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Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh
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Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh

Jaunpur (, ) is a city and a municipal board in Jaunpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Jaunpur district is located to the northwest of the district of Varanasi in the eastern part of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Jaunpur has a population of 4,476,072[1] people according to official census report of India 2011. Demographically, Jaunpur resembles the rest of the Purvanchal area in which it is located: a primarily rural agricultural population with high illiteracy and low human development index.



Jaunpur historically known as Sheeraz-e-Hind having its historical dates from 1359, when the city was founded by the Sultan of Delhi Feroz Shah Tughlaq and named in memory of his cousin, Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose given name was Jauna Khan.[2] In 1388, Feroz Shah Tughlaq appointed Malik Sarwar, a eunuch, as the governor of the region. The Sultanate was in disarray because of factional fighting for power, and in 1393 Malik Sarwar declared independence. He and his adopted son Mubarak Shah founded what came to be known as the Sharqi dynasty (dynasty of the East). During the Sharqi period the Jaunpur Sultanate was a strong military power in Northern India, and on several occasions threatened the Delhi Sultanate.

Silver coin of 32 rattis issued by Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur. It depicts the elephant Citranand attacking another, called Udiya, during the Mughal campaign against the rebel forces of Khan Zaman and Bahadur Khan in 1567. The Jaunpur Sultanate attained its greatest height under the younger brother of Mubarak Shah, who ruled as Shams ud-din Ibrahim Shah (ruled 1402-1440). To the east, his kingdom extended to Bihar, and to the west, to Kanauj; he even marched on Delhi at one point. Under the aegis of a Muslim holy man named Qutb al-Alam, he threatened the Sultanate of Bengal under Raja Ganesha.[3]

During the reign of Husain Shah (1456 76), the Jaunpur army was perhaps the biggest in India, and Husain decided to attempt a conquest of Delhi. However, he was defeated on three successive attempts by Bahlul Khan Lodi. Finally, under Sikandar Lodi, the Delhi Sultante was able to reconquer Jaunpur in 1493, bringing that sultanate to an end.

The Jaunpur Sultanate was a major center of Urdu and Sufi knowledge and culture. The Sharqi dynasty was known for its excellent communal relations between Muslims and Hindus, perhaps stemming from the fact that the Sharqis themselves were originally indigenous converts to Islam, as opposed to descendants of Persians or Afghans. Jaunpur's independence came to an end in 1480, when the city was conquered by Sikander Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. The Sharqi kings attempted for several years to retake the city, but ultimately failed.

Although many of the Sharqi monuments were destroyed when the Lodhis took the city, several important mosques remain, most notably the Atala Masjid, Jama Masjid (now known as the Bari (big mosque) Masjid) and the Lal Darwaza Masjid. The Jaunpur mosques display a unique architectural style, combining traditional Hindu and Muslim motifs with purely original elements. The old bridge over the Gomti River in Jaunpur dates from 1564, the era of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The Jaunpur Quilla, a fortress from the Tughlaq era, also remains in ruined form.

Jaunpur district was annexed into British India based on the Permanent settlement of 1779, and thus was subject to the Zamindari system of land revenue collection. During the Revolt of 1857 the Sikh troops in Jaunpur joined the Indian rebels. The district was eventually reconquered for the British by Gurkha troops from Nepal. Jaunpur then became a district administrative center. Hasan khan

Modern day

Jaunpur district shares the underdevelopment of most of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. There are currently no major industries operating in the city, and traditional industries such as perfume making have become increasingly unviable. Under the initiative of the UP government, an Industrial Area has been set up in the Sathariya region of the district to promote industrial growth and expansion. Land is being allotted to budding industrialists and the government has plans to help people of this region develop more and more industries. During the past three years Jaunpur city has experienced a growing corporate presence in financial services as well as in the organized retail sector.

Atala mosque also provides a snake bite antidote service free of charge.

Politically, Jaunpur is divided between the Samajwadi Party (SP) which tends to represent the interests of the Backward Castes and the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) which tends to represent the interests of the Scheduled Castes and Brahmins, though other political parties too have a significant presence.

Jaunpur is the district headquarters. The district has 2 Lok Sabha and 9 Vidhan Sabha constituencies.


The population of Jaunpur according to the official census report of Indian Government 2011, is 4,476,072[4] of which 2,217635[5] are male and 2,258,437[6] are female.

Change in rate of population from 2001 to 2011 is 14.43[7] percent. Jaunpur is a highly dense place with population density of 1,108[8] people per km2.Area covered under Jaunpur District is about 4,038[9] km2.

Average literacy rate of Jaunpur in 2011 were 73.66[10] compared to 59.84 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 86.06 and 61.70 respectively.

Jaunpur has a sex ratio of 1018 females per 1000 maleswhich better than national average of 940 females per 1000 male .

Rivers of Jaunpur

Gomati, Sai, Varuna, Pili, and Basuhi are the five rivers which make its land fertile.[11] It is one of the most densely rural districts in UP.



Jaunpur is well-connected with all major cities of India thanks to Indian Railways, it has three major railway stations namely Jaunpur City Station (JOP) and Jaunpur Junction, Shahganj Junction (SHG).janghai junction, Kerakat Station (KKT). Mughalsarai, Varanasi and Allahabad railway stations are also easily reachable from here, Godaan express is a daily train to Mumbai (erstwhile Bombay) from JNU; Shramjeevi is daily train to Delhi.farraka and sadbhavana express are other trains which run on various days to delhi.


Jaunpur is well connected to Lucknow, Varanasi, Allahabad and other cities like Azamgarh, Mirzapur, Janghai, Sultanpur, Ghazipur etc. NH-56, SH-36 are the roadways connecting all major cities to Jaunpur.


Varanasi Airport also known as Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport [(IATA: VNS)] located in Babatpur is just 45-minute drive from Jaunpur city on National Highway 56. Domestic and international flights are available from Varanasi Airport


Sharqi Dynasty

  • Malik Sarwar Khwaja-yi Jahan (1394 1399)
  • Malik Qaranful Mubarrak Shah (1399 1401)
  • Ibrahim Shams-ud-Din (1401 1440)
  • Mahmud Shah (1440 1458)
  • Mohammed Shah Bhikan Khan (1458)
  • Husain Shah (1458 1483)

Educational institutes

Jaunpur has a very high concentration of colleges as compared to most other districts in U.P. It has more than 20 undergraduate colleges and 130 colleges up to high school. There are many major educational institutions in Jaunpur City which are famous throughout the nation. There is also a Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya situated 21 km south from the district headquarter on Lumbini - Duddhi Road in Katghara Village near Mariahu Tehsil.



SIDA (Satharia Industrial Development Authority)

Satharia Industrial Development Authority was established in November 1989 by the Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, under U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976 to facilitate concentrated effort on Industrial development of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

In its 1st phase of activity, the authority has a fully developed growth center area on 508 acres of land, under growth center scheme of Govt. of India.

Virtually all kind of industrial, commercial and social infrastructural facilities, such as Medical, Educational, Residential, Roads, Transportation, drainage, Telecommunication, dedicated industrial power 33/11 KV supply, post office, bank water supply, community center, shopping center, field hostel etc., have been fully established and are operative.[12]


There are a number of tourist attractions in Jaunpur. Every year thousands of visitors come from every corner of the world to visit Jaunpur. The tourist attractions in Jaunpur include monuments, museums, and holy places.-->


Holy places

Jaunpur Atala Masjid. Jaunpur Jama Masjid

Local products

Notable people



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