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Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Covering a total land area of 262,820 hectares, the province of Ifugao is located in a mountainous region characterized by rugged terrain, river valleys, and massive forests. Its capital is Lagawe and borders Benguet to the west, Mountain Province to the north, Isabela to the east, and Nueva Vizcaya to the south.

It is named after the term "i-pugo" which means "i" (from/people) and "pugo" (hill), thus people of the hill.

The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras and Banaue Rice Terraces are the main tourist attractions in the province. These 2000-year-old terraces were carved into the mountains, without the aid of machinery, to provide level steps where the natives can plant rice. In 1995, they were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.



During Spanish occupation, government was established in Kiangan. The Spanish occupation ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. Ifugao used to be part of the former Mountain Province prior to its split into four separate and independent provinces. In 1905, Ifugao was made a sub-province of the old Mountain Province. Captain Pedro Bulan became the first native to become the first provincial governor.

Ifugao became the center of warfare in the last year of World War II when Gen. Yamashita launched his last stand against the American and Philippine Commonwealth forces at Mount Napulawan. He informally surrendered to Captain Grisham of the 6th US Army in the Philippines based in Kiangan, Ifugao before he was flown to Camp John Hay where he formally surrendered.

Mountain tribes in Northern Luzon

Traveling to the northern part of the island Luzon will bring you not only to beautiful landscapes with amazing rice terraces. It will bring you also to the regions with remote villages and colorful and traditional living upland tribal communities. Their ancestors constructed the fascinating rice terraces with the perfect working irrigation systems. These mountain tribes still distinguish themselves by their specific cultural expression and their skills.

They have skills in making bowls, baskets, weapons and clothing. It was the Ifugao people who built up the rice terraces. They are still living and working as in the past.

In the past the Ifugao were feared head-hunters, just as other tribes in the mountainous regions of northern Luzon. The war-dance (the bangibang) is one of the cultural remnants of the time of tribal conflict.

This dance is traditionally held on the walls of the rice terraces by the men, equipped with spears, axes and wooden shields and a headdress made of leaves.

People and culture

The people of Ifugao province are Ifugao, but mistakenly called by non-Cordilleran as Igorot. Ifugaos are different from other tribes in the cordilleras in culture, tradition, language, and idealism, in everything. Neighboring non-Ifugao tribes have tried to annex or connect themselves with the Ifugao with the intention of sharing their positive reputation.

Rice culture

The famous Banaue Rice Terraces in Ifugao. Ifugao culture revolves around rice, which is considered a prestige crop. There is an elaborate and complex array of rice culture feasts inextricably linked with taboos and intricate agricultural rites, from rice cultivation to rice consumption. Harvest season calls for grandiose thanksgiving feasts, while the concluding harvest rites "tungo" or "tungul" (the day of rest) entail a strict taboo of any agricultural work. Partaking of the rice wine (bayah), rice cakes, and 'moma' (mixture of several herbs, powdered snail shell and betel nut/ arecoline: and acts as a chewing gum to the Ifugaos) is an indelible practice during the festivities and ritual activities.



Ifugao is subdivided into 11 municipalities.



Based on the 2000 census survey, Ifugao are the majority of the province population with them comprising about 67.9% of the population. other ethnic groups living in the province are the Ilocanos 13.7%, Ikalahan 8.6%, Ayungan 6.2% 0.6%.[1]


Image:Rice terraces.png|Banaue Rice Terraces. Image:Nagacadan Rice Terraces.jpg|The Nagacadan Rice Terraces. Image:Batad.jpg|The Batad Rice Terraces File:Traditional Ifugao House.jpg|A traditional house in Ifugao.


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