Jodhpur City: Shri Kailash Bhansali, Chartered Accountant; from Sardarpura: Shri Ashok Gehlot, Chief Minister of Rajasthan; from Soorsagar: Smt. Suryakanta Vyas

Culture

Mehrangarh Fort
Mehrangarh Fort
Umaid Bhavan Palace
Umaid Bhavan Palace
The Jaswant Thada mausoleum
The Jaswant Thada mausoleum
Kaylana
Kaylana

Tourism

Jodhpur's attractions include Mehrangarh Fort, Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jaswant Thada, and Ghanta Ghar (Clock Tower). Tourists can make excursions to Mandore, Kaylana Lake and Garden, Balsamand lake, Sardar Samand lake and palace, Masooria Hill, Veer Durgadas Smarak(monument, park and museum), Dhawa (Dholi) forest area, Khichan, Osian, Nakoda ji.

Fairs and festivals

Folk dance of Rajasthan.
Folk dance of Rajasthan.

Cuisine

A number of Indian delicacies have originated in Jodhpur. To name a few, the Makhaniya Lassi, Mawa Kachori, Pyaaj Kachori, Hot & Spicy Mirchibada (A preparation made with potato, onion, chilli and gramflour), Dal Bati Churma, Panchkuta, Lapsi (a special kind of dessert made with wheat, Jaggery, and ghee), Kachar mircha curry (made with chilli and kachar, a special type of vegetable grown in desert area) and Kadhi (made with gramflour, curd and chilli) with Baajre ka sogra (a sweet preparation of pearl millet and jaggery). Jodhpur is known for its sweets ranging from traditional "Makhanbada", "Mawa Kachori" to Bengali "Roshogollas","Ras madhuri".

Education

Indian Institute of Technology, Rajasthan Jodhpur is fast becoming a major education hub for higher studies in India.

Major Institutions are -

- Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan (A premier technical institute of India) - NLU (National Law University, Jodhpur), - JNU (Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur), - NIFT National Institute of Fashion Technology, - Ayurveda University (Second University of its kind in India) - JNVU (Jai Narayan Vyas University) (NAAC accredited "A" Grade University) - MBM Engineering College, which falls under JNVU university, is the world's only institute which has its own mines. - Dr. S.N Medical College and group of Hospitals - S.L.B.S Engineering College - Jodhpur Engineering College & Research Centre - Jodhpur Institute of Engineering & Technology. - Marwar Engineering College - Vyas Institute Of Higher education

Also, a new campus of All India Institute of Medical Sciences is going to be established in CAZRI(Central Arid Zone Research Institute)campus.

The other educational institutions include ICMT, Lachoo Memorial College, Somani College,VIET, SLBS, MAYURAKSHI etc.

Jodhpur is also India's largest hub for preparation of CA entrance.

Judiciary

Rajasthan High Court (Marwadi: , Hindi: ) is the High Court of the state of Rajasthan. It was established on 21 June 1949 under the Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949.

The seat of the court is at Jodhpur. The court has a sanctioned judge strength of 40. View of the Rajasthan High Court, Sardar museum in Umaid Park and upper right is Jodhpur fort in 1960.

The High Court of Rajasthan was founded in the year 1949 at Jodhpur, and was inaugurated by the Rajpramukh, Maharaja Sawai Man Singh on 29 August 1949. The first Chief Justice was Kamala Kant Verma. A bench was formed at Jaipur which was dissolved in the year 1958 and was again formed on 31 January 1977. Currently the sanctioned strength of the judges is 40 and actual strength is 29.

Transportation

The city is very well connected with Road, Rail and Air. It is mostly connected with railways to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Pune, Kota, Kanpur, Bareilly, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Nagpur, Lucknow and Jaipur.The railway station is also the originating point for various trains like Jodhpur - Indore Express, Jodhpur - Bhopal Express, Jodhpur - Puri Express, Mandore Express, Suryanagri Superfast Express etc.

Jodhpur Airport is one of the prominent airports of western India. It was primarily constructed as an Air Force base because of its important strategic location ( Jodhpur Airport played the crucial role during Indo-Pak wars in 1965, 1971). It is the most powerful air base in South Asia.

Airlines and destinations

Further reading

  • Jodhpur, Published by [s.l.], 1933.
  • Maharaja of Marwar 1973.
  • Marwar under Jaswant Singh, (1658-1678): Jodhpur hukumat ri bahi, by Satish Chandra, Raghubir Sinh, Ghanshyam Dattan Singh of Jodhpur and His Times (1803-1843 A.D.), by Padmaja Sharma. Published by Shiva Lal Agarwala, 1972.
  • The Administration of Jodhpur State, 1800-1947 A.D., by Nirmala M. Upadhyaya. International Publishers, Sharma. Published by Meenakshi Prakashan, 1976.
  • The History of Rajputana-Vol.IV, PartII.The History of the Jodhpur State, Part II,Veer Durgadas. 1941, Dr.Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha.
  • Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer: Desert Kingdoms, by Kishore Singh, Karoki Lewis. Lustre Press Ltd. 1992.
  • The House of Marwar: The Story of Jodhpur, by Dhananajaya Singh. Lotus Collection, Roli Books, 1994. ISBN 81-7436-002-6.
  • Modern Indian Kingship: Tradition, Legitimacy & Power in Jodhpur, by Marzia Balzani. Published by James Currey Limited, 2003. ISBN 0-85255-931-3.
  • Rathod Durgadas by Pt.Bishweshharnath Reu, 1948, Archaeological Department, Jodhpur.
  • Veer Durgadas Rathor by Dr.L.S.Rathore, Thar Bliss Publisher, Jodhpur, 1987.
  • Jodhpur and the Later Mughals, AD 1707-1752, by R. S. Sangwan. Published by Pragati Publications, 2006.

See also

References

External links

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