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Hyderabad, India

Hyderabad () is the capital of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is known by the sobriquet City of Pearls.[1] The city is one of the largest metros in India with an area of [2] having a population of 6,809,970 in the city and 7,749,334 in the metropolitan area, making it the fourth most populous city and the sixth-most populous urban agglomeration in the country.[3]

Hyderabad was established in 1591 AD on the banks of the Musi River on the northern tip of the Deccan Plateau by Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah.[4] The twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad come under the ambit of a single municipal unit, the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation.[5]

Hyderabad was once a global center of the diamond and pearls trade.[6] The city has emerged as a major global center for the information technology (IT) industry,[7] as well as Pharmaceuticals and biotechnology, due to which it is known as the "Genome Valley of India".[8][9] The Telugu film industry, known as Tollywood, is located in the city.[10]

As of March 2012, Hyderabad is the "Best Heritage City of India",[11] and home to many historical sites, including the UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage site of Chowmahalla Palace.[12] The city is a regular tourist hotspot and carries many places of interest.[13] Situated on the crossroads of North and South India, Hyderabad has been noted for its unique culture, art and architecture.[14]

Contents


Etymology

There are theories and myths regarding the origins and etymology of Hyderabad's name. One of the myths says that Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah fell in love with and married a local nautch girl known as Bhagmathi or Bhagyavathi. When Bhagmathi adopted the title of Hyder Begum, Qutb Shah renamed the city as Hyderabad.[15] Another theory says Hyderabad was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Hyder.[16]

History

Early history

Although Hyderabad was established less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date back to 500 BC.[17] The region of Hyderabad and surrounding was known as Golkonda (English: The Shepherd's Hill),[18] which was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 731 AD to 966 AD.[19] Following the dissolution of Chalukyas into four empires in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty (1000 1310).[20] The Kakatiya dynasty's headquarters was at Warangal.[21]

Medieval history

The Golkonda fort is the oldest existing structure in Hyderabad.[22]

When Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi took over Warangal, the Hyderabad region came under the Khilji dynasty (1310 1321). Alauddin Khilji carried with him to Delhi the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which was mined from the Kollur Mines in Golkonda.[23] Afterwards Muhammad bin Tughluq annexed Delhi, which brought Warangal under the direct rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347. Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah a governor of Muhammad bin Tughluq revolted against the Sultanate and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan with Gulbarga as its capital. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 AD, becoming the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan.[21]

In 1518 AD, Sultan Quli a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty.[21] Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, established Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591 AD,[24] to relieve a water shortage the dynasty experienced at its old headquarters in Golkonda.[25] He then constructed the Charminar, Purana pul and Mecca Masjid.[26]

In 1687 AD, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of Golconda fort.[27] It was then renamed Deccan Suba and, during this short period of rule, the capital was shifted from Golkonda to Aurangabad.[27][28]

Nizam period

In 1712, the sixth of Aurangzeb's successor, Farrukhsiyar appointed Asaf Jah I as the Viceroy of the Deccan with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk (Regulator of the Realm) Fateh Jung. In 1724, Asaf Jah I, gained autonomy by defeating a rival official to establish control over the Deccan Suba and named it Hyderabad Deccan. They remained with the title Nizam ul-Mulk which was once bestowed to Asaf Jah I by Aurangzeb. The dynasty was called Asaf Jahi dynasty and the rulers were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. It was during Asif Jah II in the year 1769, when Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, which came to an end on 17 September 1948, a year after India's independence from the British Raj.[27][28]

During the period of Nizam rule, Hyderabad State became the richest,[29] and the senior-most salute state among the Indian princely States.[30] It was spread over in the Deccan, ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The Nizam's were conferred with the title of His Exalted Highness,[30] and "Faithful Ally of the British Government" by the United Kingdom,[31] becoming the only Indian prince to be given these both statuses.[32] The rule of the Nizams brought cultural and economic growth for Hyderabad city. One example of the wealth of Nizam rule is the Jewels of the Nizams, which is an international tourist attraction displayed in Salar Jung Museum. In 1948 Hyderabad had an estimated population of 1.7 crore, and it generated an estimated annual revenue of 90,029,000.[31] The state had its own currency known as the Hyderabadi rupee, until 1951.[33] The pace at which the last Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan amassed wealth made him one of the world's richest men in 1937.[32] As per the Forbes All-Time Wealthiest List of 2008, Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan is the fifth richest man ever, with an estimated worth of 210.8 billion (adjusted with the present value of the US dollar).[33]

The Nizams set up numerous institutions in the name of the dynasty including hospitals and schools, colleges, universities that imparted education in Urdu.[33] Inspired by the Indian Civil Service, the Nizams established the Hyderabad Civil Service and built large reservoirs. Survey work on the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was initiated during this time, though the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969.[34][35]

Post-independence

Falaknuma Palace

Following India's independence from the British Empire in 1947, the Asaf Jahi Nizam declared his intention to remain independent.[36] In 1948, the Hyderabad State Congress began agitating against the Nizam, with the support of Indian National Congress and the Communist Party of India. On 17 September 1948, the Indian Army took control of Hyderabad state through Operation Polo and the Nizam joined India by signing the Instrument of Accession, which made him the Rajpramukh ("Princely Governor") of Hyderabad State.[28][37]

A peasant uprising or Telangana uprising was a communist-led peasant rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and later against the princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951.[38]

The Constitution of India, which became effective on 26 January 1950, made Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India and Hyderabad city continued to be its capital. In 1955, B. R. Ambedkar, the then Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, expressed that the city should be designated as the second capital of India after Delhi. He expressed:

"Hyderabad has all the amenities which Delhi has and it is a far better city than Delhi. It has all the grandeur which Delhi has. Buildings are going cheap and they are really beautiful buildings, far superior to those in Delhi. The only thing that is wanting is a Parliament House which the Government of India can easily build."[39]

On 1 November 1956, the states of India were reorganised on linguistic grounds. Hyderabad State was split on linguistic lines to become the parts of three newly carved states. Nine Telugu and Urdu speaking districts of Hyderabad State, also known as Telangana, were merged with the Telugu speaking Andhra State to create the state of Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad city as its capital.[40] There are several movements to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra; major being in 1969, 1972 and now. The Telangana movement gained momentum over decades becoming a widespread political demand of creating a new state from the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.[41] As of 2011, the movement continues with Hyderabad being major center of strikes and agitations.[42]

Geography

Hussain Sagar lake Hyderabad is situated on the norther part of Deccan plateau on the banks of Musi river in the North-western part of Andhra Pradesh state,[43][2] The part of the city which was first established is now known as the Old City, the extended New City is located on the northern banks of the Musi river and has many government administrative buildings and both parts of the city are connected with many bridges across the river, of which Purana pul is the oldest.[44] The Hyderabad is twined with neighboring Secunderabad which is separated through Hussain Sagar lake, both the twins come under the ambit of a single municipal unit of Greater Hyderabad.[45][43]

Topography

The city is spread over an area of , making it one of the largest metros in India.[2] The maximum area of the city is a sloping rocky terrain of grey and Pink Granites and few locations are hilly, locationed at , with an average altitude of about (1,778 ft) above mean sea Level (MSL), the highest point in the city is Banjara Hills (2,206 ft) above sea level.[43][46] The Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar are dams built over the Musi river, and the city houses multiple lakes and large water tanks.[47][43] The Net Sown Area is about 10% of its geographical area,[48] and the important crops cultivated in the area are fruits and seasonal vegetables.[43]

Climate

Average temperature and precipitation in Hyderabad

Hyderabad has a combination of a tropical wet and dry climate (K ppen Aw) that borders on a hot semi-arid climate ( K ppen BSh).[49] The city has a moderate climate in the period of September to February, with a small amount of variation. The monsoon is spread over a period of three months from June to August,[50] and the normal rainfall is 786.8 milliliter.[43]

The mean maximum temperature ranges between and in May. After the withdrawal of the monsoon, the maximum temperature rises slightly due to increased insulation. The mean minimum temperature is to in December and January, but it rises to to in May. The minimum temperature falls rapidly after October, and less than has been recorded on individual days. The climate is mild from November to February. The summer months of April and May are hot, and the city frequently records temperatures exceeding . The period from July to September is warm and humid. Temperatures in the evenings and mornings are generally cooler because of the city's moderate elevation. Hyderabad receives around of rain every year, most of it concentrated in the monsoon months. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 241.5 millimetres on 24 August 2000 . The maximum (day) temperature ever recorded was on 2 June 1966, while the minimum recorded temperature was on 8 January 1946.[51]

Today,in the year 2012 Mercury is soaring upto 43 degrees which has been till now the highest,in 2011 Hyderabad recordedhuge amount of rainfall during September and October

Administration

The Andhra Pradesh high court in Hyderabad. The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) is in charge of the civic administration and infrastructure of the city.[52] It was formed in April 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH) with twelve municipalities of neighbouring two districts. GHMC covers an area of , spread over the three districts Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy and Medak. The GHMC is divided into five zones and eighteen circles that contain 150 municipal wards. Each ward is headed by a corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect The City Mayor who is the titular head of GHMC. The executive powers of the GHMC lie with the Municipal Commissioner appointed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh. The State Election Commission (SEC) monitors the municipal elections that are held in the city once in every five years. The first election of the GHMC were held in December 2009. The Indian National Congress alliance with Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen formed the majority, with the terms of sharing mayor post equally between the two parties.[53][54][55]

The Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA) was formed in 2008 as an umbrella authority by merging multiple local development bodies. It manages the development activities of the GHMC area and its suburbs. It controls the administration of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB), the Andhra Pradesh Transmission Corporation and the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC). The enlarged jurisdiction of HMDA extends to 54 mandals located in five districts with a total area of .[56]

The Hyderabad City Police, established in 1847, is the law and order enforcement agency.[57] Hyderabad Police Commissionerate jurisdiction is divided into five police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner.[58] The Hyderabad Traffic Police is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who is answerable to the Hyderabad City Police Commissioner.[59] The area under the jurisdiction of Hyderabad City Police is smaller than the GHMC area, thus the suburbs of the city falls under the jurisdiction of Cyberabad Police Commissionerate. As of 2012, The Greater Hyderabad Police Commissionerate is a proposed plan of Andhra Pradesh Government which would be formed by merging Hyderabad Police Commissionerate and Cyberabad Police Commissionerate. There will be four zones, each headed by Police commissioner, who will be reporting to the chief commissioner.[60]

Hyderabad houses the offices of the local governing bodies, along with the Andhra Pradesh Legislature Assembly, the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat, the Andhra Pradesh High Court. Under the jurisdiction of High Court comes the lower city civil court and the Metropolitan Criminal Court.[61] Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation area contains 24 state Legislative Assembly constituencies which come under five Lok Sabha (the lower house of the Parliament of India) constituncies.[62][63]

Utility services

Electricity, water and sewerage services to general public were first commissioned in 1925, with the establishment of The City Endowment Board.[34][64] Rainwater harvesting, water and sewerage services are regulated by the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB),[56] The HMWSSB sources water supply from multiple dams located in the suburbs of the city,[65] To meet the growing consumption requirement and to provide regular water supply in the city, since 2005 the HMWSSB had alternatively started a multi crore water supply piple-line of 150 km from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam to the city.[65] To provide the water in emergencies to the residents the HMWSSB had came up with the service "Dial-a-Tanker" where a registered customer can obtain the water tanker with the payment of minimal charges.[66] The rapid economical growth of the city had increased the city's popullation and due to scanty rainfall, the regions ground water levels are sinking and dams are facing water shortages.[65][66] The growth of industries and the inadequate maintanance and discharge of industrial treatment plants are polluting the drinking water supply bodies of the city.[67]

The electricity is regulated through Andhra Pradesh Central Power Distribution Company.[56] Fire services are provided by the Andhra Pradesh Fire Services department, headed by a director general.[68] The institution was established by the AP Fire Services act of 1999.[69] As of March 2012, there were 13 fire stations in Hyderabad and the annual budget for the service was 185 crore.[70] The Indian Postal Service is the major service provider in the city with five head post offices and multiple sub-post offices, many private courier services also operate in the city.[43] In the year 1999, the AP state government launched e-Seva services for multiple utility services bill payments from one platform, thee-Seva is integrated with the departments of central and state governments.[71]

The city produces around 4,500 metric tonnes of solid waste everyday, which is transported from three collection units located in Imlibun, Yousufguda and Lower Tank Bund to the garbage dumping site of Jawaharnagar.[72] The "Integrated Solid Waste Management" project was started in 2010 by GHMC to manage the waste disposal in the city. The project started with a sum of 434 crore, funded by the state government.[73]

The Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB) is a regulatory and screening authority of pollution in Hyderabad. The rapid rate of urbanisation with increased economic activities has encouraged migration and industries in Hyderabad, which led to an increase of air pollution, industrial waste, sound pollution and water pollution.[74] The city is among the 16 most polluted cities of India, transportation vehicles are the main source of air pollution in the city. Every year there are around 1 million vehicles registrations in the city that increase air and sound pollution. The estimated deaths from particulate matter are about 1700 3000 persons every year in Hyderabad.[75] As of 2006, the air pollution statistics are 20-50% from vehicle, 40-70% combining vehicle discharge with road dust, 10-30% from industrial discharges and 3-10% from household garbage burning.[76] The ground water in Hyderabad has total water hardness up to 1000 ppm.[77] APPCB and local authorities have designed and implemented multiple actions to control pollution in the city.[78]

Demographics

Urban agglomeration in Hyderabad The city of Hyderabad which covers an are of ,[79] has a population of 6,809,970 of which 3,500,802 are male and 3,309,168 are female. The area under the municipality increased from to approximately in 2007 when the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation was created.[80] As a consequence, the total population leaped from 3,637,483 in 2001 census to 6,809,970 in 2011 census, an increase of over 87%. The sex ratio of Hyderabad city is 945 female per 1000 males,[81] slightly higher than the national average of 926 per 1000.[82] The city's population density is .[83] Hyderabad city's average literacy rate is 82.96%, (male 85.96% and female 79.79%), relatively higher than the national average of 74.04%.[84] There are 373,794 boys and 352,022 girls with the ratio of 942 girls per 1000 boys.[81] Hyderabad city is governed by Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation that comes under the Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration, which has a population of 7,749,334 with 3,985,240 males and 3,764,094 are females.[81] A proposal to expand the area covered by the city to make it by merging the surrounding gram panchayats and around 30 villages is to take effect soon.[79]

Residents of Hyderabad are called Hyderabadi, Andhra Pradesh State people comprise the majority of Hyderabad's population, followed by Marathi and Arab communities. The minority communities of Hyderabad are Kannadi (including Nawayathi), Marwari, Bengali, Tamil, Malayali, Gujrati, Iranian, Punjabi, Uttar Pradesh, Pathan and Turkish. Among the foreign-origin communities Yemeni Arabs forms the majority with African Arabs, Iranian, Pathani and Turkish as minorities, which declined since after inception of Hyderabad State into Indian Union.[85]

Telugu and Urdu are the official languages of Hyderabad, while English is commonly used.[86][87] Telugu in Hyderabad has a varied dialect called the Telangana dialect,[88] and the Urdu spoken in the city is called Deccani Urdu.[89] A significant population of the city speaks different languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Kannada and Tamil.[90]

Though Hindus form a majority of the population, Muslims have substantial presence across the city and are predominant in and around Old City. The other religious communities are Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist and Parsi. Iconic temples, mosques and churches are housed in the city.[91] Earlier to the formation of Greater Hyderabad in 2007, the Hyderabad city religious statistics of 2001 were, Hindus (55.4%), Muslims (41.17%), Christians (2.13%), Sikhs (0.03%), Buddhists (0.04%), Jains (0.04%) and remaining others.[92]

According to the 2001 census, there are 1,631 slums across the Hyderabad, housing 1,951,201 people. The literacy rate in the slums is 60 80% and the female literacy rate varies from 52 73%. One third of the city's slums have individual basic service connections, and 90% slums have proper water supply lines. There are 405 Government schools, 267 Government sponsored schools and 175 Private schools, with 528 community halls across the slums of Hyderabad.[93]

Economy

Laad Bazaar, located near the Charminar. i-Labs Centre and i-Labs OVAL at HITEC City Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the state's GDP, state tax and other revenues.[94] As of 2011, the city generates the revenue of and one-third of the state's revenue tax.[95] The per capita income of Hyderabad was up to in the year 2011.[96] the nominal GDP was 60 billion in 2010.[97] Hyderabad and its suburbs houses the maximum number of special economic zones in India.[96] The main economic sectors of Hyderabad are traditional manufacturing, knowledge sector and tourism.[98] Service industry is the major contributor, with urban workforce constituting 90% of the total workforce.[97] The largest employers of Hyderabad are the Governments of Andhra Pradesh and India with 113,098 and 85,155 employees, respectively.[99] Starting in the 1990s, the economic pattern of the city changed from a primarily service hub to a more diversified spectrum.[100]

In March 2012, The Indian Union Tourism Ministry declared Hyderabad as the first ever "Best Heritage City of India".[11] In 2011 the city ranked nineteenth in the world by The New York Times in The list of 41 Places to Go in 2011.[101] Hyderabad is known as the City of Pearls, due to the presence of pearls trading industry, and until 18th century the city was the only global trade center of large diamonds.[1][6] Many traditional and historical bazaars are located in the city.[102][103] The Laad Bazaar and nearby markets have shops that sell pearls, diamonds and other traditional ware and cultural antiques.[102][104]

Hyderabad emerged as a pharmaceutical and biotechnology hub and is known as India's pharmaceutical capital and Genome Valley of India.[105][8] In 2008 09, Hyderabad's biopharmaceuticals exports reached 3.1 billion.[106] The establishment of public sector in life science and the Genome Valley, 'Fab City' and the 'Nano Technology park' established extensive infrastructure in bio-technology; these attributes attracted regional companies and MNCs to set up offices, warehouses, research and development centres in the city.[107] Since 2007, The retail industry in Hyderabad is on the rise,[108] and multiple Central business district are spread across the city.[109] Many national and international companies have set up retail business across the city.[110] A number of malls have come up and more are being built.[111]

The World Bank Group ranked the city as the second best Indian city for doing business in 2009.[112] In 2010, the city was listed among the Gamma+ World City by GaWC.[113] In 2011, DTZ ranked Hyderabad as world's third most affordable office location,[114] while Business Today ranked Hyderabad as the fourth best city to live in India.[115] Hyderabad witnessed a high growth in the real estate business, which led to the decline of vegetable supply in the city in the period around 2010.[116] In 2007 08, the city's prime residential areas of Banjara Hills and Jubilee Hills reached the highest growth percentage in India. The Economic Times evaluated Banjara Hills to be worth 20.7 billion.[117]

Hyderabad is among the global centres of information technology for which it is known as Cyberabad (Cyber City).[118][119] The city's IT sector includes the IT-enabled services, business process outsourcing and entertainment industries.[119] During 2008 09, Hyderabad's IT exports reached 4.7 billion,[106] and 22% of the NASSCOM's total membership is from Hyderabad.[96] The development of a township with related technological infrastructure called HITEC City prompted global and particularly US-based companies to establish their operations in Hyderabad.[118] The city is home to more than 1300 IT firms and houses the Indian headquarters of Microsoft, Google,[7] CA Technologies, Amazon and Facebook.[119][120] The Microsoft campus in Hyderabad is the largest research and development facility outside the US.[7] The campus of CA Technologies's is the largest R&D facility of the company.[121] Major areas where such IT and ITeS campuses have been set up are Madhapur,[122] Kondapur,[123] Gachibowli,[124] and Uppal.[125]

Transport

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

Roads

Three National Highways (NH) pass through the city NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202.[126] As a growing city, regular multiple development projects,[127] around the city had made traffic congestion a common issue.[128] The HMDA developed multiple projects such as Inner Ring Road, Outer Ring Road, interchanges, overpasses and underpasses to ease the traffic congestion in and around the city and its suburbs.[129] The HMDA and GHMC had came up with multiple development projects of mechanised multi storeyed parking complexes and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS).[130]

Public transport

The bus service, governed by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC), is the most frequently used means of public transport within the city.[131] According to the Guinness World Records (2005), APSRTC operates the world's largest fleet of buses, estimated to be carrying 13 million passengers a day.[132] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station, located at center of the city,[133] is the main bus station.[134] Parallel to APSRTC under the sponsorship of the Setwin, minibuses play in the city to facilitate the small distance travellers.[135] Hired modes of transport include taxi and the widely used yellow auto rickshaws.[136]

Secunderabad Railway Station, the largest railway station in Hyderebad, is the headquarters of the South Central Railway zone of the Indian Railways. Other major railway stations are Hyderabad Deccan Station, Kachiguda Railway Station and Begumpet Railway Station.[137] Hyderabad's light rail transportation system, known as the MultiModal Transport System (MMTS), is used by over 150,000 passengers daily, as of 2010.[138] Hyderabad Metro, the city's under-construction rapid transit system, is expected to operate three lines by 2014.[139] As of 2010, the Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad neighbourhood has been judged among the world's top airports in the category of serving 5 15 million passengers, according to Airports Council International,[140] and the world's fifth best airport, according to Skytrax.[141]

Culture

Makkah Masjid in 1885 AD Nizamia General Hospital]], Asif Jahi Architecture A Qutb shahi style of architecture, an incomplete tomb from Qutb Shahi Tombs A Bidriware of 18th century, displayed at Mus e du Louvre

Distinct linguistic and cultural traditions of North and South India meet and mingle in the city of Hyderabad. This blending was the result of the geographic location of the city, the variety of historical dynasties that ruled the city across different periods, its inception by the Qutub Shahi dynasty in 1591 AD, the occupation by the Mughal Empire and its decline, and the patronage under the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Hyderabadis, as residents of the city are known, have developed a distinctive culture which is a mixture of Hindu and Muslim traditions. A typical Hyderabadi could be either a Telugu or a Urdu speaking person.[142] The traditional Hyderabadi garb is Sherwani and Kurta Paijama for men,[143] Khara Dupatta and Salwar kameez for women.[144] Burqa and Hijab is commonly practised among the Muslim women in public,[145] and these are some of the cultural attributes of the city.[145] Most of the youth wear western clothing.[146] Public carnivals celebrated in Hyderabad include the Ganesh Chaturthi,[147] Bonalu,[148] Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.[149]

Hyderabad city as the former capital of Hyderabad State had received the royal patronage for arts, literature and architecture by the former rulers, also attracting men of letters and arts from different parts of the world to get settled in the city. Such multi-ethnic settlements popularised multi cultural events such as Mushairas, literary and stage drama.[150] Besides the popularity of Western and other Indian popular musics such as the filmi music, the residents of Hyderabad play city based Marfa Music which had become an integral part of every event.[151][152] The Osmania University and University of Hyderabad offers Masters and Doctoral (PhD) level programs in classical languages, modern languages, dance, theatre Arts, painting, fine art and communication.[153][154] The Ravindra Bharati, Shilpakala Vedika and Lalithakala Thoranam are well-known auditoria for theatre and performing arts in the city.[155] The modern Hyderabad International Convention Centre (HICC), also known as HITEX, constructed with the cost of 3 billion has become well known venue address internationally.[156] The Hyderabad Literary Festival, held since 2010, is an annual event which showcases the city's literary and cultural aspects.[157] In the year 2010, the first ever International Congress of Mathematicians was organised in the city.[158] Other cultural events include annual Numaish and literary festival for promoting regional Indian literature.[159] Some of the nationally and internationally acclaimed cultural representatives from the city are Sarojini Naidu, Amjad Hyderabadi, M F Hussain,[160] Talat Aziz, Harsha Bhogle, Sharmila Tagore, Vithal Rao, Shaik Dawood Khan, Janardhan Mitta and Rashid Ali.

A distinct Indo-Islamic architecture style with local contribution is reflected in Hyderabad buildings, making it the first and "Best Heritage City of India" as of March 2012.[11] The Qutb Shahi architecture since 15th century, manifested itself in colossal arches found in Charminar, Mecca Masjid and Charkaman. Qutub Shahi's built with massive granite walls using granite and lime mortar as the chief ingredients. Later from 17th century Asif Jahi architecture emerged with palatial style outweighed secular construction, Osman Ali Khan, the Nizam VII, is called as the maker of modern Hyderabad. The buildings constructed during his reign are impressive and represent a rich variety of architecture. The structures such as the Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital and High Court are designed and constructed in the styles of medieval and the Mughal architecture. The Nizam's, applied the European styles in some of the constructions such as Falaknuma and King Kothi Palaces.[151][161] The city houses many famous historical sites constructed during Qutb Shahi and Asif Jahi period, including the Golconda, Chowmahalla Palace, Purani Haveli, Andhra Pradesh Legislature and others.

Hyderabad is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions which are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role. The first of these to be established was the AP State Archaeology Museum (former name Hyderabad Museum) in 1930.[162] the other important museums including, the Salar Jung Museum which houses "world largest one man collection".[163] the Nizam Museum, the City Museum,[164] and the Birla Science Museum which also comprises a planetarium.[165] The State Central Library, Hyderabad (former name Asifia Kutubkhana) since 1891 is the biggest library of Andhra Pradesh.[166] The other popular libraries in the city are the Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam, the British Library[167] and the Sundarayya Vignana Kendram which also houses Urdu research center's collection.[168][169]

Deccani style painting originated in the 16th century in and around Hyderabad, contains a insightful native style with the blend of foreign techniques and had a similarity of neighbouring Vijayanagara paintings. The highly use of luminous, gold and white colours are generally found in Deccani paintings. Due to the Islamic influence in the sultanate the Deccani paintings are mostly of nature with the background of floral and fauna, and the major use of regional landscape are reflected commonly with regional culture, some of the Deccani paintings present the historical events of the region.[170][171]

A Fine art metal handicraft Bidri ware (the skill's and techniques which came form Middle East to India during 14th century), was popularised in Hyderabad during Asif Jahi region in 18th century. Today the production of Bidriware in Hyderabad and neighbouring Bidar accounts highest in India. The Bidri ware is an Geographical Indication (GI) awarded craft of India.[172] The Kalamkari, a Fine art of Handicraft ( Originated in Machilipatnam 3000 year ago is a Handicraft of Andhra Pradesh) is also popular in the city.[173]

Film-making in Hyderabad was started in early 1917 by Lotus film Co during the Nizams era.[174] The city is home to the Telugu film industry, popularly known as Tollywood,[175] the second largest in India after Bollywood.[176] Since 2005, parallel to Tollywood and Bollywood the city base Hyderabad lingo movies initiated by "Hyderabad Deccan Film Club" had gained popularity in the region.[177] Annually the city host, "International Children Film Festival",[178] and since 2007, the city has hosted the Hyderabad International Film Festival (HIFF),[179] The Prasad IMAX Theaters houses the world's largest IMAX-3D,[180] In the year 2005, the Guinness World Records declared, The Ramoji Film City located in Hyderabad since 1996, as the world's largest film studio.[181]

Cuisine

Hyderabadi cuisine is prominent since the Nizams.[182] Hyderabadi's are large repertoire of spices, rice, wheat and meat food dishes, the Hyderabadi Biryani and Hyderabadi Haleem, with a blend of Mughalai and Arabic cuisine,[183] had become some of the iconic dishes of India.[184] Hyderabadi cuisine is highly influenced by Mughals and partially by French,[182] Arabic, Turkish and Irani food along with the influence of native Telugu and Marathwada cuisines where rice, wheat, spices and meat are widely used to great effect bringing in a unique taste to the Hyderabadi dishes.[183][185] The other popular unique native food dishes include Nahari, Kulche, Chakna, Baghara baingan and in desserts Qubani ka meetha, Double ka meetha and Kaddu Ki Kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd).[185][186] Other popular cuisines among expatriates and other residents are south Indian, Italian, Mexican, Chinese and Continental.[186][187] Modern day's Coffee bars and pubs are also popular among the youth in the city.[188]

Media

Among the early newspapers in Hyderabad was The Deccan Times establish in the early 1780s.[189] Now the city has three main print media that publish newspapers and magazines in Telugu, Urdu, and English. The major Telugu dailies are Eenadu, Sakshi and Andhra Jyothy. The major English dailies are The Times of India, The Hindu and The Deccan Chronicle.[190] and the Urdu dailies of the city include The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily and Etemaad.

In 1919 the British cantonment of Secunderabad established the communication station in the Hyderabad State and in 1924 an unknown spark station was operated from same region. Deccan Radio was the first general broadcasting radio station of Hyderabad to go on air on 3 February 1935.[191] The radio industry expanded with a number of private and government owned FM channels being introduced. Notable FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include AIR, Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz), Radio City FM (91.1 MHz) and Big FM (92.7 MHz).[192]

Hyderabad witnessed the first satellite television relay in 1974 with the launch of state-owned Doordarshan Kendra Hyderabad, which initially telecast through ATS-6 Satellite in collaboration with NASA. The DD Kendra Hyderabad was officially inaugurated on 23 October 1977.[193] In July 1992, the city witnessed a first private satellite channel Star TV broadcast.[194] Hyderabad is covered by many optical fibre cables.[195]

Education

Osmania University, college of Arts.[196]

Primary education Schools in Hyderabad are affiliated to either CBSE, SSC[197] or ICSE, run by government aid or private (local governing bodies, individuals, missionaries or other agencies). In schools the medium of instruction is mostly English, Hindi, Urdu[198] or Telugu. Children have to study for ten years in schools, followed by two years in junior college, where they have to choose discipline for three four years graduation program. Admissions to professional colleges in Hyderbad is through Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test (EAMCET). Majority of the colleges are categorised and affiliated with either Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University or Osmania University.[199]

As of 2012, The Greater Hyderabad houses 13 universities, of which two are private universities, two deemed universities, six state universities and three central universities. The central universities in the city are the University of Hyderabad,[200] Maulana Azad National Urdu University and English and Foreign Languages University.[201] The Osmania University established in 1918 is the earliest university in Hyderabad, As of 2012, it is the second most popular education destination in India, for foreign students, numbering up to 4000.[202] The Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Open University since 1982, is the first distance learning open university in India.[203]

Among business and management schools, The Indian School of Business (ISB) ranked 1st in India by The Week as of 2011,[204] and number 12 in global MBA ranking by the Financial Times of London in 2010.[205] The Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India (ICFAI) is another notable business school and deemed to be university based in Hyderabad.[206] The city also houses the national premier institutes such as the Institute of Public Enterprise (IPE),[207] the Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI),[208] and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy (SVP-NPA),[209] for the administrative development training of Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Services (IPS) and other Indian government administrators.[208][209] Hyderabad is home to five major medical schools Osmania Medical College since 1846, Gandhi Medical College since 1954, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences since 1961, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Shadan Institute Of Medical Sciences,[210] and has many affiliated teaching hospitals.[211] The Government Nizamia Tibbi College since 1810, is a unani medicine college in Hyderabad.[212] The city is also a major centre for biomedical, biotechnology and pharmaceutical studies and research,[213][214] the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) is a major centre of medical science and bio-medical education in Hyderabad.[215] The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University are popular in the field of agricultural engineering.

The city is home to many of India's premier technical and engineering schools, including the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIIT-H) and the Indian Institute Of Technology (IIT-H)[216] which is set up with the collaboration of Government of Japan,[217] as well as the Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS) since 2008.[218] The premier professional fashion designing institutions in the city are Raffles Millennium International, NIFT Hyderabad and Wigan and Leigh College.[219]

Sports

Indian Air Force HAL Dhruv helicopters performing during the 2007 Military World Games G.M.C. Balayogi Stadium]], with world class infrastructure.[220]

Cricket and football (soccer) are the most popular sports in Hyderabad.[221] The city has hosted national and international sports events such as the 2002 National Games of India, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2004 Hyderabad Open, the 2007 Military World Games, the 2009 BWF World Championships,[222][223] and IBSF World Snooker Championship (2009).[224]

The Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and the latest Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium with a capacity of 55,000 are associated with cricket and serves as a home ground of Hyderabad Cricket Association which hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup and 1996 Cricket World Cup.[225] The Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex and the G.M.C. Balayogi Stadium at Gachibowli are associated for hockey and football.[226]

The Hyderabad cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy.[227] The Deccan Chargers, a franchise in the Indian Premier League (IPL),[228] won the 2009 Indian Premier League competition held in South Africa.[229] In the Indian Cricket League, the city is represented by the Hyderabad Heroes.[230] In the Premier Hockey League, Hyderabad is represented by the Hyderabad Sultans, who won the inaugural championship in 2005.[231] In 2011, with the establishment of the Elite Football League of India, Hyderabad is represented by the Hyderabad Skykings.[232]

The city houses many elite clubs formed by the Nizams and British, the Secunderabad Club, the Nizam Club and the Hyderabad Race Club known for its horse racing[233] conducts the Deccan derby, a popular annual event of this club.[234] The Andhra Pradesh Motor Sports Club organises popular events like the Deccan 1/4 Mile Drag, TSD Rallies and 4x4 Off road.[235] The Hyderabad Golf Club is a eighteen-hole golf course.[236]

Famous sports persons of international stature from Hyderabad include cricketers Ghulam Ahmed, M. L. Jaisimha, Mohammed Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Venkatapathy Raju, Shivlal Yadav, Arshad Ayub, Noel David, football players Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed Nayeemuddin, Shabbir Ali (football),[237] Tennis player Sania Mirza,[238] badminton players S. M. Arif, Pullela Gopichand, Saina Nehwal, Jwala Gutta, Chetan Anand, hockey players Syed Mohammad Hadi, Mukesh Kumar and bodybuilder Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan.[239]

Sister cities

City Geographical location Nation Reference
Brisbane Queensland
Ipswich Queensland
Dubai Dubai [240]
Miyoshi Hiroshima [241]
Riverside California [242]
Indianapolis Indiana [243]
San Diego California [244]

See also

References

External links

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