Jaipur (, ), also popularly known as the 'Pink City', is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, after whom the city has been named. The city today has a population of 3.1 million. The unique foundations of the city's name is from Sanskrit meaning from Jay is victory and Pur is city, another well known country known as Indonesia also have a city named Jayapura that also has the same sanskrit meaning of this city that is also JayaPura but shortend to Jaypur.
Jaipur is one of the finest planned cities of India, located in the semi-desert lands of Rajasthan. The city which once had been the capital of the royalty now is the capital city of Rajasthan. The very structure of Jaipur resembles the taste of the Rajputs and the Royal families. At present, Jaipur is a major business centre with all requisites of a metropolitan city.
The major shopping zone in Jaipur is mid of the Jaipur areas like Johari Bazar, Chaura Rasta, Kishanpole Bazar, also known as Char Diwari area; some of the famous areas in Jaipur include Mansarovar, the largest housing colony in Asia; Sanganer, famous for handmade paper industry; and Sanganeri hand block-printing.
The city is remarkable among pre-modern Indian cities for the width and regularity of its streets which are laid out into six sectors separated by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses a sprawling palace complex, (Hawa Mahal), formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. The observatory, Jantar Mantar, is one of the World Heritage Sites. Included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi and Agra, Jaipur is an extremely popular tourist destination in Rajasthan and India.
In 1876, Jaipur was colored in terracotta pink to welcome the Prince of Wales, and thus the name Pink City was attached with the city.
In ancient time Jaipur region comes under Matsya Kingdom. Modern Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Maharaja Ram Seo Master II of Amber who ruled from 1699 1744 and initially his capital was Amber, which lies at a distance of 11 km from Jaipur. He felt the need of shifting his capital city with the increase in population and growing scarcity of water. The King consulted several books on architecture and architects before making the layout of Jaipur. Finally under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, (initially an accounts-clerk in the Amber treasury and later promoted to the office of Chief Architect by the King) Jaipur came into existence on the classical basis of principles of Vastu Shastra and similar classical treatise.
Jaipur, Principal Street, c. 1875
After waging several battles with the Marathas, Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II was keen on the security aspect of the city. Being a lover of astronomy, mathematics and astrophysics, Jai Singh sought advice from Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, a Brahmin scholar of Bengal, to aid him to design many other buildings including the Royal Palace in the center of the city.
The construction of the city started in 1727. It took around 4 years to complete the major palaces, roads and square. The city was built following the principles of Shilpa Shastra, the science of Indian Architecture. The city was divided into nine blocks, of which two consist the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge fortification walls were built along with seven strong gates.
For the time, architecture of the town was very advanced and certainly the best in Indian subcontinent. In 1876, when the Prince of Wales visited Jaipur, the whole city was painted pink to welcome him during the regime of Sawai Ram Singh. Today, avenues remain painted in pink, provide a distinctive appearance to the city. In the 19th century the city grew rapidly; by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The city's wide boulevards were paved and lit.
The city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art (named as 'Madarsa Hunree') founded in 1868. The city also had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) initiated under the reign of the enigmatic Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was also a wealthy and enterprising community of native bankers, particularly the Jain, Marwaris and the administrators Rawana rajput. Maharaja Rishabh Bhawani Singh, the member of the erstwhile maharaja family of Jaipur, died on 17 April 2011 at a private hospital in Gurgaon following multi-organ failure.
Geography and climate
Jaipur is the headquarters of rajasthan Jaipur district which is situated in the eastern part of Rajasthan. It is located at . It has an average elevation of 431 metres (1417 ft).
The major rivers passing through the Jaipur district are Banas and Banganga. Ground water resources to the extent of about 28.65 million cubic meter are available in the district. Although serious drought is rare, poor water management and exploitation of groundwater with extensive tube-well systems threatens agriculture in some areas.
Jaipur has a hot semi-arid climate (K ppen climate classification BSh) receiving over of rainfall annually but most rains occur in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having average daily temperatures of around . During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from and with little or no humidity. There are however occasional cold waves that lead to temperatures near freezing.
Langurs in Jaipur. In Jaipur there is a colony of 60 monkeys. Monkeys and elephants are considered to be respectable in India. The Indian culture preaches compassion towards animals and thus stray animals are tolerated and sometimes even fed.
The Ganesh Pol of Amber fort. Amber is now part of Jaipur Municipal Corporation.
Jaipur View From Nahargarh Fort.
Jaipur is considered by many urbanites to be one of the best planned cities. In an era when most of the Rajputs were busy fighting with each other, Jaipur's kings diplomatically broadened their control sphere maintaining good relations with the Mughals.
The city was planned according to Indian Vastu Shastra (Vedic Planning for the comfort and prosperity of the citizens). The directions of each street and market are East to West and North to South. The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand (Moon) Pol. There are three gates facing East, West, and North and a Northern gate (known as Zorawar Singh gate) which faces toward the ancestral capital of Amber, while many gates face South.
Although the present city has expanded from outside of its walls, the original planning was within the walls. The gates used to be closed at sunset and opened at sunrise. Almost all Northern Indian towns of that period presented a chaotic picture of narrow twisting lanes, a confusion of run-down forts, temples, palaces, and temporary shacks that bore no resemblance at all to the principles set out in Hindu architectural manuals which call for strict geometric planning. Thus, for Sawai Jai Singh II and the Bengali advisor Vidyadhar, the founding of Jaipur was also a ritual and a great opportunity to plan a whole town according to the principles of Hindu architectural theory.
The town of Jaipur is built in the form of an eight-part Mandala known as the 'Pithapada'. Nine signifies the nine planets of the ancient astrological zodiac. It is well known that Sawai Jai Singh II was a great astronomer and a town planner, and hence the 'Pithapada'. Also, the commercial shops are designed in multiples of nine (27), having one cross street for a planet.
The administration is handled here at the State, Division and District Level. Jaipur being the capital of the state, has the Secretariat which has almost all the administrative officers looking into the functioning of the State Government. Apart from the Secretariat, Jaipur has the state police headquarters also.
The Vidhan Sabha of Rajasthan in Jaipur
The recent (2008) general election showed tremendous swing toward the Indian National Congress (INC) with Ashok Gehlot emerging as the Chief Minister of Rajasthan. The INC had won only 2 of 14 parliament elections in the past. Currently Mahesh Joshi is the MP from Jaipur. Previously, Girdhari Lal Bhargava of BJP was the MP from Jaipur, who won for the first time in 1989 and has been elected six times since then.
Jaipur Districts has 19 constituencies for electing MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly) of Rajasthan, namely Shahpura, Chaksu, Bassi, Bagru, Sanganer, Malviya Nagar, Adarsh Nagar, Kishanpole, Civil Lines, Vidhyadhar Nagar, Hawa Mahal, Jamwa Ramgarh, Amber or Amer, Banipark, Dudu, Phulera, Chomu, Virat Nagar and Kotputli. Banipark is the largest among these constituencies. Rajasthan's stalwart Bhairon Singh Shekhawat has also has been elected the Chief Minister of Rajasthan thrice. Jyoti Khandelwal is the new Mayor of Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC). Totally, there are 70 seats for Vidhan Parishad in Jaipur District. Mr. B.L. Soni is the first Police Commissioner of Jaipur. Currently Smt. Margaret Alva is the governor of Rajasthan.
In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia and in another poll it was ranked third among twelve major Indian cities.
Modern infrastructural facilities are developing fast, and in many cases surpass those of larger cities like Delhi and Kolkata. The city is expanding very quickly and has become a hot spot for development in Rajasthan. Jaipur International Airport is located at a satellite location of Sanganer and offers flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Kolkata and Guwahati along with sporadic services to International locations such as Dubai.
Jaipur has a well maintained road network with multi-story flyovers and traffic lights with closed circuit cameras. Police control room (PCR) vans are being equipped with GPS to monitor locations and help maintain law and order.
Jaipur boasts of International Living standards with well planned colonies of grid like patterns (sectors and blocks) and parks well maintained by JDA (Jaipur Development Authority). The various Shopping malls and Multiplexes which offer an urban lifestyle to Jaipurites.
Sawai Mansingh Cricket stadium in Jaipur is a popular venue for many International matches and for Indian Premier League matches. Events like Jaipur Jewelry Show and Jaipur Literature Festival offer a common platform for people not only from India but from other countries also, giving Jaipur a cosmopolitan ambiance.
The Old City of Jaipur is highly congested, whereas the suburbs of Jaipur provide wide roads with a free flow of traffic. Tech Park has already became operational, built by Mahindra Group and is expected to complete by 2011.
Jaipur district is a centre for both traditional and modern industries. It is famous as a large exporter of gold, diamond and stone jewellery in Asia and is the only city finishing blue diamond, or tanzanite, in the world. The main industrial products include: acetylene gas, ACSR (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) cable, all-purpose flour (maida), atta flour, ball bearings, bottling of LPG, ceramics, pottery, cold roll strips, deoiled cakes, durries, dyeing and printing, edible oil, ferrous and non-ferrous castings, gems and jewelry, general engineering and manufacturing, granite slabs and tiles, handmade paper, handicraft items, halogen automobile headlamps, "hawai" chappals (sandals), household electrical appliances, HT steel strips, iodized salt, lamps, laminated springs for railways, marble statues, marble tiles & slabs, moulded plastic components for electronics, nitrochlorobenzene, oxygen gas, perfumes, plastic containers, P.P. multifilament yarn, PVC cables, PVC doors, PVC footwear, Portland cement, clothing, re-roller products, semolina (suji), steel furniture, steel ingots, stone grits, synthetic leather, tablets and capsules, washing soap, wheat, woolen carpets, refined vegetable oil and vanaspati ghee heavy steel fabrication, brass and lacquer work, enamel work, gems, granite tiles, handlooms, and silk carpets.
Jaipur has been ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities. Genpact and Infosys have their BPO already established and running successfully. In fact Genpact has the fastest growing location in Jaipur. Over the past several years the real estate business has begun to expand. Some of the companies already present here include Bosch, Coca Cola, IBM, Ericsson and NEI, popularly known as NBC Bearings.
Jaipur also has a branch of the Reserve Bank of India and other prominent international banks. India's largest integrated IT regions SEZ Mahindra World City, is located in Jaipur. Master planned by Jurong Constructions Singapore it covers nearly of land off Ajmer highway and has already attracted major companies like Infosys, TCS, Wipro, Tech Mahindra, ISYS BPO Services, Truworth and Deutsche Bank. India's one of a kind World Trade Park is also under construction in Malaviya Nagar. It will be having a luxury hotel, business halls and many showrooms of international brands. In coming years it is projected to become a hub for modern business development in Jaipur.
Number of large and medium scale running units: 48 Number of small scale units: 19,544 Number of industrial areas: 19 (Bagru, Bassi, Bais Godam, Bindyaka, Dudu, Hirawala, Jetpura, Jhotwara, Kaladera, Kanakpura, Kartarpura, Malviya Nagar, Phulera, Renwal, Sanganer, Shahpura, Sitapura, Sudarshanpur and Vishwakarma). Jaipur is soon planned to have an International Convention Centre and a Golf course. A film city near Agra highway is also in the pipeline.
Jaipur is a principal tourist destination in India. Many people come to Jaipur to view the various forts and monuments in which reflect its glorious past. Tourism is a significant part of Jaipur's economy. Along with up-scale hotels the facilities and future infrastructure developments are expected to increase the number of tourists.
The Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at per night, is listed at number 2 on World's 15 most expensive hotel suites complied by CNN Go in 2012. There are also plenty of budget hotels available in jaipur
Forts and monuments
Jaipur has a number of forts and monuments like Hawa Mahal, Amber Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Nahargarh Fort, City Palace, Jantar Mantar, Jal Mahal, Rambagh Palace, Central Museum, Albert Hall Museum. The Rose Pink City in India founded by Maharaja Jai Singh II (1693 1743), was the capital of Rajasthan India. It is a major attraction for visitors. Jaipur is surrounded on all sides by rugged hills, crowned with forts & enclosed by embattled walls. Houses with latticed windows line the streets with their rose pink colour, lending enchantment to the scene, which is enhanced at sunset.
Temples and places for worship
The landscape of Jaipur is dotted with numerous temples and religious places. It is because of the numerous temples, and religiosity among people that it is sometimes also known as Chhoti Kashi. Some of the famous temples in Jaipur include Govind Dev Ji Temple, Galtaji, Shri Kali Temple, Sanganeri Gate, Jaipur, (Lakshmi Narayan Mandir) commanly known as Birla Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Shila Devi Temple in Amber,nahar ke ganesh ji Tadkeshwara Mahadev, Panchayati Hall,Radha Govind Ji Temple. The All Saints Church near Mirza Ismail Road built more than 130 years ago by the rulers of Jaipur for the small Christian population is an excellent example of the high quality of workmanship during that period.
The city is dotted with beautiful gardens and parks. Prominent among them are Neharu Garden, Ram Niwas Garden, Sisodia Rani Garden and Palace, Vidyadhar Garden, Kanak Vrindavan, Central Park, Jawahar Circle Garden, Technology Park in Mansarover, Vidyadhar ka Bagh in Goner, Pondric Garden.
Other places of interest include Chand Baori (stepwell), Chokhi Dhani (a village resort), Kathputhli slum a Jaipur slum, Raj Mandir Cinema (a beautiful cinema hall).
Sawai Mansingh Hospital, SDMH (Durlabhji Hospital) and Fortis Hospital are among the famous hospitals of Jaipur. Apart from these, there are more than 40 small and mid sized hospitals in the city. The Jaipur Foot, an innovative prosthetic limb for those who have had below-knee amputations, has proved to be a boon to many people across the world.
As of 2011, Jaipur had a population of 3,073,350 The Population of Jaipur Metropolitan aggomogleration area is 3,646,590. Jaipur is the 10th largest city of India according to census of 2011.The major religion is Hinduism. Muslims and Jains also form a sizable chunk of the population. Hindu population accounts for 77%, Muslim 17%, Christians 0.5%, Sikhs 0.5%, Jains 4%. While 47.49% people lived in rural areas, 52.51% lived in urban areas. The overall literacy rate for the district was 76.44%. 87.27% males and 64.63% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males.
Hindi and Rajasthani are the most common language for daily communication. English, Punjabi, Sindhi are also widely spoken. According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report of 2009, Jaipur ranks 3rd in the list of 35 Indian cities with a population of more than 1 million (10 lakh) for crime rates. City's main jail is Jaipur Central Jail.
Jaipur is a hotspot for culture. Cultural Centres like Jawahar Kala Kendra and Ravindra Manch have helped promote the unique culture of the state of Rajasthan. Albert Hall Museum (Government Central Museum) hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a Government Museum at Hawa Mahal, an art gallery at Viratnagar. Jaipur also hosts the Numismatic Section, Directorate. The Town Hall (Old Vidhan Sabha Bhawan) is slated to be converted into a museum. There are figurines depicting various forms of Rajasthani culture along various parts of the city. The city also decorated its flyovers with different interesting themes.
Arts and crafts
The rulers of Jaipur patronized a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad. The different communities settled in various parts of city and made Jaipur their home. As a result, Jaipur is a major hub for various kinds of arts and crafts. Some of the crafts include Bandhani; Block printing; Stone carving and Sculpture; Tarkashi; Zari, Gota, Kinari and Zardozi; Silver Jewellery; Gems, Kundan, Meenakari and Jewellery; Miniature paintings; Blue Pottery; Ivory carving; Shellac work; Leatherware, etc.
Jaipur also has its own performing arts. The Jaipur Gharana of Kathak is a notable example. Others include Tamasha
The city has a very delectable cuisine. Some of the local dishes have become world-famous names. Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti. Sweet dishes include Ghevar, Feeni, Gajak, Chauguni ke laddu, Moong Thal.
Jaipur now has a great variety of fine restaurants to choose from. The new Fine Range includes Little Italy, Replay, Doorbeen Restaurants, Kanha Multi Cuisine & Others..
A number of festivals are organized in the city at various time of the year. Some of them include Gangaur Festival, Jaipur Literature Festival, Kite festival, Teej festival, Shitla Mata Fair, Chaksu Fair, Elephant Fair, Chhat ka mela in Amber during Navratri.
Polo, shooting, golf, cricket, tennis, badminton and kabaddi are the most popular sports in the city. Sawai Mansingh Stadium having a seating capacity of 30,000 has hosted many national and international cricket matches. Besides cricket, the sports complex has excellent sports facilities for various indoor and outdoor sports. Many international badminton and tennis tournaments have happened here. The city is also represented in the IPL by the team Rajasthan Royals. The Polo Club caters to Polo lovers and permits free entrance to public spectators during the polo season. The JDA Shooting Ranges at Jagatpura provide world class facilities for Air Gun, Trap and Skeet Shooting and are open to public. The Rambagh Golf Club, located next to the Rambagh Palace and the Polo Club is open to public for playing golf. Jai Club and other clubs throughout city provide facilities for other sports. Most of the schools have excellent sports facilities for ball games such as cricket, football, tennis, basketball, hockey, etc.
Recently, Jaipur has become a developed centre for education. University of rajasthan is well known university and accredited A+ by NAAC.UoR has many govt. university colleges and private affiliated colleges .UoR has several PG departments including biotech,micro,botany,zoology,geology,commerce,arts,sociology,physics,chemistry,maths.computer science,management etc.Jaipur has more than 60 engineering colleges, 40 business management institutes, 15 pharmacy Institutes, 4 hotel management Institutes, 3 medical colleges and 6 dental colleges. It also has 8 universities including the Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur ( Deemed University ). The city is also home to more than 250 schools affiliated with CBSE and ICSE. Some of the best schools in Jaipur include Delhi Public School,Maharaja Sawai Man Singh School, & St. Xavier's school. India's first private state women's university, Jyoti Vidyapeeth, was established in Jaipur in 2008.
In jaipur city when we talk about print media then there is publication of Largest circulated dailies Rajasthan Patrika & Dainik Bhaskar, there are other morning daily news papers-Daily News,Dainik Navjyoti, Rashtradoot, Samachar jagat, Mehaka Bharat, Nafa Nuksan, Morning news and among English- Times of India, Hindustan Times and DNA. There are evening news papers-News Today, Evening plus. The state-owned All India Radio Jaipur is broadcast both on the Medium Wave and FM bands in the city. It competes with six private local FM stations Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz), Radio Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz). Gyan Vaani (105.6 MHz) and South Asia FM The city also has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel besides the mainstay channels. DTH is gaining popularity over private cable operators for television viewing. The city's telephone services are provided by landline and mobile operators such as BSNL, Reliance CDMA & Reliance GSM, Airtel, MTS, Uninor, Tata Docomo, Aircel, Vodafone, Idea.
The city of Jaipur is the capital of the state of Rajasthan and is centrally located. National Highway No.8 links Delhi to Mumbai, National Highway No.12 links to Kota and National Highway No.11 links Bikaner to Agra, passing through Jaipur district with a total length of 366 km. The total length of different types of roads in the district was approximately 4,102 km in March 2000.RSRTC operates bus service to all the parts of Rajasthan and New delhi, Uttar pradesh, Haryana, Madhya pradesh, Gujarat.Bus service is operated from Sindhi camp, Jawahar nagar bus stand, Durgapura bus stand, Sodala bus stand..
City buses are operated by Jaipur City Transport Services Limited(JCTSL). of RSRTC under JNNURM. The total number of city buses being operated stands more than 300. It includes both regular buses and low-floor buses. There are 3 bus depots Vaishali Nagar, vidyadhar nagar and Sanganer.The city bus service covers whole city. AC Low floor buses are also operated by JCTCL. A Hop on Hop off Bus Service is also proposed for tourists.
Jaipur Bus Rapid Transit Service was approved by government in August 2006 for implementation. The responsibility for managing Jaipur BRTS has been given to JCSTL, a Special Purpose Vehicle formed by Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Nagar Nigam in a joint venture. The BRTS is expected to cater to city's growing traffic for next 15 20 years. In Phase I, two corridors have been proposed.
- Sikar Road to Tonk Road North-South Corridor
- Ajmer Road to Delhi Road East-West Corridor
A section of North-South Corridor from C-Zone Bypass near Harmada to Pani Pech became operational in 2010.
Jaipur is connected to Delhi and a number of towns within Rajasthan. One of the best known trains serving Jaipur is the Palace on Wheels.
A rapid transit rail project by the name Jaipur Metro is under progress. It will provide means of faster commutation for the city residents. It is expected to be operational by 2014.
Jaipur International Airport is situated in its satellite town of Sanganer, at a distance of 10 km from city center and offers sporadic service to major domestic and international locations. The Terminal 1 is used for both international and domestic flights, while Terminal 2 is reserved for domestic carriers. The airport handled 255,704 international and 1,267,876 passengers in 2009 2010. Jaipur Airport also provides air cargo services. The up-gradation of airport has offered improved connectivity and wider choice of services to air travellers, boosting both international tourism and economic development of the region. Frequently, during winter, many flights for Indira Gandhi International Airport are diverted to Jaipur airport due to heavy fog in Delhi.
Jaipur has the following sister cities:
- Bhatt, Kavi Shiromani; Shastry, Mathuranath (1948). Jaipur Vaibhawam (History of Jaipur witten in Sanskrit). Re-published in 2002 by Kalanath Shastry, Manjunath Smriti Sansthan, Jaipur.
- Khangarot, R.S., Nathawat, P.S. (1990) Jaigarh- The Invincible Fort of Amber. RBSA Publishers, Jaipur.
- Sachdev, Vibhuti; Tillotson, Giles Henry Rupert (2002). Building Jaipur: The Making of an Indian City. Reaktion Books, London. ISBN 1-86189-137-7.
- Sarkar, Jadunath (1984). A History of Jaipur. Orient Longman Limited, New Delhi. ISBN 81-250-0333-9.
- Volwahsen, Andreas (2001). Cosmic Architecture in India: The Astronomical Monuments of Maharaja Jai Singh II, Prestel Mapin, Munich.
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