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Implantation (human embryo)

Fertilization in humans. The sperm and ovum unite through fertilization, creating a zygote that (over the course of 8-9 days) will implant in the uterine wall, where it will reside over the course of 9 months.

In humans (as in all other mammals, except for monotremes), implantation is the very early stage of pregnancy at which the embryo adheres to the wall of the uterus.[1] At this stage of prenatal development, the embryo is a blastocyst. It is by this adhesion that the fetus receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother to be able to grow.

In humans, implantation of a fertilized ovum is most likely to occur about 9 days after ovulation, ranging between 6 to 12 days.[2]

Contents


The implantation window

The reception-ready phase of the endometrium of the uterus is usually termed the "implantation window" and lasts about 4 days. The implantation window follows around 6 days after the peak in luteinizing hormone levels. With some disparity between sources, it has been stated to occur from 7 days after ovulation until 9 days after ovulation,[3] or days 6-10 postovulation.[4] On average, it occurs during the 20th to the 23rd day after the last menstrual period.[5] The implantation window is characterized by slight changes to the endometrium cells, which aid in the absorption of the uterine fluid. This brings the blastocyst nearer to the endometrium and also immobilizes it. During this stage the blastocyst can still be eliminated by being flushed out of the uterus. Scientists have hypothesized that the hormones cause a swelling that fills the flattened out uterine cavity just prior to this stage, which may also help press the blastocyst against the endometrium.[6] The implantation window may also be initiated by other preparations in the endometrium of the uterus, both structurally and in the composition of its secretions.

Adaptation of uterus

To enable implantation, the uterus goes through changes in order to be able to receive the embryo.

Predecidualization

The endometrium increases thickness, becomes vascularized and its glands grow to be tortuous and boosted in their secretions. These changes reach their maximum about 7 days after ovulation.

Furthermore, the surface of the endometrium produces a kind of rounded cells, which cover the whole area toward the uterine cavity. This happens about 9 to 10 days after ovulation.[7] These cells are called decidual cells, which emphasises that the whole layer of them is shed off in every menstruation if no pregnancy occurs, just as leaves of deciduous trees. The uterine glands, on the other hand, decrease in activity and degenerate already 8 to 9 days[7] after ovulation in absence of pregnancy.

The stromal cells originate from the stromal cells that are always present in the endometrium. However, the decidual cells make up a new layer, the decidua. The rest of the endometrium, in addition, expresses differences between the luminal and the basal sides. The luminal cells form the zona compacta of the endometrium, in contrast to the basalolateral zona spongiosa, which consists of the rather spongy stromal cells.[7]

Decidualization

Decidualization succeeds predecidualization if pregnancy occurs. This is an expansion of it, further developing the uterine glands, the zona compacta and the epithelium of decidual cells lining it. The decidual cells become filled with lipids and glycogen and take the polyhedral shape characteristic for decidual cells.

Trigger

It is likely that the blastocyst itself makes the main contribution to this additional growing and sustaining of the decidua. An indication of this is that decidualization occurs at a higher degree in conception cycles than in nonconception cycles.[7] Furthermore, similar changes are observed when giving stimuli mimicking the natural invasion of the embryo.[7]

Parts of decidua

The decidua can be organized into separate sections, although they have the same composition.

  • Decidua basalis - This is the part of the decidua which is located basalolateral to the embryo after implantation.
  • Decidua capsularis - Decidua capsularis grows over the embryo on the luminal side, enclosing it into the endometrium. It surrounds the embryo together with decidua basalis.
  • Decidua Parietalis - All other decidua on the uterine surface belongs to decidua parietalis.

Decidua throughout pregnancy

After implantation the decidua remains, at least through the first trimester.[7] However, its most prominent time is during the early stages of pregnancy, during implantation. Its function as a surrounding tissue is replaced by the definitive placenta. However, some elements of the decidualization remain throughout pregnancy.[7]

The compacta and spongiosa layers are still observable beneath the decidua in pregnancy. The glands of the spongiosa layer continue to secrete during the first trimester, when they degenerate. However, before that disappearance, some glands secrete unequally much. This phenomenon of hypersecretion is called the Arias-Stella phenomenon,[7] after the pathologist Javier Arias-Stella.

Pinopodes

Pinopodes are small, finger-like protrusions from the endometrium. They appear between day 19 and day 21[7] of gestational age. This corresponds to a fertilization age of approximately 5 to 7 days, which corresponds well with the time of implantation. They only persist for 2 to 3 days.[7] The development of them is enhanced by progesterone but inhibited by estrogens.

Function in implantation

Pinopodes endocytose uterine fluid and macromolecules in it. By doing so, the volume of the uterus decreases, taking the walls closer to the embryoblast floating in it. Thus, the period of active pinocytes might also limit the implantation window.[7]

Function during implantation

Pinopodes continue to absorb fluid, and removes most of it during the early stages of implantation.

Adaptation of secretions






Source: Wikipedia | The above article is available under the GNU FDL. | Edit this article



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