Hangal is a town in Haveri district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is 75 km away from Hubli-Dharwad.It is on the left bank of the Dharma river, and has ruins of some fortification on the river bank. The town has a huge lake near Billeshwara temple called Anekere. This town is named Viratnagar of Mahabharath. famous Cultural sport of the hangal is "HattiHabba" The town has a huge Tarakeshwara temple. Other temple in the town are Ganesha temple, Virabhadra, Billeshwara and Ramalinga are the important temples. And a famous Veerashaiva Kumaraswami matha located in this town.
Hangal was also called as Hanungal.
Hangal Tarakeshwara temple first half
Hangal was the capital of the Hangal Kadambas, feudatories of the Kalyani Chalukyas. It is mentioned as Panungal in early records and identified by tradition with Viratanagara of Mahabharata days. It was once the headquarters of a district called Panungal-500.
Kadambas is an ancient dynasty of south India who primarily ruled the region which is present day Goa state and nearby Konkan region (part of modern Maharashtra and Karnataka state). The early rulers of this dynasty established themselves at Vaijayanti or Banavasi in 345 AD and ruled as independent rulers for more than 2 centuries.
- The Kadambas, the earliest known dynasty to patronize Jainism was that of the Kadambas who ruled around 485 A.D. This is evident from Kamalajinalaya built near Banavasi by Ravivarma. There were several other Jaina monuments built under Kadamba patronage. Parsvanatha temple at Kuppatur built for Kadamba queen Maladevi and Jaina temple built in Hangal, fort are two such examples.
Kadamba of Hangal
Hangal attained significance under the Kalyani Chalukyas who were the chief powers in the Deccan( 10th - 12th century). Chalukyas were renowned for their architectural (Gadag style) innovations, built out of the grey green chloritic schist of the region. For example monuments (temple) at Mahadeva Temple (Itagi), Gadag, Hangal and Lakkundi. So Hangal comes under the core area of Western Chalukya.
The Western Chalukyas (in 973) rose to power by defeating the Rashtrakutas with the help of Kadambas. Then Kadambas chief Chatta Deva was allowed by Taila II to rule Banavasi, he (during 980 - 1031 AD), consolidated his domain in the western Tungabhadra river basin under Chalukya shelter.
Hangal gained importance during the rule of Kalyani Chalukyas (10th to the 12th century), and later came under the Hoysalas with the decline of the Chalukyas. Bileshwara temple at Hangal is in the Hoysala style.
Hangal large domical ceiling in the main hall at Tarateshwara temple
Hangal Tarakeshwara entrance to Garbhagudi
Hangal Tarakeshwara domical ceiling
Pillars at Hangal Tarakeshwara temple
At Hangal there are many historical temples, those are related to Chalukyas and Hoysalas. Tarakeshwara temple, Veerabhadra Temple, Billeshwara Temple are very attractive.
Hangal has a huge structure with wonderful series of images and polished tall Chalukya pillars. The Tarakeshwara temple (mid 12th century), dedicated to Shiva.
The outer walls of the temple are articulated with both Dravidian and nagara style of miniature shikaras.
The temple is famous for its very large domical ceiling in the main hall, which rises, in concentric circles of cusped mouldings, and then, at the apex, falling again in a great rosette or pendant.
- Kirtimukhas are wonderfully done, including Scenes from the Ramayana on these walls.
- The open hall contains (at its centre), a most intricately carved, domical corbelled lotus ceiling.
- The rock is carved in the form of a lotus and is 30 feet in diameter, is a octagonal piece of stone supported on 8 pillars.
- The temple consists of a sanctuary with a great adjoining pillared hall.
- Pillars are lathe-turned have bell-shaped section. There are plenty of decorative art on pillars, having elephants carved in such a way that a visible space separates the trunks from the pillar. A simple diamond shaped motif that are carved in bands around pillars are done in different sizes and minor variations.
- Nandi pavilion resting on 12 pillars and leaning balcony seating.
- The columns are lathe turned (have geometric shapes).
- Both halls have stepped pyramidal roofs.
- The outer walls are decorated with carvings of miniature temples.
- There are memorial stones carved with religious (Mastigallu)and military scenes(Veeragallu).
There is Ganesha temple near Tarakeshwara temple, which has a Nagara style (northern curvilinear) Shikhara.
Jain Temple in the Fort
Hangal temple at horticulture department
The Jain temple at Hangal in the fort area (at horticulture department premises). It is mostly built after AD 1150. The temple is beautifully decorated but there is need of conservation and restoration. The temple has Hoysala style of architecture. The temple was built on a stepped plan. It has an open hall and sanctuary but both do not have their superstructure now. The sculptural decoration (includes flowers, garlands, torana, animals, birds and gods) upper portion of the wall is elaborate. The temple walls are decorated with thin pilasters. The open hall has lathe turned pillars.
Hangal temple at horticulture department
Veerabhadra Temple located in the Hangal Fort, it is very beautifully carved temple. There is a need to carry out conservation and restoration work form Archeological Survey of India.
Hangal Billeshwara temple
Hangal Billeshwara temple
Bileshwara temple is in the Hoysala style. Main attraction of this Temple is its elaborately carved jambs of doorframe of garbhagudi. At the lower end of each (right and left sides of doorframe) there are 5 carved figures include Manmatha is in the central projection, Rati is at his side with Daksha (the goat headed god), and both flanked by attendants. It consists of a sanctuary facing (incomplete), the outer walls decorated with design look like temple towers. and has a carved decoration consists of diamond shapes. The square panels with serpents with intertwined tails, animals, musicians, and foliage.
Hangal Kumaraswamy Matha
India census, Hangal had a population of 25,011. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Hangal has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 67%, and female literacy is 60%. In Hangal, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.
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