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House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg (; ), also Hapsburg,[1] and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries.

The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built around 1020 1030 AD in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Archduchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became sovereign ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled for the next six centuries.

A series of dynastic marriages[2] enabled the family to vastly expand its domains, to include Burgundy, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the O ate treaty. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II in 1700 and was replaced by the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon in the person of his great-nephew Philip V.

The Austrian branch went extinct in the male person in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female person in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa and was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg.

Contents


Principal roles

Their principal roles were as:

  • King of the Romans
  • Holy Roman Emperors
  • King of Germany
  • Rulers of Austria (as Dukes 1282 1453, Archdukes)
  • Kings of Bohemia (1306 1307, 1437 1439, 1453 1457, 1526 1918),
  • Kings of Hungary and Croatia (1526 1918),
  • Kings of Spain (1516 1700),
  • Kings of Portugal (1580 1640),
  • Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772 1918), and
  • Grand Princes of Transylvania (1690 1867).

Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.

History

Counts of Habsburg

The Habsburg dominions around AD 1200 in the area of modern day Switzerland are shown as <!-- legend0 -->, among the houses of <!-- legend0 -->, <!-- legend0 --> and <!-- legend0 -->
The Habsburg dominions around AD 1200 in the area of modern day Switzerland are shown as , among the houses of , and
The Habsburg dominions within the Holy Roman Empire acquired before AD 1378 are shown as <!-- legend0 -->, among the houses of <!-- legend0 --> and <!-- legend0 -->
The Habsburg dominions within the Holy Roman Empire acquired before AD 1378 are shown as , among the houses of and

The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in Breisgau who lived in the 10th century. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. Most people assume the name to be derived from the High German Habichtsburg (Hawk Castle), but some historians and linguists are convinced that the name comes from the Middle High German word 'hab/ hap' meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.[3][4][5] The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.

The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, especially countship rights in Z richgau, Aargau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg.[6]

Kings of the Romans

By the second half of 13th century, count Rudolph IV (1218 1291) had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between Vosges mountains and Lake Constance. Due to these impressive preconditions, on 1 October 1273 Rudolph was chosen as the King of the Romans and received the name Rudolph I of Germany.[6]

In 1282, the Habsburgs gained the rulership of the Duchy of Austria, which they then held for over 600 years, until 1918. Through the forged Privilegium Maius document (1358/59), a special bond was created between the House and Austria. The document, forged at the behest of Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1339 1365), also attempted to introduce rules to preserve the unity of the family's Austrian lands. In the long term, this indeed succeeded, but Rudolph's descendants ignored the rule, leading to the separation of the Albertian and Leopoldian family lines in 1379.[6]

By marrying Elisabeth of Luxembourg, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1437, Duke Albert V (1397 1439) became the ruler of Bohemia and Hungary, expanding the family's political horizons. The next year, Albert V was crowned as the King of the Romans and received the name Albert II. After his early death in war with the Turks in 1439, and after the death of his son Ladislaus Postumus in 1457, the Habsburgs lost Bohemia and Hungary again. National kingdoms were established in these areas, and the Habsburgs were not able to restore their influence there for decades.

Holy Roman Emperors

In 1440, Frederick III was chosen by the Electoral College to succeed Albert II as the king. After several Habsburg kings had attempted to gain the imperial throne over the years, success finally arrived on 19 March 1452, when Pope Nicholas V crowned Frederick III as the Holy Roman Emperor in a grand ceremony held in Rome. In Frederick III, the Pope found an important political ally with whose help he was able to counter the conciliar movement.[6]

While in Rome, Frederick III married Eleanor of Portugal, enabling him to build a network of connections with dynasties in the west and southeast of Europe. In contrast to Frederick, who was rather distant to his family, Eleanor had a great influence on the raising and education of Frederick's children, and therefore played an important role in the family's rise to prominence. After Frederick III's coronation, the Habsburgs were able to hold the imperial throne almost continuously for centuries, until 1806.[6]

As Emperor, Frederick III took a leading role inside the family and positioned himself as the judge over the family's internal conflicts, often making use of the privilegium maius. He was able to restore the unity of the house's Austrian lands, as the Albertinian line was now extinct. Territorial integrity was also strengthened by the extinction of the Tirolian branch of the Leopoldian line in 1490/1496. Frederick's aim was to make Austria a united country, stretching from Rhine to Murr and Leitha.[6]

On the external front, one of Frederick's main achievements was the Siege of Neuss (1474 75), in which he forced Charles the Bold of Burgundy to give his daughter Mary of Burgundy as wife to Frederick's son Maximilian.[6] The wedding, which took place on the evening of August 16, 1477, ultimately resulted in the Habsburgs acquiring control of the Low Countries. After Mary's early death in 1482, Maximilian attempted to secure the Burgundian heritance to one of his and Mary's children, Philip the Handsome. Charles VIII of France contested this, using both military and dynastic means, but the Burgundian succession was finally ruled in favour of Philip in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493.[7]

After the death of his father in 1493, Maximilian was proclaimed the new King of the Romans, receiving the name Maximilian I. Maximilian was initially unable to travel to Rome to receive the Imperial title from the Pope, due to opposition from Venice and from the French, who were occupying Milan, as well a refusal from the Pope due to enemy forces being present on his territory. In 1508, Maximilian proclaimed himself as the "chosen Emperor", and this was also recognized by the Pope due to changes in political alliances. This had a historical consequence in that in the future, the Roman King would also automatically become Emperor, without needing the Pope's consent. In 1530, Emperor Charles V, became the last person to be crowned as the Emperor by the Pope.[7]

Maximilian's rule (1493 1519) was a time of great expansion for the Habsburgs. In 1497, Maximilian's son, Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair) married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, including their colonies in America; Southern Italy, Austria and the Low Countries.[8]

The foundations for the later empire of Austria-Hungary were laid in 1515 by the means of a double wedding between Louis, only son of Vladislaus II, King of Hungary, and Maximilian's granddaughter Mary; and between her brother, Archduke Ferdinand and Vladislaus' daughter, Anna. The wedding was celebrated in grand style on 22 July 1515, and has been described by some historians as the First Congress of Vienna due to its significant implications for Europe's political landscape. As all the children were still minors, the wedding was formally completed in 1521. Vladislaus died on 13 March 1516, and Maximilian died on 12 January 1519, but his designs were ultimately successful: on Louis's death in 1526, Maximilian's grandson, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor became the King of Bohemia.

By the time of Charles V the "World Emperor" and his "empire on which the sun never sets", the Habsburg dynasty achieved, for the first and only time in their history, the position of a true world power.

Division of the house: Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs

A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of M hlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, and particularly in America.
A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of M hlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green, but do not include the lands of the Holy Roman Empire over which they presided, nor the vast Castilian holdings outside of Europe, and particularly in America.
After the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I by his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516 1556), the dynasty split into the junior branch of the Austrian Habsburgs and the senior branch of the Spanish Habsburgs. The Austrian Habsburgs held the title of Holy Roman Emperor after Charles' death in 1558, as well as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands and the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary.

The senior Spanish branch ruled over Spain and its colonial empire, the Netherlands, the Habsburgs' Italian possessions, and, for a time, Portugal. Hungary was partly under Habsburg rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 1683 1699.

In the secret O ate treaty, the Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs settled their mutual claims. The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession), and finally the last female of the Habsburg male line in 1780.

The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburgs (Maria Theresa) had married Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine,[9] (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses) and their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.

Extinction of the Spanish Habsburgs

Charles II's family tree showing the large amount of inbreeding.
Charles II's family tree showing the large amount of inbreeding.
The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages, with ultimately disastrous results for their gene pool. Marriages between first cousins, or between uncle and niece, were commonplace in the family. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinction. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable to that of a child born to a brother and sister, as did his father, likely due to "remote inbreeding".[10]

On August 6, 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor Napoleon I's reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on August 11, 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on May 18, 1804.

Emperor Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, W rzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria".

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created a personal union, which the House of Habsburg agreed to share power with the separate Hungarian government, dividing the territory of the former Austrian Empire between them. The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status[11] Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor (see k. u. k.). This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I.

On November 11, 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.

The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, Emperor Charles' eldest son, renounced all claims to the throne.

The dynasty's motto is "Let others wage wars, but you, happy Austria, marry!" (Bella gerant alii, tu, felix Austria, nube!), which indicates the knack of the Habsburgs to have their members intermarry into other royal houses, to make alliances and inherit territory. Empress Maria Theresa is recognized quite notably for it and is sometimes referred to as the "Great-Grandmother of Europe" .

Family tree

This family tree only includes male scions of the direct House of Habsburg who survived to adulthood.

Similarly, this family tree only includes male scions of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine who survived to adulthood:

Monarchs of the House of Habsburg

A word about the coats of arms: the Habsburg Empire was never composed of a single unified and unitary state as Bourbon France, Hohenzollern Germany, or Great Britain was. It was made up of an accretion of territories that owed their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord. The Habsburgs had mostly married the heiresses of these territories, most famously of the Netherlands and Spain. They used their arms then as a statement of their right to rule all these territories. As there were many territories, so their arms were complex and reflected the waxing and waning position of the Habsburgs within European power politics. It was not until the 19th century (see below Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire that the arms began to take on their own life as symbols of a state which may have an existence outside of the Habsburg dynast.

Ancestors

  • Guntram the Rich (ca. 930 985 / 990) Father of:
  • Lanzelin of Altenburg (died 991). Besides Radbot, he had sons named Rudolph I, Wernher, and Landolf.

Counts of Habsburg

100px Arms of the Counts of Habsburgs. The Habsburgs all but abandoned this for the arms of Austria. It only reappeared in their triarch family arms in 1805.

Before Rudolph rose to German king, the Habsburgs were Counts in what is today southwestern Germany and Switzerland.

  • Radbot of Klettgau, built the Habsburg Castle (ca. 985 1035). Besides Werner I, he had two other sons: Otto I, who would become Count of Sundgau in the Alsace, and Albrecht I.
  • Werner I, Count of Habsburg (1025 / 1030 1096). Besides Otto II, there was another son, Albert II, who was reeve of Muri from 1111 1141 after the death of Otto II.
  • Otto II of Habsburg; first to name himself as "of Habsburg" (died 1111) Father of:
  • Werner II of Habsburg (around 1135; died 1167) Father of:
  • Albrecht III of Habsburg (the Rich), died 1199. Under him, the Habsburg territories expanded to cover most of what is today the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Father of:
  • Rudolph II of Habsburg (b. c. 1160, died 1232) Father of:
  • Albrecht IV of Habsburg, (died 1239 / 1240); father of Rudolph IV of Habsburg, who would later become king Rudolph I of Germany. Between Albrecht IV and his brother Rudolph III, the Habsburg properties were split, with Albrecht keeping the Aargau and the western parts, the eastern parts going to Rudolph III. Albrecht IV was also a mutual ancestor of Sophia Chotek and of her husband Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Dukes of Austria

100px The arms of Austria, originally belonging to the Babenburg dukes. They became all but synonmous with the Habsburgs, as the Habsburgs abandoned their own arms for these.

In the late Middle Ages, when the Habsburgs expanded their territories in the east, they often ruled as dukes of the Duchy of Austria which covered only what is today Lower Austria and the eastern part of Upper Austria. The Habsburg possessions also included Styria, and then expanded west to include Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and Tirol in 1363. Their original scattered possessions in the southern Alsace, south-western Germany and Vorarlberg were collectively known as Further Austria.

The Habsburg dukes gradually lost their homelands south of the Rhine and Lake Constance to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy. Unless mentioned explicitly, the dukes of Austria also ruled over Further Austria until 1379, after that year, Further Austria was ruled by the Princely Count of Tyrol. Names in italics designate dukes who never actually ruled. ]

  • Rudolph II, son of Rudolph I, duke of Austria and Styria together with his brother 1282 1283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph's sons.
  • Albert I (Albrecht I), son of Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 1282 1308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 1298 1308. See also below.
  • Rudolph III, oldest son of Albert I, designated duke of Austria and Styria 1298 1307
  • Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Sch ne), brother of Rudolph III. Duke of Austria and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 1308 1330; officially co-regent of emperor Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled.
  • Leopold I, brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 1326.
  • Albert II (Albrecht II), brother of the above, duke of Further Austria from 1326 1358, duke of Austria and Styria 1330 1358, duke of Carinthia after 1335.
  • Otto the Jolly (der Fr hliche), brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria 1330 1339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335.
  • Rudolph IV the Founder (der Stifter), oldest son of Albert II. Duke of Austria and Styria 1358 1365, Duke of Tirol after 1363.

After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Windic March, Tirol, and Further Austria.

Albertine line: Dukes of Austria

75px

  • Albert III (Albrecht III), duke of Austria until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter's possessions.
  • Albert IV (Albrecht IV), duke of Austria 1395 1404, in conflict with Leopold IV.
  • Albert V (Albrecht V), duke of Austria 1404 1439, Holy Roman Emperor from 1438 1439 as Albert II. See also below.
  • Ladislaus Posthumus, son of the above, duke of Austria 1440 1457.

File:Emporer Rudolf I Arms.svg|Rudolph I as Emperor File:Gules a fess argent.svg|The arms of Austria. File:Armoiries empereur Albert Ier.svg|Albert I as Emperor. File:Armoiries Albert II de Habsbourg.svg|Albert II as King of Hungary and Bohemia. File:Armoiries empereur Albert II.svg|Albert II as Emperor.

Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol

75px

  • Leopold III, duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach.
  • William (Wilhelm), son of the above, 1386 1406 duke in Inner Austria (Carinthia, Styria)
  • Leopold IV, son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 1395 1402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 1406 1411 duke of Inner Austria

File:Armoiries Habsbourg-Styrie.svg|Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and Dukes of Styria.

Leopoldine-Inner Austrian sub-line

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  • Ernest the Iron (der Eiserne), 1406 1424 duke of Inner Austria, until 1411 together and competing with his brother Leopold IV.
  • Frederick V (Friedrich), son of Ernst, became emperor Frederick III in 1440. He was duke of Inner Austria from 1424 on. Guardian of Sigismund 1439 1446 and of Ladislaus Posthumus 1440 1452. See also below.
  • Albert VI (Albrecht VI), brother of the above, 1446 1463 regent of Further Austria, duke of Austria 1458 1463
  • Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain-descended from sister of Frederick III; also Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse King of Finland 1918

Leopoldine-Tyrol sub-line

75px

  • Frederick IV (Friedrich), brother of Ernst, 1402 1439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria
  • Sigismund, also spelled Siegmund or Sigmund, 1439 1446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.

Reuniting of Habsburg possessions

Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria after the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in Vienna and styled himself duke of Austria from 1485 1490.

King Consort of England

  • Philip II of Spain (King Consort with Mary I of England 1554 1558)

King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors prior to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions

75px

  • Rudolph I, emperor 1273 1291 (never crowned)
  • Albert I, emperor 1298 1308 (never crowned)
  • Albert II, emperor 1438 1439 (never crowned) -ancestor of Empress Catherine II of Russia
  • Frederick III, emperor 1440 1493

Kings of Hungary prior to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions

75px

  • Albert, king of Hungary 1437 1439
  • Ladislaus V Posthumus, king of Hungary 1444 1457

Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

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The title Archduke of Austria, the one most famously associated with the Habsburgs, was invented in the Privilegium Maius, a 14th century forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Originally, it was meant to denote the ruler of the (thus 'Arch')duchy of Austria, in an effort to put that ruler on par with the Prince-electors, as Austria had been passed over in the Golden Bull of 1356, when the electorships had been assigned. Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognize the title. Ladislaus the Posthumous, Duke of Austria, who died in 1457, was never in his lifetime authorized to use it, and accordingly, not he nor anyone in his branch of the dynasty ever used the title.

Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title "archduke". This title was only officially recognized in 1453 by his son, Emperor Frederick III, when the Habsburgs had (permanently) gained control of the office of the Holy Roman Emperor. Emperor Frederick III himself used just Duke of Austria, never Archduke, until his death in 1493

Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but apparently only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (d. 1482) as the title never appears in documents of joint Maximilian and Mary rule in the Low Countries (where Maximilian is still titled Duke of Austria). The title appears first in documents of joint Maximilian and Philip (his under-age son) rule in the Low Countries. It only gained currency with Charles V and the descendants of his brother, the Emperor Frederick.

  • Maximilian I, emperor 1508 1519

File:CoA Maximilian of Habsburg (1459-1519) as archduke.svg|Coat of Arms of Maximilian as Archduke File:Armoiries Maximilien Ier.png|Personal Arms of Maximilian after his marriage to Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. File:CoA Maximilian I of Habsburg.svg|Coat of Arms of Maximilian as Emperor.

  • Charles V, emperor 1519 1556, his arms are explained in an article about them:

File:Middle Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg|The Middle Coat of Arms as of Charles as Emperor and King of Spain. File:Greater Coat of Arms of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg|The Great Coat of Arms as of Charles as Emperor and King of Spain. File:Coat of Arms of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain-Or shield variant.svg|Another view of the Habsburgs at the height of their power under Charles V, showing the Arms as Holy Roman Emperor. File:Ornamented Coat of Arms of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I as King of Spain.svg|Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor with Supporters and Motto.

titular Dukes of Burgundy, Lords of the Netherlands

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The reigning duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Charles controlled not only Burgundy (both dukedom and county), but the wealthy and powerful Netherlands, the real center of his power. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian. After the Siege of Neuss (1474 75), he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on the evening of 16 August 1477, after the death of Charles...[12] Mary and the Habsburgs lost the Duchy of Burgundy to France, but managed to defend and hold onto the rest. After Mary's death in 1482, Maximilian acted as regent for his son:

  • Philip the Handsome (1482 1506),

File:

File:Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg|Arms of Philip as Philip IV, Duke of Burgundy. File:Coat of Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg|Coat of Arms of Philip as Duke of Burgundy
(Philip IV)

  • Charles V (1506 1555), Philip's son;

File:Arms of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as Heir of Philip the Handsome.svg|Arms of the Archduke Charles, as Heir of Philip the Handsome. File:Coat of Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg|Coat of Arms of Charles as Duke of Burgundy
(Philip IV)

  • Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, regent (1507 1515) and (1519 1530)

File:CoA Margaret of Austria 1501-1530.svg|Margaret of Austria.

  • Mary of Hungary, dowager queen of Hungary, sister of Charles V, governor of the Netherlands, 1531 1555,

File:Blason marie de hongrie 4.svg|Arms of Mary as Queen Consort of Hungary. File:Coat of Arms of Mary of Austria as Queen of Hungary.svg|Coat of arms of Mary as Queen Dowager of Hungary.

  • Margaret of Parma, illegitimate daughter of Charles V, Duchess of Parma, and mother of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, governor 1559 1567,

File:Coat of Arms of Margareth of Parma Before her Marriage.svg|Arms of Margaret of Parma Before her Marriage.

  • Don John of Austria, illegitimate son of Charles V, victor of Lepanto, governor of the Netherlands, 1576 1578

File:Coat of Arms of John of Austria (1545-1578).svg|Coat of Arms of Don John.

  • Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, son of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Netherlands, 1578 1592

File:Armoiries Parme 1586.svg|Arms of Alexander Farnese.

The Netherlands were frequently governed directly by a regent or governor-general, who was a collateral member of the Habsburgs. The Habsburgs controlled the 17 Provinces of the Netherlands until the Dutch Revolt in the 2nd half of the 16th Century, when they lost the 7 northern Protestant provinces. They held onto the southern catholic part (roughly modern Belgium and Luxembourg) as the Spanish and Austrian until the it was conquered by French Revolutionary armies in 1795.

Spanish Habsburgs: Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (1580 1640)

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Coat of arms of Spanish Habsburgs (1580-1621 Version)

  • Philip I of Castile, second son of Maximilian I, founded the Spanish Habsburgs in 1496 by marrying Joanna the Mad, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Philip died in 1506, leaving the thrones of Castile and Aragon to be inherited and united into the throne of Spain by his son:

File:Coat of Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg|Coat of Arms of Philip as Duke of Burgundy
(Philip IV) File:Coat of Arms of Philip I of Castile.svg|Coat of Arms of Philip of Burgundy and Johanna as King and Queen of Castile (Philip I) File:Coat of Arms of Philip I of Castile (Chivalric).svg|Coat of Arms of Philip I of Castile, Chivalric ornaments File:Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip I of Castile.svg|Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip I of Castile.

  • Charles I 1516 1556, aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; divided the House into Austrian and Spanish lines

File:Arms of Queen Joanna and Philip I of Castile.svg|Personal Arms of Charles V 1516-1520. File:Arms of Charles II of Spain (1668-1700).svg|Personal Arms of Charles V, 1530-1556 File:Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain (1516-1520).svg|1516-1518,
Common version File:Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain-Flanders and Tyrol Escutcheon Variant(1518-1520).svg|1518-1520,
Common version File:Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain (1520-1530).svg|1520-1530,
Common version

File:Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1516-1520).svg|1516-1518,
Chivaric design of the Order of the Golden Fleece Armorial File:Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain with Germanic Ornaments-Flanders and Tyrol Escutcheon (1518-1520).svg|1518-1520,
Chivaric design of the Order of the Golden Fleece Armorial File:Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1520-1530).svg|1520-1530,
Chivaric design of the Order of the Golden Fleece Armorial File:Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain (1516-1520).svg|Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain (1516-1518). File:Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain-Flanders and Tyrol Escutcheon (1518-1520).svg|Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain (1518-1520). File:Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain (1520-1530).svg|Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain (1520-1530).

  • Philip II of Spain 1556 1598, also Philip I of Portugal 1580 1598 and Philip I of England and his wife Mary I of England 1554 1558

File:Royal Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg|Personal Arms of Philip II from 1580 and Royal Arms of Spain (1580-1668). File:Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1558-1580).svg|Coat of Arms of Philip II, 1558-1580
(Common version) File:Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg|Royal Coat of Arms of Spain, 1580-1668
(Common version) File:Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Supporters (1580-1668).svg|Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Supporters (1580-1668). File:Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1580-1621).svg|COAT OF ARMS OF PHILIP II AND PHILIP III,
Chivaric design of the Order of the Golden Fleece Armorial File:Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1580-1598).svg|Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain (1580-1598).

File:Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1554-1558).svg|Coat of Arms of Philip II as Monarch of Milan,
1554-1558 File:Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1558-1580).svg|Coat of Arms of Philip II as Monarch of Milan,
1558-1580 File:Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg|Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan,
1580-1700 File:Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain as Monarch of Naples and Sicily.svg|Coat of Arms of Philip II of Spain as Monarch of Naples and Sicily

  • Philip III, also Philip II of Portugal 1598 1621
  • Philip IV 1621 1665, also Philip III of Portugal 1621 1640
  • Charles II 1665 1700

File:Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668).svg|Royal Coat of Arms of Spain, 1580-1668
(Common version) File:Coat of Arms of Charles II of Spain (1668-1700).svg|Coat of Arms of Charles II, 1668-1700
(Common version) File:Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Supporters (1580-1668).svg|Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Supporters (1580-1668). File:Coat of Arms of Charles II of Spain with Supporters (1668-1700).svg|Coat of Arms of Charles II of Spain with Supporters (1668-1700). File:Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1580-1621).svg|Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1580-1621). File:Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1621-1668).svg|Royal Coat of Arms of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1621-1668). File:Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip III of Spain.svg|Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip III of Spain. File:Coat of Arms of Charles II of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1668-1700).svg|Coat of Arms of Charles II of Spain with Germanic Ornaments (1668-1700). File:Full Ornamented Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1621-1668).svg|Full Ornamented Royal Coat of Arms of Spain of Philip IV and Charles II.

The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II. Some of the other members of the House of Habsburg:

File:Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Austria (1503-1564) as King of Hungary and Bohemia.svg|Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Austria as King of Hungary and Bohemia File:Coat of Arms of Margareth of Parma Before her Marriage.svg|Coat of Arms of Margareth of Parma
( Before her Marriage),
A natural daughter of Emperor Charles V File:Coat of Arms of Spanish Infantas as Single Women (1527-1552).svg|Coat of Arms of Spanish Infantas as Single Women, 1527-1552 File:Coat of Arms of Spanish Infantas as Single Women (1580-1700).svg|Coat of Arms of Spanish Infantas as Single Women, 1580-1700 File:Coat of Arms of Archduke Albert of Austria as Governor-Monarch of the Low Countries.svg|Coat of Arms of Archduke Albert of Austria as Governor-Monarch of the Low Countries File:Coat of Arms of Infanta Isabella of Spain as Governor Monarch of the Low Countries.svg|Coat of Arms of Infanta Isabella of Spain as Governor Monarch of the Low Countries File:Coat of Arms of John of Austria (1545-1578).svg|Coat of Arms of John of Austria (1545-1578)
A natural child of Emperor Charles V File:Coat of Arms of Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria.svg|Coat of Arms of Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria File:Coat of Arms of John Joseph of Austria (1629-1679).svg|Coat of Arms of John Joseph of Austria
(1629-1679)
A natural child of Philip IV File:Coat of Arms of Charles VI of Austria as Monarch of Naples and Sicily.svg|Coat of Arms of Charles VI of Austria as Monarch of Naples and Sicily

Austrian Habsburgs: Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

75px

  • Ferdinand I, emperor 1556 1564 ( Family Tree)
  • Maximilian II, emperor 1564 1576
  • Rudolf II, emperor 1576 1612
  • Matthias, emperor 1612 1619
  • Ferdinand II, emperor 1619 1637
  • Ferdinand III, emperor 1637 1657 ( Family Tree)
  • Leopold I, emperor 1658 1705
  • Josef I, emperor 1705 1711
  • Charles VI, emperor 1711 1740
  • Maria Theresa of Austria, Habsburg heiress and wife of emperor Francis I Stephen, reigned as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia 1740 1780.

File:Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Austria (1503-1564) as King of Hungary and Bohemia.svg|Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Austria as King of Hungary and Bohemia. File:Armoiries empereur Ferdinand Ier.svg|Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor. File:Blason famille at Ferdinand de Tyrol.svg|Archduke Ferdinand, Count of Tyrol, and the Tyrolean Line. File:Konstancja rakuszanka coat of arms 17th century.gif|Archduke Charles, Count of Styria and the Styrian Line. File:Rudolf II Arms-personal.svg|Rudolf II, Mathias, Ferdinand II, Leopld I Personal Arms. File:Armoiries empereur Rodolphe II.svg|Rodolphe II as Emperor. File:Armoiries empereur Ferdinand III.svg|Ferdinand III as Emperor. File:Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg|Ferdinand IV as Emperor. File:Armoiries Charles VI de Habsbourg.svg|Charles VI as King of Hungary and Bohemia. File:Armoiries empereur Charles VI.svg|Charles VI as Emperor.

The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled of Habsburg-Lorraine.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria

75px

  • Francis I Stephen, emperor 1745 1765 ( Family Tree)
  • Joseph II, emperor 1765 1790
  • Leopold II, emperor 1790 1792 ( Family Tree)
  • Francis II, emperor 1792 1806 ( Family Tree)

Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line {above}.

The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below.

A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of Bonaparte; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha {Bragan a} {Portugal}; Savoy {Spain}; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.

File:Armoiries moderne Fran ois Ier de Lorraine.svg|Coat of Arms of Francis I Stephen as King of Hungary and Bohemia. File:Armoiries empereur Fran ois Ier.svg|Francis I Stephen as Emperor. File:Armoiries Joseph II Habsbourg Lorraine.svg|Joseph II as King of Hungary and Bohemia. File:Armoiries empereur Joseph II.svg|Joseph II as Emperor. File:Wappen Kaiser Joseph II. 1765 (Gro ).png|Grand Arms of Joseph II. File:Armoiries L opold II Habsbourg Lorraine.svg|Leopold II as King of Hungary and Bohemia. File:Armoiries empereur L opold II.svg|Leopold II as Emperor.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Emperors of Austria

Small Coat of Arms of the Austrian Empire adopted by Francis I in 1804.

  • Francis I, Emperor of Austria 1804 1835: formerly Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor ( Family Tree)
  • Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria 1835 1848
  • Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 1848 1916.
  • Charles I, Emperor of Austria 1916 1918. He died in exile in 1922. His wife was of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

File:Wappen Habsburg-Lothringen Schild.svg|Small (personal) Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine adopted by Emperor Francis II. It shows (left to right) the arms of Habsburg, which had all but been abandoned in favor of Austria when the Habsburgs acquired Austria, the Arms of Austria, and the Arms of Lorraine. File:Habsburg Personal Arms Ferdinand I.PNG|Personal Arms of Ferdinand I with the Habsburg_Lothringen shield overall; showing quarters for Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia and Lodomeria, Milan and Venice (the Kingdom of Lombardy). File:Habsburg Personal Arms Franz Joseph and Charles.PNG|Personal Arms of the Emperors Franz Joseph and Charles. These were also assigned to cadet members of the Habsburg dynasty with differencing. They show overall the Habsburg-Lothringen shield; quarters are shown for for Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia and Lodomeria, and the ancient arms of the (arch)duchy of lower Austria (the eagles on blue) make their re-appearance. The Italian quarters for Milan and Venice are no longer present showing the Habsburg loss of their Italian territories.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany

75px

  • Francis Stephen 1737 1765 (later Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor)

Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification.

  • Peter Leopold 1765 1790 (later Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor)
  • Ferdinand III 1790 1800, 1814 1824 ( Family Tree)
  • Leopold II 1824 1849, 1849 1859
  • Ferdinand IV 1859 1860
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Tuscany line, post monarchy

75px

  • Ferdinand IV 1860 1908
  • Archduke Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1908 1942
  • Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1942 1948
  • Archduke Gottfried, Prince of Tuscany 1948 1984
  • Archduke Leopold Franz, Prince of Tuscany 1948 1993
  • Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1993 Present

See Line of succession to the Tuscan Throne

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Dukes of Modena

75px The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification.

  • Francis IV 1814 1831, 1831 1846 ( Family Tree)
  • Francis V 1846 1848, 1849 1859
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Modena line, post monarchy

75px

  • Francis V (1859 1875)
  • Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este (1875 1914)
  • Karl, Archduke of Austria-Este (1914 1917)
  • Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este (1917 1996)
  • Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este (1996 Present)

File:Armoiries Autriche-Este 1803.svg|Ferdinand of Habsbourg, archduke of Austria, and duke of Modena and Reggio (1803-1806). File:Armoiries Autriche-Este 1814.svg|Francis IV, archduke of Austria, and duke of Modena and Reggio(1814-1846). File:Armoiries Autriche-Este 1846.svg|Francis V, archduke of Austria, and duke of Modena and Reggio (1846-1859). File:Armoiries Autriche-Este 1875.svg|Francis Ferdinand, archduke of Austria-Este, and Crown Prince. File:Armoiries Autriche-Este 1914.svg|Robert, archduke of Austria-Este.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Empress consort of France
  • Marie Louise of Austria 1810 1814
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma

The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favour.

  • Maria Luisa 1814 1847 ( Family Tree)
House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico

Coat of Arms of the Mexican Empire adopted by Maximilian I in 1864 Maximilian, the adventurous second son of Archduke Franz Karl, was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium and a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in "Cerro de las Campanas" in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Ju rez.

  • Maximilian I (1864 1867) ( Family Tree)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Heads of the House of Habsburg (post-monarchy)

Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished. Current personal arms of the head of the house of Habsburg, claiming only the personal title of Archduke

  • Charles I (1918 1922) ( Family Tree)
  • Otto von Habsburg (1922 2007)
  • Zita of Bourbon-Parma, guardian, (1922 1930)
  • Karl von Habsburg, (2007 present)

see Line of succession to the Austro-Hungarian throne

Burials

Kings of Hungary

The kingship of Hungary remained in the Habsburg family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited (Hungary was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs,as "Palatine"of Hungary, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary are listed separately. 75px 75px

Albertine line: Kings of Hungary

  • Albert, king of Hungary 1437 1439
  • Ladislaus V Posthumus, King of Hungary 1444 1457

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary

  • Ferdinand I, king of Hungary 1526 1564
  • Maximilian I, king of Hungary 1563 1576
  • Rudolf I, king of Hungary 1572 1608
  • Matthias II, king of Hungary 1608 1619
  • Ferdinand II, king of Hungary 1618 1637
  • Ferdinand III, king of Hungary 1625 1657
  • Ferdinand IV, king of Hungary 1647 1654
  • Leopold I, king of Hungary 1655 1705
  • Joseph I, king of Hungary 1687 1711
  • Charles III, king of Hungary 1711 1740

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary

75px

  • Maria Theresa, queen of Hungary 1741 1780
  • Joseph II, king of Hungary 1780 1790
  • Leopold II, king of Hungary 1790 1792
  • Francis, king of Hungary 1792 1835
  • Ferdinand V, king of Hungary and Bohemia 1835 1848
  • Francis Joseph I, king of Hungary 1867 1916
  • Charles IV, king of Hungary 1916 1918

Kings of Bohemia

75px 90px The kingship of Bohemia was from 1306 a position elected by its nobles. As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until rule of the Ferdinand I Habsburgs didn't gain hereditary accession to the throne and were shifted by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately.

Main line

  • Rudolph I, king of Bohemia 1306 1307

Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia

  • Albert, king of Bohemia 1437 1439
  • Ladislaus Posthumus, king of Bohemia 1453 1457

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia

  • Ferdinand I, king of Bohemia 1526 1564
  • Maximilian I, king of Bohemia 1563 1576
  • Rudolph II, king of Bohemia 1572 1611
  • Matthias, king of Bohemia 1611 1618
  • Ferdinand II, king of Bohemia 1621 1637
  • Ferdinand III, king of Bohemia 1625 1657
  • Ferdinand IV, king of Bohemia 1647 1654
  • Leopold I, king of Bohemia 1655 1705
  • Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1687 1711
  • Charles VI, king of Bohemia 1711 1740
  • Maria Theresa, queen of Bohemia 1743 1780

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia

From the accession of Maria Theresa, the kingship of Bohemia became united with the Austrian possessions.

  • Joseph II, king of Bohemia 1780 1790
  • Leopold II, king of Bohemia 1790 1792
  • Francis, king of Bohemia 1792 1835
  • Ferdinand V, king of Bohemia 1835 1848
  • Francis Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1848 1916
  • Charles III, king of Bohemia 1916 1918

Queens Consort of France

From the 16th through the 18th centuries, the greatest non-Habsburg power in Europe was usually France. As a result, in usually futile attempts to either unite Europe under the Habsburg family or to prevent French enmity, Habsburg daughters were wed to successive kings of France.

Pre-division Habsburgs

  • Eleanor of Austria, Infanta of Spain (1498 1558), wife of King Francis I of France.

Austrian Habsburgs

  • Elisabeth of Austria (1554 1592), wife of King Charles IX of France

Spanish Habsburgs

  • Anne of Austria, infanta of Spain, (1601 1666), wife of King Louis XIII
  • Maria Theresa of Spain (1638 1683), wife of King Louis XIV

Habsburg-Lorraine

  • Marie Antoinette (1755 1793), wife of King Louis XVI
  • Marie Louise (1791 1847), second wife of Emperor Napoleon I.

Queens Consort of Portugal

Due to its proximity (geographic, strategic and religious) the Habsburgs always consolidated their alliances with the Portuguese Royal House of Aviz, which gave them this Kingdom in 1580. When the Braganzas expelled the Spanish Habsburgs (1640), new alliances were set-up, this time with the Austrian Habsburgs.

Pre-division Habsburgs

  • Eleanor of Austria, Infanta of Spain (1498 1558), third wife of King Manuel I of Portugal. When she became a widow, she remarried, this time with King Francis I of France.
  • Catherine of Austria, Infanta of Spain (1507 1578), wife of King John III of Portugal

Austrian Habsburgs

  • Marie Anne, Archduchess of Austria (1683 1754), wife of King John V of Portugal

Habsburg-Lorraine

  • Maria Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria (1797 1826), first wife of Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, also known as Pedro IV, King of Portugal. Marie Leopoldina was Marie Louise's younger sister.

Empress Consort of Brazil

Habsburg-Lorraine

  • Marie Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria (1797 1826), first wife of Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, also known as Pedro IV, King of Portugal. Maria Leopoldina was also briefly Queen consort of Portugal, see above. She was politically active and acted as regent of the Empire of Brazil during her husband's absence from the imperial court in Rio de Janeiro. She had direct participation in the Brazilian Independence. Her son Dom Pedro II ruled Brazil as emperor and her daughter Maria II ruled Portugal as Queen.

Arms of Dominion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

The arms of dominion began to take on a life of their own in the 19th century as the idea of the state as independent from the Habsburg dynasty took root. They are the national arms as borne by a sovereign in his capacity as head of state and represent the state as separate from the person of the monarch or his dynasty. Since the states, territories, and nationalities represented were in many cases only united to the Austro-Hungarian Empire by their historic loyalty to the head of the house of Habsburg as hereditary lord, these full ("grand") arms of dominion of Austria-Hungary reflect the complex political infrastructure that was necessarily to accommodate the many different nationalities and groupings within the empire after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Shield of the Austrian part of the empire(1867-1915). Enumeration

After 1867 the eastern part of the empire, also called Transleitania, was mostly under the domination fo the Kingdom of Hungary. Their shield integrated the arms of the kingdom of Hungary, with two angels and supporters and the crown of St. Stephen with the territories that were subject to it:

The Kingdom of Dalmatia, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, the Kingdom of Slavonia, the Great Principality of Transilvania, the Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 1915), la City of Rijeka and in the center, the Kingdom of Hungary.

The western or Austrian part of the empire, Cisleithania, continued using the shield of the Empire in 1815 but with the seals of various member territories located around the central shield. Paradoxically, some of these coats of arms belonged to the territories that were part of the Hungarian part of the empire and shield. This shield, the most frequently used until 1915, was known as the middle shield. There was also the small shield, with just the personal arms of the Habsburgs, as used in 1815.

I II III IV V
35px 55px 55px 45px 60px
King of Hungary King of Galicia and Lodomeria Archduke of Austria Duke of Salzburg Duchy of Styria
VI VII VIII
60px 60px 60px 60px 60px
Duchy of Tirol Duchy of Carinthia and Carniola Margraviate of Moravia and Duke of Silesia
IX X XI
45px 65px 60px
Great Principality of Transilvania King of Illyria King of Bohemia

Version of 1915

In 1915, in the middle of World War I, Austria-Hungary adopted a heraldic composition uniting the shield that was used in the Hungarian part, also known as the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, with a new version of the medium shield of the Austrian part as depicted above in the section on the main line of the Emperors of Austria.

Before, the arms of the different territories of the Austrian part of the Empire (heraldry was added to some areas not shown in the previous version and left to the Hungarian part) appeared together in the shield positioned on the double-headed eagle coat of arms of the Austrian Empire as an inescutcheon. The eagle was inside a shield with a gold field. The latter shield was supported by two griffins and was topped by the Austrian Imperial Crown (previously these items were included only in the large shield). Then, shown in the center of both arms of dominion, as an inescutcheon to the inescutcheon, is the small shield, i.e. personal arms, of the Habsburgs. All this was surrounded by the collar Order of the Golden Fleece[13][14]

Middle Coat of arms of the Austrian part of the Empire in 1915. It shows as an center shield (inescutcheon) the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine over the arms of dominions of the Habsburg lands. It usually had the personal arms of Habsburg-Lorraine in the center.

In the heraldic composition of 1915, the shields of the two foci of the empire, Austria and Hungary, were brought together. The griffin supporter on the left was added for Austria and an angel on the right as a supporter for Hungary. The center featured the personal arms of the Habsburgs (Habsburg, Austria and Lorraine). This small shield was topped with a royal crown and surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, below which was the Military Order of Maria Theresa, below which was the collars of the Orders of St. Stephen's and Leopold. At the bottom was the motto that read "AC INDIVISIBILITER INSEPARABILITER" ("indivisible and inseparable"). There were other simplified versions which did not have the supports depicted, and the simple shields of Austria and Hungary. These were the arms of the Empire of Austria with an inescutcheon of Austria, and the Arms of Hungary (with chequer of Croatia at the tip).

Middle Common Coat of Arms of the Austro-Hugarian Empire in 1915 showing most of the larger possessions of the Austrian Empire (left shield) and the Kingdom of Hungary (right shield). The personal arms of the Habsburg-Lorraines is in the center. The collection of territories that acknowledged the head of the Habsburgs as personal ruler shown by this representation put the Empire at a distinct disadvantage in comparison with the unified nation states that it shared the continent of Europe with.

Austrian Lands
Shield Partition Territory
230px230px
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX
King of Galicia and LodomeriaKing of BohemiaKing of DalmatiaDuke of Upper and Lower SilesiaDuke of SalzburgMargraviate of MoraviaDuke of TirolDuke of BucovinaProvince of VorarlbergMargrave of IstriaCount of GoriziaCount of GradiscaProvince of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjunto)City of TriesteArchduke of Lower AustriaArchduke of Upper AustriaDuke of StyriaCarniolaDuke of CarinthiaArchduke of Austria
Territories of the crown of St. Stephen
Shield Partition Territory
borderborder
I II III IV V VI VII
King of Dalmatia (the Hungarian part)])Kingdom of CroatiaKingdom of SlavoniaGrand Prince of TransilvaniaProvince of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Conjunto)City of FiumeKing of Hungary
Personal Shield of they Dynasty
Shield Partition Significance
140px
I II III
Count of HabsburgArchduke of AustriaDuke of Lorraine

Gallery

260px 260px 240px
Arms of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1867 1915) Arms of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1915 1918) Small Arms of Austria (Cisleithania)(1805 1918)
160px 260px 250px
Simple Arms of Cisleithania (1915 1918) Personal Arms of the Emperor Franz Josef (1848 1916) Simple Arms of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire. (1915 1918)

In popular culture

In the NBC sitcom 30 Rock episode "Black Tie" a "Gerhardt Habsburg" is presented as the last living member of the family. Gerhardt is wheelchair-bound and appears to be strongly afflicted with hereditary frailties and multiple medical conditions. In the episode the 25th birthday party for the prince is termed the social event of the year in New York City. Unfortunately the prince is inadvertently served champagne, and having a metabolism that is unable to handle grapes, Gerhardt dies, thus making the house of Habsburg extinct.

See also

  • A.E.I.O.U.
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Austrian Empire
  • Dukes of Lorraine family tree
  • Grand Duchy of Tuscany
  • Habsburg family tree
  • Habsburg Monarchy
  • Habsburg Spain
  • Kings of Germany family tree. The Habsburgs were the 8th dynasty to rule Germany and were related by marriage to all the others.
  • Line of succession to the Tuscan Throne
  • List of rulers of Austria
  • List of rulers of Lorraine
  • Royal intermarriage
  • Mandibular prognathism ("Habsburg lip")
  • Mayerling Incident
  • Ottoman Habsburg wars
  • Thirty Years' War

Notes

Further reading

  • Brewer-Ward, Daniel A. The House of Habsburg: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Empress Maria Theresia. Clearfield, 1996.
  • Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. Sphere Books Limited, London, 1970. (first published by Longmans in 1963)
  • Evans, Robert J. W. The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550 1700: An Interpretation. Clarendon Press, 1979.
  • McGuigan, Dorothy Gies. The Habsburgs. Doubleday, 1966.
  • Palmer, Alan. Napole n and Marie Louise Ariel Mexico, 2003.
  • Wandruszka, Adam. The House of Habsburg: Six Hundred Years of a European Dynasty. Doubleday, 1964 (Greenwood Press, 1975).

External links

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af:Habsburg als:Habsburger ar: an:Casa d'Habsburgo az:Habsburqlar s lal si zh-min-nan:Habsburg be: be-x-old: bg: bar:Habsburga bs:Habsburg (dinastija) br:Tiegezh Habsburg ca:Dinastia dels Habsburg cs:Habsburkov cy:Habsburg da:Habsburg de:Habsburg et:Habsburgid el: es:Casa de Habsburgo eo:Habsburgoj eu:Habsburgo fa: fr:Habsbourg gl:Habsburgo ko: hr:Habsburg id:Wangsa Habsburg is:Habsborgarar it:Casa d'Asburgo he: ka: sw:Habsburg la:Domus Habsburgensis lv:Habsburgi lb:Habsburg lt:Habsburg dinastija hu:Habsburg-csal d mk: arz: nl:Habsburg ja: no:Huset Habsburg nn:Habsburg pnb: pl:Habsburgowie pt:Casa de Habsburgo ro:Casa de Habsburg ru: simple:Habsburg sk:Habsburgovci sl:Habsbur ani sr: sh:Habsburg fi:Habsburg sv:Habsburg th: tr:Habsburg Hanedan uk: vi:H Habsburg zh-classical: vls:Uus van Habsburg zh:






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