In typography, emphasis is the exaggeration of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text to emphasize them.
Example of blackletter emphasis using the technique of changing fonts
- Methods and use
- Font styles and variants
- Letter spacing
- Punctuation marks
- Recommendations and requirements
Methods and use
The most common methods in Western typography fall under the general technique of emphasis through a change or modification of font: italics, boldface and small caps. Other methods include the alteration of letter case and spacing as well as color and additional graphic marks.
Roman emphasis example
Font styles and variants
The human eye is very receptive to differences in brightness within a text body. One can therefore differentiate between types of emphasis according to whether the emphasis changes the blackness of text.
A means of emphasis that does not have much effect on blackness is the use of italics, where the text is written in a script style, or the use of oblique, where the vertical orientation of all letters is slanted to the left or right. With one or the other of these techniques (usually only one is available for any typeface), words can be highlighted without making them stand out much from the rest of the text (inconspicuous stressing). Traditionally, this is used for marking passages that have a different context, such as words from foreign languages, book titles, and the like.
By contrast, bold font weight makes text darker than the surrounding text. With this technique, the emphasized text strongly stands out from the rest; it should therefore be used to highlight certain keywords that are important to the subject of the text, for easy visual scanning of text. For example, printed dictionaries often use boldface for their keywords, and the names of entries can conventionally be marked in bold.
Small capitals are also used for emphasis, especially for the first line of a section, sometimes accompanied by or instead of a drop cap, or for personal names as in bibliographies.
If the text body is typeset in a serif typeface, it is also possible to highlight words by setting them in a sans serif face. This practice is often considered archaic in Latin script, but some professional modern font families are designed to come with matching serif and sans-serif variants. In Japanese typography, due to the reduced legibility of heavier Minch type, the practice remains common.
The house styles of many publishers in the United States use capitalization or all-uppercase letters to emphasize
- chapter and section headings;
- newspaper headlines;
- publication titles;
- warning messages;
- word of important meaning.
Capitalization is used much less commonly today by British publishers, and usually only for book titles.
All-uppercase letters are a common form of emphasis where the medium lacks support for boldface, such as old typewriters, plain-text email, SMS and other text-messaging systems.
In blackletter typesetting and typewriter manuscripts, a different means of emphasis is often used. To achieve a variance in blackness, instead of making the letters darker, one would increase the spacing between them. This resulted in an effect reverse to boldface: the emphasized text becomes lighter than its environment. This letter-spacing is referred to as sperren in German which could be translated as "spacing out": in typesetting with letters of lead, the spacing would be achieved by inserting additional non-printing slices of metal between the types, usually about an eighth of an em wide. On typewriters a full space was used between the letters of an emphasised word and also one before and one after the word.
An example of sperrsatz. Note wider spacing of the word gesperrt ( letterspaced ).
For blackletter type boldface was not feasible, since the letters were very dark in their standard format, and on (most) typewriters only a single type was available. Although letterspacing was common, sometimes different typefaces (e.g. Schwabacher inside Fraktur), underlining or colored, usually red ink were used instead.
Since blackletter type remained in use in German speaking parts of Europe much longer than anywhere else, the custom of letterspacing is sometimes seen as specific to German, although it has been used with other languages, including English. Especially in German, however, this kind of emphasis may also be used within modern type, e.g. where italics already serve another semantic purpose (as in linguistics) and where no further means of emphasis (e.g. small caps) are easily available or feasible. Its professional use today is very limited in German and spacing is only still used as a means of emphasis in typographic media where only one (monospaced) font is available, e.g. in typewritten communication or on text-only computer terminals.
German orthographic (or rather typographic) rules require that the mandatory blackletter ligatures are retained. That means, t, ch, ck, and tz are still stuck together just as the letter , whereas optional, additional ligatures like ff and i are broken up with a (small) space in between. Other writing systems did not develop such sophisticated rules since spacing was so uncommon therein.
In Cyrillic typography, it also used to be common to emphasize words using letterspaced type. This practice for Cyrillic has become obsolete with the availability of Cyrillic italic and small capital fonts.
Professional Western typesetting usually does not employ lines under letters for emphasis within running text, because it is considered too distracting. Underlining is, however, often used with typewriters, in handwriting and with some non-alphabetic scripts. It is also used for secondary emphasis, i.e. marks added by the reader and not the author.
In Arabic, it is traditional to emphasize text by drawing a line over the letters.
In Chinese, emphasis in body text is supposed to be indicated by using an "emphasis mark" ( ), which is a dot placed under each character to be emphasized. This is still taught in schools, but in practice it is not usually done, probably due to the difficulty of doing this in most computer software. Methods used for emphasis in western texts but inappropriate for Chinese, for example underlining and setting text in artificially slanted type (frequently incorrectly called "italics"), are often used instead.
In Japanese texts, when katakana would be inappropriate, emphasis is indicated by "emphasis dots" ( or ) placed above the kanji and any accompanying furigana in horizontal writing and to the right in vertical writing. Japanese also has an "emphasis line" ( ) used in a similar manner, but less frequently.
In Korean texts, a dot is placed above each hangul syllable block or hanja to be emphasized.
In Armenian the ( e t) sign is used.
In Western usage it is becoming increasingly popular to use quotation marks or asterisks for emphasis (as in " fresh fish" or "*really* bad"), although this is still frowned upon by style guides.
Important words in a text may be colored differently to others. For example, many dictionaries use a different color for headwords, and some religious texts color the words of deities red. In Ethiopic script, red is used analogously to italics in Latin text.
Post-print emphasis added by a reader is often done with highlighters which add a bright background color to usual black text.
With both italics and boldface, the emphasis is correctly achieved by temporarily replacing the current typeface. Professional typographic systems, including most modern computers, would therefore not simply tilt letters to the right to achieve italics (that is instead referred to as slanting or oblique), print them twice or darker for boldface, or scale majuscules to the height of middle-chamber minuscules (like x and o) for small-caps, but instead use entirely different typefaces that achieve the effect. The letter w , for example, looks quite different in italic compared to upright.
As a result, typefaces therefore have to be supplied at least fourfold (with computer systems, usually as four font files): as regular, bold, italic, and bold italic to provide for all combinations. Professional typefaces sometimes offer even more variations for popular fonts, with varying degrees of blackness. Only if such fonts are not available should the effect of italic or boldface be imitated by algorithmically altering the original font.
Recommendations and requirements
Larry Trask states: "It is possible to write an entire word or phrase in capital letters in order to emphasize it", but adds that "On the whole, though, it is preferable to express emphasis, not with capital letters, but with italics."
According to North Korean writing rules, names of leaders (Kim Il-sung) and (Kim Jong-il) must always be set off in bold.
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