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Honda Civic

The Honda Civic is a line of subcompact and subsequently compact cars made and manufactured by Honda. The Civic, along with the Accord and Prelude, comprised Honda's vehicles sold in North America until the 1990s, when the model lineup was expanded. Having gone through several generational changes, the Civic has become larger and more upmarket, and it currently slots between the Fit and Accord.

It was introduced in July 1972 as a two-door model,[1] followed by a three-door hatchback that September. With the transverse engine mounting of its 1169 cc engine and front-wheel drive like the British Mini, the car provided good interior space despite overall small dimensions.[2] Early models of the Civic typically included a basic AM radio, heater, foam-cushioned plastic trim, two-speed wipers, and painted steel rims with a chromed wheel nut cap. As the years went by, it has become much more upscale with options such as air conditioning, power locks, power windows, leather upholstery, satellite-linked navigation, and a six-speed manual transmission. Initially gaining a reputation for being fuel-efficient, reliable, and environmentally friendly, later iterations have become known for performance and sportiness, especially the Civic Type-R, Civic GTi and Civic SiR.[3][4]

The Civic has been rebadged for international markets with such models as the Honda Ballade which became the British Leyland-produced Triumph Acclaim in Britain and Honda Domani/Acura EL. The Civic platform also served as the basis for the CR-X sport compact, the CR-X del Sol targa convertible, the Honda Concerto, the first generation Honda Prelude, the Honda Civic Shuttle (later to become the Honda Orthia), and the CR-V compact SUV. Starting in 1985 until 2006, the Civic was dedicated to Japanese dealership Honda Primo, with Civic variants sold at Honda Clio, and Honda Verno locations.

As of 2006, a total of 16.5 million Civics had been sold worldwide, with 7.3 million of them in the United States.[5] By 2012, Civic has been the top-selling car in Canada for 14 years.[6] With high gas prices and a weak economy in June 2008, the Civic supplanted the Ford F-Series to become the top-selling vehicle in the United States for that month.[7][8]

In Japan, production of non-hybrid Civic for domestic market ended in August 2010 and production of Civic hybrid for home market ended in December 2010. In recent years, customers shifted to minivans and compact cars like Honda Fit. Honda launched Fit hybrid in October in Japan. However, production of Civic and Civic hybrid for export markets will continue.[9]


First generation (1973 1979) SB1, SG, SE, VB

1978 79 Honda Civic The first generation Honda Civic was introduced in 1972, but sold as a 1973 model. It was equipped with a four-cylinder water-cooled engine and featured front power disc brakes, reclining vinyl bucket seats, simulated wood trim on the dashboard, as well as optional air conditioning and an AM/FM radio. The Civic was available as a coupe, both a three- and a five-door hatchback, as well as a five-door station wagon. Due to the 1973 oil crisis, consumer demand for fuel efficient vehicles was high, and due to the engine being able to run on either leaded or unleaded fuel, it gave drivers fuel choice flexibility over other vehicles. The CVCC engine debuted in 1975 and had a head design that allowed for more efficient combustion, and as a benefit the CVCC system did not require a catalytic converter or unleaded fuel to meet 1972 North American emissions standards. The Civic was joined by a platform expansion of the three-door hatchback, called the Honda Accord in 1976.

Second generation (1980 1983) SL, SS, SR, ST, VC, WD

Civic 3-door The second generation Honda Civic was introduced in 1980. It was larger, had a more angular shape, and came with increased engine power. All Civic engines now used the CVCC design, which added a 3rd valve per cylinder; this introduced lean burn swirl technology. The base 1335 cc ("1300") engine made , with an optional 1488 cc ("1500") engine producing . Three transmissions were offered: a four-speed manual (on base models), a five-speed manual, and a two-speed semi-automatic Honda had previously called the "Hondamatic". A four door version called the Ballade was built, under agreement, by Mercedes Benz South Africa.

Third generation (1984 1987) AG, AH, AJ, AK, AT

1985 1987 Honda Civic GL hatchback (Australia) The third generation was released in 1984. The separate five-door hatchback and wagon models were merged into a four-door "shuttle wagon" or "wagovan" sometimes referred to colloquially as a "breadbox" due to its appearance, called the Honda Civic Shuttle. An additional two-seat coupe style labeled CRX was introduced, noted for its compact dimensions and light weight. The third generation Civic saw the introduction of the long running four-cylinder D series engine including a new CVCC engine. 1984 also saw the release of a high-performance Si model for the Japanese market, featuring upgraded suspension and the DOHC ZC engine which was rated at 130 PS. Si models were offered in the US as a 3-door Civic Si hatchback and the CRX Si variant with a fuel-injected SOHC 12-valve engine. A 4WD engine with different transmission mounts was introduced for the first time in 1984, and later upgraded in 1987. It delivered a fuel economy commensurate with today's compact 4-cylinder 4WD/AWD SUVs of around 28 mpg highway. The AWD system was push-button operated and called "realtime" because it could be engaged and disengaged while driving. The manual transmission featured a synchronized 6th gear, called "SL", which was used for very low speeds. Starting with 1985, Japanese Civics were now exclusive to Honda Primo, with variants sold at Honda Verno and Honda Clio. A four door version called the Ballade was built, under agreement, by Mercedes Benz South Africa, models were 130,150, 150i, and 160i DOHC.

Fourth generation (1988 1991) - EC, ED, EE, EF

1988 Civic LX sedan

In 1988, the Civic was redesigned with increased dimensions and a lower hood line. A wide range of models and trim levels were offered for various markets around the world. The most notable of which include The Japanese market SiR, the European VTi (both featuring the new B16A DOHC VTEC engine), the UK/European 1.6i-16 (DOHC D16A9 engine) and the New Zealand market GTi (featuring full leather interior and a tuned version of the successful SOHC D16A7 engine). All U.S. models featured electronic fuel injection, but carbureted models were still available elsewhere. The fourth generation saw the introduction of a fully independent rear suspension across the entire model range.[10] In addition, the Honda CRX continued to be part of the Civic family which included the HF, DX, and Si model in the U.S./A four door version called the Ballade was built, under agreement, by Mercedes Benz South Africa, models were 150 16, 160i 16, and 160i DOHC. A VTEC model was planned but costs killed it.

Fifth generation (1992 1995) - EK1, EG, EH, EJ1, EJ2

Fifth-generation Civic Ferio sedan

Introduced in 1992, the redesigned Civic featured increased dimensions, as well as more aerodynamic styling. The wagon variant was now only available in the Japanese market where the previous generation wagon was carried over until 1995. The efficiency of the previous HF model was replaced by the VX hatchback which, with an EPA rating of 48/55 MPG, was Honda's most fuel efficient model sold at the time. In North America the Si featured a SOHC VTEC valve train, whereas the VX featured the VTEC-E. The Japanese Si featured a DOHC non-VTEC valve train D16A9. In New Zealand the powerful Civic was revised. Continuing in the sporty tradition of the original Civic SiR, Honda sold several similarly equipped variants of the fifth generation car, still referred to as the Civic SiR, in Japan, Asia, and Europe. In South Africa, MBSA(Mercedes Benz of SA) built the Civic as the Ballade only in 4dr. A special model was the 180i with the B18B4, that was fitted to Ballade models. A new bodystyle was introduced with this generation called the Civic Coupe, based from the Civic Ferio sedan, and was sold in North America, Europe and Japan. The fifth generation remains popular among tuners and racers alike.

Sixth generation (1996 2000) - EK9, EK4, EK5, EK3, EJ6, EJ7,EJ8, EJ9, EM1

Sixth generation

The sixth generation featured updated styling although less radical than previous redesigns. Suspension and engine options were available along with their first Natural Gas Powered Civic, the GX. In 1996 2000 they made the CX, DX, EX, SE (Canada only), EXR, HX, LX, and Si; all base models were made with 1.6L engines. The EX-CX are all SOHC (Honda D engine). The CX, DX, and LX all have D16y7 non-VTEC engines; whereas the EX has a D16y8 VTEC, and the HX has D16y5 VTEC-E. The Si came with a DOHC (B16A2 VTEC). The first civic SI coupe EM1 was introduced in 1999. Europe saw a DOHC 1.6 VTI hatch and sedan and a DOHC 1.8VTI engine was available for the Domani related five-door liftback and estate.

Seventh generation (2001 2005) - EM2, ES1, EP2, EP3, EU1

2001 2003 Honda Civic sedan (US) The seventh generation was released in 2001. While the redesign retained the previous generation's exterior dimensions, interior space was improved in part by using a flat rear floor thus bumping up Civic to a compact car size segment. The front suspension was changed from that of a double wishbone to a MacPherson strut, in order to lower costs, as well as allow more engine bay room for the newly introduced Honda K-series engine. Power was also increased on some trim levels. The three main trim levels were DX, LX, and EX. The Civic Coupe was no longer sold in Japan starting with this generation.

In North America, coupe and sedan body styles were available, except for the Si (SiR in Canada) which was offered only as a three-door hatchback.[11] The rest of the world received three and five-door hatchbacks. The Type-R was redesigned as well this time using a more powerful i-VTEC motor and using the three-door hatchback body style. This generation saw Honda introduce their first Civic Hybrid, powered by a 1.3-litre engine.[12]

Eighth generation (2006 2011) - FD2, FA1, FG1, FG2, FA5, FK, FN

JDM/Asian Honda Civic US-spec Honda Civic LX sedan European Honda Civic 5-door For the 2006 generation Honda split the model into two different platforms, one for sedan and coupe, and one for a hatchbach designed primarily for the European market using a simpler rear suspension from the Honda Fit and more aggressive styling. As of 2006, a total of 16.5 million Civics had been sold worldwide, with 7.3 million of them in the United States.[5] Although the North American and the home market model differ externally, they are mechanically identical. The hatchback is available as a three and five-door. Both Si and Type-R trim levels continued although the Japanese and European Type-R, while sharing the same engine size, are mechanically different. In the US, an improved, sportier version of the Civic Si 4-door tuned by tuner Mugen was offered, featuring cosmetic alterations and changes to the suspension, wheels, slight exterior differences, and exhaust system. A Canadian only Acura model received a new nameplate, changing from the Acura EL to the Acura CSX. The end of this model generation also marked the end of the Civic Type-R in Japan. There is currently no Japanese Civic Type-R successor.

file:Honda civic 2007y front closeup.jpg|JDM/Asian Honda Civic, Front side(Close up) file:Honda civic 2007y driving.jpg|JDM/Asian Honda Civic, Appearance of Driving file:Honda civic 2007y frontside.jpg|JDM/Asian Honda Civic, Front side file:Honda civic 2007y front.jpg|JDM/Asian Honda Civic, Front side(High angle) file:Honda civic 2007y front low angle.jpg|JDM/Asian Honda Civic, Front side(Low angle) file:Honda civic 2007y interior left.jpg|JDM/Asian Honda Civic, Interior

Ninth generation (2012 ) FB4, FG3, FB2, FG4, FB6

North American market

2012 Honda Civic EX sedan (US)

On December 13, 2010, Honda unveiled a sketch of the new ninth-generation Civic which was described as "energetic, sleek and aerodynamic." Both coupe and sedan concepts were shown on January 10, 2011 at the 2011 North American International Auto Show. The production version of the ninth-generation Civic based on the revealed concept went on sale in the U.S. on April 20, 2011.[13]

Honda's Eco Assist technology is added to most models, and become the first gasoline-only powered Honda to employ such technology in North America. It is an information system to help the driver adopt a more fuel-efficient driving style,[14] and is proven to improve fuel economy by about 10% for Honda's hybrid vehicle in Japan.[15]

All models now come standard with ABS (Anti-Lock Brake Systems), VSA (Vehicle Stability Assistance) and EBD (Electronic Brake Distribution). Further improvements include a new multilink rear suspension to further reduce road feel on particularly battered roads and highways.

International marketing and platform derivatives

ethanol]] or any blend of both. While the Civic is sold in largely the same form worldwide, differences in the name of the models exist between markets. In Japan, the hatchback Civic is just called "Civic" while the sedan model was called the () during the fifth to seventh generations. The sixth-generation sedan was also sold as the Integra SJ. In Europe and the United States, "Civic" generically refers to any model, though in Europe the coupe is branded the "Civic Coupe". A four-door station wagon model called the Civic Shuttle (also Civic Pro in Japan) was available from 1984 until 1991 (this brand name would later be revived for the mid-1990s Honda Shuttle people carrier, known in some markets as the Honda Stream). In South Africa, the sedan (the only model sold there until the 1996 launch of the sixth generation sedan and hatch) was known as the Ballade. First generation Honda Civic Hybrid (U.S.) gasoline-electric Other models have been built off the Civic platform, including Prelude, Ballade, CR-X, Quint, Concerto, Domani, CR-X Del Sol, Integra, and CR-V.

Also, at various times, the Civic or Civic-derived models have been sold by marques other than Honda for example, Rover sold the 200, 400 and 45, each of which were Civic-based at some point (first 200s were the second generation Ballade; from 1990 the 200 and 400 were based on the Concerto; the 400 was the 1995 Domani), as was their predecessor, the Triumph Acclaim, based on the first Honda Ballade. The Honda Domani, an upscale model based on the Civic, was sold as the Isuzu Gemini in Japan (1992 2000), and confusingly the 5-door Domani was sold as the Honda Civic (along with the "real" hatchback and sedan Civics) in Europe from 1995 to 2000. In Thailand, the sixth generation Civic was available as the four-door Isuzu Vertex. The sixth-generation station wagon was sold as the Honda Orthia, with the Partner as the downmarket commercial variant. The seventh generation minivan model is called the Honda Stream. In Canada, the sixth and seventh generation Civics were mildly redesigned to create the Acura EL until the advent of the eight generation Civic, which was used to create the Acura CSX, which was designed in Canada. Honda Japan adopted the CSX styling for the Civic in its home country. 2012 Honda Civic GX (U.S.) with the blue diamond CNG sticker and the new natural gas badging. The three-door hatchback body style has been somewhat unpopular in the United States, but has achieved wide acceptance in Canada, as well as popularity in Japan and European markets, helping cement Honda's reputation as a maker of sporty compact models. Starting in 2002, the Civic three-door hatchback has been built exclusively at Honda's manufacturing plant in Swindon, England - previously the five-door "Civic"/Domani and the Civic Aerodeck (based on the Japanese Orthia) were built in this plant for sale in Europe along with the Japanese Civics. Accordingly, all instances of the current model (left or right hand drive, anywhere in the world) are British-made cars designed with Japanese engineering, except for the US-built two-door coupe and the sedan version built in Brazil for the Latin American market.

In North America, the Civic hatchback was dropped for 2006. The 2006 model year standard Civics for North America are manufactured in Alliston, Ontario, Canada (sedans, coupes and Si Coupes) and East Liberty, Ohio (sedans), while the Hybrid version is manufactured in Japan.

In Brazil, although being considered for local manufacturing since the early 1980s (it was illegal to import cars in Brazil from 1973 until 1990), the Civic wasn't available until 1992, via official importing. In 1997, production of the sixth generation Civic sedan started in the Sumar (a city near Campinas, in the state of S o Paulo) factory. The only differences between the Japanese model and the Brazilian model were a slightly higher ground clearance, due to the country's road conditions and adaptations to make the engine suitable to Brazilian commercial gasoline, which contains about 25% ethanol (E25). The seventh generation production started in 2001, displacing the Chevrolet Vectra from the top sales record for the mid-size sedan segment, however it lost that position to the Toyota Corolla the following year. In 2006, the eighth generation was released and regained the sales leadership. Identical to the North American version, it lacks options such a moonroof, and standard security equipment like VSA and side and curtain airbags were removed due to lack of car safety laws in the Mercosur. Furthermore, the Brazilian subsidiary began producing flex-fuel versions for the Civic and the Fit models, capable of running on any blend of gasoline (E20 to E25 blend in Brazil) and ethanol up to E100.[16]



The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in the USA has determined frontal crash test ratings of Honda Civics of different model years.[17]

Model year Make Model Type Curb weight (lb) Frontal driver rating Frontal passenger rating Side Driver passenger rating Side Rear passenger rating
1979 Honda Civic 2-DR 2,166 80px 80px
1980 Honda Civic 2-DR HBK 2,298 80px 80px
1981 Honda Civic 2-DR HBK 2,160 80px 80px
1981 Honda Civic 4-DR HBK 2,456 80px 80px
1984 1987 Honda Civic 2-DR 2,311 80px 80px
1984 1987 Honda Civic 4-DR Wagon 2,510 80px 80px
1988 1989? Honda Civic 2-DR 2,542 80px 80px
1990?-1991 Honda Civic 4-DR 2,252 80px 80px
1992 1993 Honda Civic 2/4-DR 2,348 80px 80px
1994 1995 Honda Civic 2-DR 2,498? 80px 80px
1994 1995 Honda Civic 4-DR 2,317 80px 80px
1996 1997 Honda Civic 2-DR 2,337 80px 80px
1996 1997 Honda Civic 4-DR 2,313 80px 80px 80px 80px
1998 2000 Honda Civic 2-DR 2,313 80px 80px 80px 80px
1998 2000 Honda Civic 4-DR 2,379 80px 80px 80px 80px
2001 2005 Honda Civic 4-DR w/+w/o SAB 2,522 80px 80px 80px 80px
2001 2005 Honda Civic 2-DR w/o SAB 2,502 80px 80px 80px 80px
2001 2005 Honda Civic 2-DR w/SAB 2,502 80px 80px 80px 80px
2002 2005 Honda Civic 2-DR HBK w/o SAB 2,502 80px 80px 80px 80px
2006 2011 Honda Civic 2-DR w/SAB 2,640 80px 80px 80px 80px
2006 2011 Honda Civic 4-DR w/SAB 2,749 80px 80px 80px 80px

The current eighth-generation Civic sedan's crash test performance has been rated highly by both the US Government's NHTSA[18] and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. The IIHS awarded the Civic sedan with a rating of "Good" on both frontal and side impact crash tests[19] and lists the Civic as the second-best 2007 small car in overall crashworthiness.[20] The Civic coupe is rated "Acceptable" in the side impact test.[21]

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Crash Test Ratings[18]

Frontal Impact: 80px

Side Impact Front Seat: 80px

Side Impact Rear Seat: 80px

Rollover: 80px

Honda Motor Co said on Friday July 31, 2009 that it is recalling 440,000 vehicles sold in the US, including some of its best-selling Accord and Civic models for a potentially lethal airbag defect.[22]

Honda said that the airbag inflators in some of its top-selling sedans can rupture because of too much air pressure causing metal fragments to shoot through the airbag and strike vehicle occupants.

One fatality and a number of injuries have been linked to the defect, Honda spokesman Sage Marie said.

The recall covers certain 2001 and 2002 Accords, 2001 Civics and some 2002 and 2003 model Acura TL sedans. The inflator for the driver's side airbag is the defective component on the affected vehicles.

Honda said owners of those models can check to see if their vehicle is covered by the recall by checking the automaker's website at

The Japanese automaker said it was encouraging owners to wait until they received a recall notice to go to a dealership and have the inflator for the steering-wheel airbag replaced.

Honda had originally announced that it would recall some 2001 Accord and Civic sedans for the defect in November 2009. Since that time, Service Bulletin 08-093 has been expanded to cover several VINs in the 2001 2002 Accord coupe and sedan, the 01-02 Civic coupe and sedan, one 2003 Civic, the 02-03 CRV, the 2002 Odyssey, and one 2003 Pilot.


In Australia, 1984 2005 Civics were assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings 2006 on their level of occupant protection regardless of size or era.[23]

  • (1984 1987) - "significantly worse than average"
  • (1988 1991) - "average"
  • (1992 1995) - "average"
  • (1996 2000) - "better than average"
  • (2001 2005) - "average"

Modifications and the enthusiast community

Despite being a front-wheel-drive economy car, the Civic is popular as a platform for modification and customization by an enthusiast community. Starting with the fourth generation and continuing through the 2000 model year, Civics had front double wishbone suspension and rear semi-trailing arm suspension. Because of parts interchangeability, many Civics which were originally equipped with lower-power engines can later be equipped with a newer Honda engine (a process called engine swap), or many other upgrades.[24] The most common swaps are B16A(Civic SI), B18C(Acura Integra GSR), or the new powerful K20(02-present Civic SI, 02-06 RSX Type-S).

Most recent seventh and eighth generations, now rated as compacts rather than subcompacts, are still competitive as tuner projects. However, they have succumbed to added weight (mostly due to U.S. government safety mandates, such as airbags, ABS, etc.), and higher centers of gravity which has significantly reduce their appeal amongst passionate drivers. Particularly unwelcome among the tuner community[25] was the replacement of the front double-wishbone suspension with MacPherson struts, which provide inferior handling and do not allow dynamic camber angle control.[26][27]


From 1972 to 1974, the Civic was awarded "Car of the Year Japan." In 1973, the Civic ranked third in the European Car of the Year awards, the highest ranking for a Japanese vehicle at that time. It also was awarded the U.S. Road Test magazine's "1974 Car of the Year."[28] The Civic was the Motor Trend Import Car of the Year for 1980[29] as well as its 2006 Car of the Year. In 2006, the Civic earned the 2007 "Semperit Irish Car of the Year" title. In 1996, Automobile Magazine honored the Civic as its Automobile of the Year. The Civic has been on Car and Driver magazine's yearly Ten Best list six times, in 1985, 1988 91, and 1996. The Civic Si was named "Best New Sport Car" and the sedan was named "Best New Economy Car" in the 2006 Canadian Car of the Year awards. The Civic also won the North American Car of the Year and the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) Car of the Year awards for 2006. In November 2006, the Civic received the prestigious "Car of The Year" award from Brazilian magazine Auto Esporte. The four-door Civic VXi sedan won the South African Car of the Year award for 2007.


Touring car racing

Civics have been used for racing ever since their introduction. In 1973, a Civic was entered, alongside cars of much larger engine sizes, in the Australian Bathurst 1000 endurance race.

In recent years the Civic has been used in a wide variety of racing series, particularly in Japan. It is also used in touring car races in Europe and the United States. The Civic has been used in the UK in endurance series by teams such as Barwell Motorsport and Cartek Motorsport.

In 2002 JAS Motorsport entered the European Touring Car Championship (ETCC) with a Super 2000 spec Civic and was used until restart season of the World Touring Car Championship (WTCC) in 2005.

In December 2005, on the date of the new 2006 Civic Si's launch in the USA, Honda's R&D Engineering Team completed 645 laps in an 8th generation Civic Si coupe (FG2) to place first in the E1 class of the famous '25 Hours of Thunderhill' marathon race. The drivers on Honda's team were Road & Track journalist Kim Wolfkill, Lee Niffenegger, Chad Gilsinger, Sage Marie, John Sherk, Rich Hays, Andrew Frame, Matt Staal and Car and Driver journalist Tony Swan.[30]


2007 BTCC season]] In the UK, the Civic has been used in the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) for several years and is still highly competitive. The Civic made its debut in the 2002 season with the 'Works' team ran by Arena Motorsport. Built to BTC-T specifications, it gained the team 3rd in the manufacturers championship. In the same year Synchro Motorsport won the BTCC Production Teams Championship with a pair of Civic Type R's.

The 2003 season saw the 'works' team Civics secure an impressive 2nd in the manufacturers championship. The 2003 BTCC Production Teams Championship also went to the Civic again, this time in the hands of Barwell Motorsport.

Such was the competitiveness of the Civic in its first two season, 2004 saw five teams enter Civics, allowing the model to secure 2nd in the manufacturers championship.

Although manufacturer support, from Honda, for the BTCC ended in 2005, several teams still found success running the Civic in 2005 and 2006.

Rockingham]] in March 2009 For the 2007 BTCC season, Team Halfords ran the new eighth generation Honda Civics, built to the latest S2000 regulations, for Matt Neal and Gordon Shedden with limited success and continued to use the Civic into the 2008 and 2009 season. In both 2007 and 2008, the Civic allowed the team to finish 3rd in the Teams championship, behind the two manufacturer backed teams.

In 2010 Honda returned to the BTCC as a 'works' team with Team Dynamics using Civics to win the 2010 manufacturers championship.[31]

In 2011 the team returns with its Civic to defend its Team and Manufacturers championship agin with the Neil and Shedden pairing.

Honda Racing Team will swap to the brand new ninth generation Honda Civic, built fully to NGTC rules, for the 2012 BTCC season. They are the first manufacturer backed team to announce their intention to run fully to the NGTC specification.[32][33] The drivers continue to be Matt Neal and Gordon Shedden, who are the 2011 BTCC driver champions and runner up respectively.[34][35]


Honda announced to enter the 2012 World Touring Car Championship (WTCC) with a racer built on the 2012 Euro Civic 5 door hatchback. The car is powered by a 1.6-liter turbocharged engine, developed by Honda R&D, and will race later in Japan, China and Macau before a two car team join the 2013 championship racing.[36][37]

Grassroots racing

In autocross, the low, wide, sub-2,000 pound 1988 1991 Civic Si hatchback (notably the 1989 model year) has been dominant in SCCA Solo ST (Street Touring, previously Street Touring Sedan) class for a number of years. For example, 1988 1991 Civics captured all of the top 20 positions at the 2009 national finals. In 10 Nationals since the ST became a national class in 2001, the Civic Si has taken nine out of 10 Men's titles and seven out of 10 Ladies' titles.[38] Civics have also had success in SCCA RallyCross with the Modified 2WD National Championship being won in 2010 in a 2007 Si and 2011 won in a 1988 Hatchback.[39]

References and footnotes

External links

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