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Clan of Ostoja
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Clan of Ostoja

Ostoja
Ostoja

The Clan of Ostoja (Latin: Ostoya) was a powerful group of Knights and Lords in late medieval Europe. The clan encompassed several families in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Upper Hungary (Slovakia), Hungary, Transylvania, Belorus, Ukraine and Prussia. The Clan crest is the Ostoja coat of arms[1][2] and the battle cry is Ostoja or Hostoja.

The historical origins and the organizational principles of the Clan are imprecisely known. It had been traditionally presumed that the clan had extensive blood relatedness, which was supported by geographic nesting, particularly in Poland. However, historical records confirm that the clan co-opted at least some of its members.[3] Furthermore, DNA analysis of present living members of the clan shows that Ostoja families were not generally blood related to each other. It is unclear however what proportion of clan membership was co-opted, and thus to what extent the clan should be considered an hereditary lineage, in distinction to a rallying banner, but the latter concept seems scientifically more appropriate.

During the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the clan adopted several Lithuanian and Belorussian families and transformed into a Clan of Landlords, Senators and Nobility.[3] Members of the Clan closely cooperated, often living close to each other. They held high positions, and held a great amount of land and properties in both Commonwealth and in Upper Hungary (Slovakia) in medieval times, including many great gothic style castles.[4] Members of the Clan of Ostoja ruled several feudal lordships in Upper Hungary between 1390 and 1434 and Transylvania in 1395-1401 and again in 1410-1414, during the time of Stibor of Stiboricz.[5][6][7] A line of the Clan, which included relatives of Stibor of Stiboricz who followed him to Hungary, is included in Hungarian aristocracy as Imperial Barons (Reichfreiherr) of the Hungarian kingdom in 1389. Stibor of Stiboricz and his son, Stibor of Beckov were both members of Order of the Dragon.[8] At the same time in Poland between 1390 and 1460, several members of the Clan of Ostoja ruled Voivodeships and cities as castellans, voivods and senators on behalf of the King and the clan was therefore in control of the Duchies of Pomerania, Kuyavia-Pomerania, and partly Greater Poland, which were a considerable part of the Kingdom of Poland at that time.[4]

The clan was involved in every war Poland participated in, and during the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth they can be seen in every movement and uprising, fighting against foreign forces. The clan put high value on education and were, in general, good administrators of their properties as well as the properties of the King (starostwo). They were also inventors, poets, scientists, and great diplomats.

Contents


Background

Polish clans and surnames

Polish clans, while having many members who are related by male-line origin genealogy, also have some genealogically unrelated families, either because of a formal adoption upon ennoblement, or because of a misattribution petrified in heraldic literature. These disparate elements were brought together in the Polish heraldic tradition by bearing the same coat of arms and using the clan name.

In contrast with other European countries, medieval Polish clans were unusually powerful compared to the Polish monarchy. Although each Clan was in charge of certain territory, each Clan had family members in many different areas of Poland, who would join and fight together under the same coat of arms. The most powerful member was usually also the head of the Clan.[9]

Polish family names were appended with cki or ski in reference to the name of their properties; for example, if a person named Chelmski acquired the town of Poniec, he would change his surname to Poniecki.[10] Furtheremore, Jerzykowski (de Jerzykowo) that owned property of Baranowo changed his surmane to Baranowski (de Baranowo) and Baranowski that owned property of Chrzastowo change the surname to Chrzastowski (de Chrzastowo). The medieval Ostoja Clan seems to have been situated in more than 163 original nests and divergent locations, reflected in various surnames.[11] A Clan become partly a name for the family members with different surnames.

However, the Blociszewski and Ilowiecki families, as many others, appear not to have a shared genetic origin although both families lived side by side during medieval time and the reason of that is that[12] Clan members could help both military and in the court, supporting each other in many different way.[13][14]

DNA of Ostoja

The Ostoja Clan DNA project on FTDNA shows that Ostoja families are generally not blood related to each other. As the geographic composition of early family nests show small islands on the map of Poland, it have been earlier presumed that most families on those islands are family related. Part of the families have same origin when changing the name after new property. In most, those changes have been recorded between 1400 and 1500.[15]

Results on today living lines of the Clan show that Ostoja have been a battle cry for certain group of knights in medieval time that settled down close to each other. The DNA results match in several cases with other old knight families in different part of Europe, many of those early genetic matches can be found in England, Scotland and Ireland with families that are assumed to have records back to the Norman conquest of England year 1066.

Haplogroups found in the tests of the project are different with Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) dominating. Based on 10 different tests (Y67-67 markers) of old medieval lines of Ostoja, the composition is following:

Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) (slavic origin)

  • 1 result matching east-north slavic origin with subgroup E, found in Lithuania and Latvia.
  • 2 results matching western-slavic origin, south west of Poland, Slovakia.
  • 1 result matching almost in all cases families in England, Scotland, Ireland and Norway.
  • 1 result matching both slavic families and those to be found in England and Scotland.

Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) (Western Europe)

Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA) (Scandinavia, Western Europe - I2b1)

Haplogroup N (Y-DNA) (Ugro-Finnic origin)

  • 1 result matching Rurikid lines with genetic distans of 18-20. Mostly in Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania.

The 2 results matching western-slavic origin are related to each other and origin from same ancestor around 700 years back in time (genetic distance 7 comparing Y67 test on FTDNA). Match in specific markers show that there is no doubt about relation between those families.[16] Earliest notes about this line of Ostoja are about Jakusz de Blociszewo in 1370, the voivode/duke of Lviv.

Chronology

Legendary origin

Ostoja coat of arms (bottom row, second from left) in the Gelre Armorial.
Ostoja coat of arms (bottom row, second from left) in the Gelre Armorial.
According to one legend,[17][18] the Coat of arms were given in 1058 to a brave feudal knight, (Colonel) Ostoja, by Boles aw II the Generous. However, there may be another, older origin: Ostoja family members often used the name of Stibor (Scibor, Czcibor), on the basis of a family origin from Czcibor, victorious in the Battle of Cedynia brother of Mieszko I of Poland[19] first crowned King of Poland year 966. Although this legend is not confirmed, several sources claim that the documents that would have verified this legend were destroyed in World War II.

Piekosinski[3] indicates that the early crest of Ostoja was almost identical with the Piast dynasty crest. It has two "moons" and a cross, and the crest of the Piast dynasty was the very similar, lacking the "moon" on top.

Ostoja's have a Dragon on the helmet[20] and it is not the same Dragon as in the Przegonia coat of arms. Although Przegonia most probably origin from Ostoja, the Przegonia dragon comes from the story about brave Ostoja that was granted the dragon on his helmet because he had defeated the Moravians with such anger and ferocity. Another legend tells however that the Ostoja coat of arms origin from another brave Knight, Jan de Jani of Ostoja, first Polish voivode/duke of Pomerania and Gda sk. Chased by a group Teutonic Knights, he had succeeded in crossing a river on horse despite being clad in full armor, and then raised his voice so the Lord would hear him and said "Ostalem" which means "I still stay" from which comes the name of Ostoja.[21] However, this legend is undermined by the term "Ostoja" being known far before the time of Jan de Jani.

Early history

The earliest historical records that mention the Clan use the name Stibor, which derives from Czcibor (Scibor, Czcibor, Cibor, Czesbor, Cidebur)[22] which comes from czcic (to honor) and borzyc (battle), thus denoting a person who Battles for Honor or who is the Defender of Honor . Another popular Ostoja name was Moscic.

An early Clan location is a village 7 km north of Inowroclaw, which in 1065 was called Szczibersko, and is now known as ciborze.[23] The village lies at what was the northeast border of the Kingdom, suggesting that the Clan there may have served as border defenders.

By 1025, when Mieszko II Lambert was crowned, the Kingdom of Poland had borders which resemble modern day Poland. Many landlords (comes, comites) were against centralized power in the Kingdom. Rivalry arose between the Lords of Greater Poland, whose capital was Pozna , and those of Lesser Poland, whose main city was Krak w.[24][25] The Stibors are thought to have been a mainstay of the Piast dynasty, Poland's first ruling dynasty. The Piasts[19] were able to expand Poland during the 10th and the beginning of the 11th century. Clan members were appointed commanding officers of the army units that protected and administered these new counties. The expansion of Poland and of Clan properties seem to have gone hand in hand; for example, when Kuyavia and Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) were incorporated, the Clan expanded into the same area. Records refer to Stibor of Ostoja as Comes of Poniec in 1099, and also refer to another Stibor as Comes of Jebleczna.[26]

According to Tadeusz Manteuffel and Andrew Gorecki[27] the Clan consisted of people related by blood and descending from a common ancestor in early medieval time. Before the time of Mieszko I of Poland that united different tribes, the tribes where ruled by the Clan. Ancestors of ruling Ostoja family descended from past tribal dynasties and become in time mighty Lords or dukes almost equal to ruling prince family. During the time of Boles aw I Chrobry (967 17 June 1025) and Boles aw III Wrymouth clans included free mercenaries from different part of Europe but specially from Normandy to defend their properties and Country. Original nest of Ostoja family is situated in Sciborze (Scibersko), Kujawy and the Clan expanded in north direction to Pomerania during the formation of Polish state. To be able to defend their teritory, Ostoja family hired free mercenaries that during the time of Boles aw I Chrobry was paid for their service by the Lord in command that employed them. However, during the time of Boles aw III Wrymouth mercenaries received land as payment for their service. This land was first given to the Lord that was in command and ruled territory and then the Lord divided the land and gave it to those knights that served them well. This explain why properties of Clan members where so close to each other.

The DNA tests of living members of the Clan of Ostoja show different origin and since free mercenaries was hired mostly from Normandy it also explain their blood relation to families that moved to England and Scotland after Norman conquest 1066. The DNA of original Moscic-Stibor family that ruled part of Kujawy during the time of early Piast dynasty is still not confirmed.

The army that served under the command of duke Moscic-Stibor was a mix of knights of slavic origin and of mercenaries from Normandy and during XII century Ostoja was a battle cry of those that was part of this army unit but during XIII century it become name that was used by all knights that served the Lord in command. Early symbol of ruling family developed in XIII-XIV century to coat of arms when the concept of heraldry came into prominent use in Poland. Knights began to have their shields and other equipment decorated with marks of identification. These marks and colors evolved into a way to identify the bearer as a member of a certain family, clan, or allegiance to a feudal lord. The lords, and their knights and all their followers displayed the lord's coat of arms on pennants, shields, and battle dress. Families and clans of families were identified by these symbols.

Late medieval period

Because of several conflicts, the seniority principle was broken and the country divided into several principalities for over 200 years[28] until Wladyslaw I the Elbow-high[29](Lokietek) was crowned King of Poland in 1320. Instead of duchies in the hands of the Piast dynasty, those duchies turned into several Voivodeship where Voivode (Duke, Herzog, Count Palatine, Overlord) was appointed by the King and given to loyal landlords.[30][31] The last King of Poland from the Piast dynasty was the son of Wladyslaw I, Casimir III the Great, who died in 1370.

The Clan of Ostoja continued, during that time, to expand their land and was granted several high offices. Krakow replaced Poznan, the capital of Greater Poland, as the capital of Poland in 1039. The Clan of Ostoja expanded their land possessions toward the south to settle in the voivodeship of Krak w, Cz stochowa and Sandomierz in the Lesser Poland region of Poland. Documents[32][33] tells about:

  • Moscic of Ostoja de Magna Kozmin was Duke of Pozna , ruling Greater Poland 1242-52. He was head of the main Ostoja line and in possession of the family nest Sciborzyce among others. His son was owner of towns Dyn w and Rzesz w but this Ostoja line died out since he only had a daughter, who later married Nicolaus de Zerkowo of the Doliwa Clan.
  • Piotr of Ostoja was Lord of the regality (starosta) of Sandomierz in 1259, and Miroslaw of Ostoja was Castellan of Sandomierz in 1270.
  • Jan from Bobin was Treasurer and Chamberlain of Krakow in 1270 and Mikolaj of Ostoja was Chamberlain of Krakow in 1286.
  • Comes Marcin of Ostoja in 1304 and in the family property of Chelm and Wola just outside Krakow city, furthermore there are notes about Comes Dobieslaw, Comes Sanzimir and Comes Imram, who were all great Lords belonging to the Ostoja family.
  • Mikolaj of Ostoja hold high office as Standard-bearer of Inowroclaw 1311 and of Wyszogr d 1315, J drzej of Ostoja was Castellan of Poznan 1343.
  • Moscic Stiboricz of Ostoja was Duke of Gniewkowo in 1353 and Lord of regality Starosta of Brzesko County 1368. He was from the line of Ostoja family that become senior line after the line of Duke Moscic de Magna Kozmin extinct, owner of family nest Sciborzyce and also father to future great Lord Stibor of Stiboricz.
  • In 1257 the Clan of Ostoja founded the church of St. Martin in Krakow together with the Gryf Clan family (see Gryf coat of arms).

Mongol and Tatar states in Europe were common at that time. In 1259, Poland faced second Tatar raid that was supported by Russian and Lithuanian forces. The defense of the town and castle of Sandomierz was in the command by Lord Piotr de Krepy of Ostoja. As the defense did not receive help from outside, the situation was hopeless for the defending side and finally Piotr and his brother Zbigniew were killed. The legend says that their blood then run down to the Vistula river and turned it red. A legend of the third Tatar raid tells how Lady Halina of Krepy, daughter of Lord Piotr of Sandomierz Castle[34] used a secret underground tunnel from the castle and duped the Tatars by telling them that she could lead them back through the secret tunnel right to the heart of the Castle.[35] The Tatar side verified that she had come through the secret tunnel, but she guided them deep inside the tunnel which was an extensive maze, and then released a white pigeon that she had with her to use as a prearranged signal. When the pigeon found its way out, the Polish closed the tunnel, trapping the Tatars.[36]

Poland during the reign of Wladyslaw II. Jagiello
Poland during the reign of Wladyslaw II. Jagiello

Empire of Ostoja 1370-1460

As Poland was under pressure from the west from the rising power of the Teutonic Knights, Poland turned east to ally with Lithuania. In 1386 Ladislaus II Jogaila (Wladyslaw II Jagiello) was crowned as King of Poland and his brother Vytautas (Witold) become Grand Duke of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1410 Poland and Lithuania broke Teutonic domination in Prussia at the Battle of Grunwald and Tannenberg. The Union of Horodlo of 1413 declared the intent that the two nations cooperate. 47 Lithuanian families were adopted into 47 Polish clans, sharing the same coat of arms. This expansion eventually led to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which was for a time the biggest confederated country in Europe. The Clan of Ostoja did not participate in the Union of Horodlo.[13]

The Ostoja expansion went in parallel with the expansion of Poland, members being found in Lithuania, Belarus, Prussia/ Pomerania and Ukraine. Some families were adopted into the clan after 1413.[37] In Pomerania, the powerful knight family of de Jani (Janski of Ostoja) ruled the duchy and became the first Voivode of Gda sk and Pomerania in 1454.[38]

Jan D ugosz (1415–1480) was known as a Polish chronicle and was best known for Annales seu cronici incliti regni Poloniae (The Annals of Jan D ugosz), covering events in southeastern Europe, but also in Western Europe, from 965 to 1480. In this work, he described Ostoja's as brave and talkative.[39]

Between 1400-1450, many Ostojas attended the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, where Clan solidarity was very important.[40]

Around year 1400 the Ostoja families owned over 250[41][42] properties in Poland, mainly in the area of Greater Poland and Kujawy, Krak w County, Cz stochowa County and Sandomierz County with Krak w being the political center of Poland. As two families moved to Lithuania, one to Prussia and few more Lithuanian families was adopted including Russian Prince families like Palecki,[43] the Clan of Ostoja was standing on good economic and military ground. This together with high education and loyalty towards the Clan members made it possible to raise in power.

Poland

The list of offices that members of the Ostoja family held in the late medieval era[4] shows the power the Ostojas held, ruling a considerable part of Poland on the behalf of the King.

From the original nests and properties, members of the Clan of Ostoja created names of different branches of the Clan. All those properties and nest's can be found within borders of Poland of today. The expansion of the Clan went both east, south and north, in the beginning of the 15th century Ostoja families was also owning land in Pomerania, Prussia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moravia, Croatia, Transylvania, Hungary and Germany. However, the biggest land area that the Clan owned was to be found in Slovakia.[44]

The political and economical power of Ostoja's in Poland reached at the time the top. As Jan de Jani (Jan Janski or Jan de Turze) lead Prussian confederation together with Miko aj Szarlejski followed by excellent diplomatic work of Stibor de Poniec, the Clan was ruling the Duchies of Pomerania, Kujavia and partly Greater Poland. Adding the power entrusted by the King to Piotr Chelmski, Jan Chelmski, Piotr de Gaj or Miko aj B ociszewski, the Clan of Ostoja was among those that hold prime position in Poland at the time.[45][46][47]

Slovakia and Hungary

Transylvania, ruled by Stibor of Stiboricz
Transylvania, ruled by Stibor of Stiboricz

Connection between Poland and Hungary is dated to the 12th century when the Piast and rp d dynasty was cooperating.[13] From that time Royal families of both countries where family related through several marriages between ruling Houses. It was therefore easy to find Hungarian nobles in Poland and Polish nobles in Hungary and Slovakia. Abel Biel was the first of Ostoja's to serve on the Hungarian Court, he was also the first to receive land in Slovakia.[48]

Most of the Ostoja families supported the House of Anjou on Polish throne and when Luis I the Great entered the polish throne in 1370 after Casimir III the Great, it made it possible for the Clan of Ostoja to expand south.[49] Hungary at that time was a modern and expansive kingdom, after Italy it was the first European country where renaissance appeared. When Luis the Great died without a male heir some anarchy broke out in both the Kingdom of Poland and the Hungarian Empire.[50] The Ostoja families continued to support the House of Anjou on both Polish and Hungarian throne. This did however not happen since Poland chose to ally with Lithuania and elected Ladislaus Jogaila on Polish throne.[13]

Stibor of Stiboricz and Sigismund von Luxemburg

Drawing of the seal of Stibor of Stiboricz
Drawing of the seal of Stibor of Stiboricz
Stibor of Stiboricz (1347 1414) of the Clan of Ostoja, son of Moscic Stiboricz (Duke of Gniewkowo), held the position of Lord of regality (Starosta) of Brzesc as he also served Louis I of Hungary but when the King died, he lost the position as Starost of Brzesk because of his support the House of Anjou and left Poland for Hungary.[51] Although Stibor received office of Lord of the regality (Starost) of Kuyavia in 1383, he turned to help his friend Sigismund von Luxemburg (later Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor) on Hungarian throne 1386 and become his most loyal ally.[52]

Houses of Habsburg and Luxenburg in the Holy Roman Empire, 1273-1378
Houses of Habsburg and Luxenburg in the Holy Roman Empire, 1273-1378
Sigismund was the Prince of Brandenburg before rising to the Hungarian throne. He later became Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, Bohemia, Hungary (including Slovakia, Balcan states, Romania and Bulgarian land), Italian republics and Prince of Luxembourg. At the age of 13, he was sent to Krakow in order to study Polish language and customs. He married Mary, daughter of Luis the Great and became one of the most powerful Emperors in Europe.[53]

In Poland, as Stibor of Stiboricz recognized the competitors of Jogaila on Polish throne, he immediately entered Poland with an army of 12,000 men, commanded by Sigismund von Luxemburg, to assure that younger sister of Mary, Queen of Hungary, would mary Ladislaus Jogaila and end the battle for Polish Crown. 1384 Jadwiga was Crowned as Queen of Poland and in 1386 Jogaila married her and became King of Poland.[44]

Sigismund recognized Stibor of Stiboricz as his most loyal friend and adviser. In 1387 he granted Stibor the position as Master of Hungarian Court and also the Governor of Galicia (Eastern Europe). The King gave also Stibor exclusive right to receive high offices in the Empire. To avoid conflict with Hungarian Lords, Stibor was granted land and position mostly in Slovakia which was called Upper Hungary. Very soon, the amount of land, castles and nominations made Stibor the most powerful Lord in Slovakia. To be able to rule his "Kingdom", most talented family members and close family moved to Hungary and Slovakia. In 1395, Stibor become Duke of Transylvania, a nomination that made him Lord of almost half of Romania of today.[54]

In 1396 Sigismund led the combined armies of Christendom against the Ottoman Empire. The Christians were defeated at the Battle of Nicopolis. Stibor of Stiboricz, one of the generals and commanders of the army, rescued Sigismund, who was in great danger while retreating from the battlefield.[44]

When Stibor had left for Brzeg to follow the King's fianc e, Margarete to Hungary, his opponents, led by the Archbishop John Kanizsai and the Palatine Detre Bebek, demanded that the king should dismiss his foreign advisors and escepcially Stibor and his family of the Clan of Ostoja. When the King refused to comply with their demands, they brought him into captivity and deprived Stibor of his offices (28 April 1401). But Stibor and the Clan, returned with their army to, together with Nicholas II Garay, renounce the possession of most of castles and finally, the members of the Royal Council set the King free on 29 October 1401. Stibor remained the Emperors major adviser and he could maintain his possessions, as well. Shortly afterward, Stibor led the negotiations with the Teutonic Knights who powned the Neumark (in the Margraviate of Brandenburg) from Sigismund in 25 July 1402.[55]

Again, in 1403 there was upraising against Sigismund led by Archbishop John Kanizsai of Esztergom that offered the Hungarian crown to King Ladislaus of Naples.[56] Stibor recruited then mercenaries, invaded the north-western parts of the Kingdom and defeated the rebels' troops. Again, with the support of Nicholas II Garay. The parties made an agreement under which the rebels accepted the King's rule and they were granted a royal pardon on 29 October 1403. Shortly afterwards, the King entrusted Stibor to govern the possessions of the Archdiocese of Esztergom and the Diocese of Eger (1405). Stibor himself entrusted those possessions to close family and memmbers of the Clan of Ostoja.[55]

In 1409 Sigismund signed a treaty with Teutonic Knights which was seen as direct action against Poland and in 1410 Scibor was in charge of the negotiations between Poland and Teutonic Knights on the behalf of Sigismund where Polish side was asked to not attack the Teutonic side. On behalf of Sigismund, Stibor sold Neumark to the Teutonic Knights for a remarkably large sum. This reinforced Sigismund's finances and made it more difficult for the Teutonic Knights to hire mercenaries to fight on their side against the Poles-Lithuanians in Grunwald-Tannenberg.

In May 1410, King Sigismund entrusted Stibor and the Palatine Nicholas II Garay to mediate between the Teutonic Knights and King W adys aw II of Poland, but when negotiations failed, war broke out. The Battle of Grunwald took place, with almost all of the Ostojas leaving Hungary to join Polish forces. At the end of 1411, Stibor, his brothers and other members of the Clan of Ostoja was in charge of leading troops to fight against the Venetian Republic in Friuli. In 1412 Stibor was meeting with Zawisza Czarny (The Black Knight) in his Castle of Star ubov a in Slovakia, preparing the negotiation between Sigismund and polish King Vladislav Jogaila, which ended with the Treaty of Lubowla.[55]

Star ubov a Castle, place of negotiation between Stibor of Stiboricz and Zawisza Czarny
Star ubov a Castle, place of negotiation between Stibor of Stiboricz and Zawisza Czarny

Stibor proved to be great diplomat who combined loyalty to King Sigismund with his diplomatic work on behalf of Poland. In 1397 Sigismund chose Stibor as his representative in negotiations with the Polish King Jogaila, who appointed Mikolaj Bydgoski to represent Polish Crown. Thus the two brothers, Stibor and Mikolaj, met as leaders of their respective diplomatic delegations. Later on, around year 1409, King Jogaila appointed his most trusted diplomat Miko aj B ociszewski of the Clan of Ostoja to lead the negotiations.

In the end, it was the Clan of Ostoja that was the leading force in breaking down Teutonic side, they did it not only by using fine art of sword but also with outstanding diplomatic skills.[57][58]

Land and nominations

In 1388, King Sigismund granted Stibor Beckov Castle, and Uhrovec Castle in Slovakia and in 1389 Stibor also become Head (Ispan ) of Pozsony County including Bratislava Castle where he appointed Castellan to administer the property. He also was granted a Town, Nov Mesto nad V hom[58][59]

In 1392 Stibor become Head of Trencs n and Nyitra Counties, where he appointed clan family members as Castellan or Voivode of the County. Furthermore, Stibor was granted the possession of Csejte and Holics (today achtice and Hol in Slovakia). In 1394 he received Berencs, Detrek , lesk , J k and Korl tk Castles, which are respectively modern Bran , Plave , Ostr Kame , Dobr Voda and Korl tka, in Slovakia. In 1395 he become Voivode of Transylvania, and in 1403 he was entrusted to govern the possessions of the Archdiocese of Esztergom and the Diocese of Eger[58][59]

Stibor was a founding member of the very exclusive Order of the Dragon in 1408, which consisted of European royals and powerful Princes as well as some of most distinguished Hungarian Lords. In 1409 Stibor was reappointed Voivode of Transylvania, and was recognized as Duke of Transylvania.[60][61][62][63][64]

Altogether, Stibor of Stiboricz was - together with his son - head of several Counties including Bratislava, Governor of Galizia, Duke of Transylvania, owner of over 300 villages, towns which in total was half of western Slovakia of today.[65][66] He was owner of 31 castles and in control of further 5[67] in Slovakia of which many could be found along all the 409 km long Vah river. Because of that, Stibor stiled himself Lord of whole Vah . He was governor of Archdiocese of Eztergom, Diocese of Eger, Master of Hungarian Court, closest friend and adviser to the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. Adding the land, Castles and nominations that was granted to the Clan, close family of Stibor and the fact that Stibor of Stiboricz gave all important offices in his power only to family and clan members, the Clan of Ostoja was ruling Slovakia for almost 35 years. Beside being Duke of Transylvania, German, Slovakian and Hungarian sources styled Stibor of Stiboricz as "King Stibor" of Slovakia.[68]

Close family of Stibor of Stiboricz:[55][69][70][71]

Vah River, property and in control of Stibor's and the Clan of Ostoja
Vah River, property and in control of Stibor's and the Clan of Ostoja
Orava Castle, residence of Stibor of Beckov from 1420
Orava Castle, residence of Stibor of Beckov from 1420

The Castles that the Clan received in Slovakia were of great importance as they controlled the borders, Vah river and important roads. They was all build to give good defense against enemy. Inside the strongholds the clan had own army unites, their upkeep was paid from the income Ostoja's gained from their land that they owned or controlled. They could also afford to hire mercenaries when necessary and they was in close cooperation with each other, often visiting and helping to maintain the power they have been given in Slovakia. All of them were in possession of land that was much bigger than any of the clan members had in Poland.

Although Sigismund's most loyal Stibor's was not to help him anymore, the presence of the Clan in Slovakia and Hungary was still significant. The testament told that the fortune of Stibor's was to be past to closest family witch included children and grandchildren of Stibor of Stiboricz's brothers, all except the Beckov Castle with belongings that was supposed to be given to Katarina, daughter to Stibor Stiboric of Beckov.[72] This testament was approved by the emperor Sigismund and his wife, the Queen. The testament of his son, Stibor de Beckov was in line with his fathers but with one important difference. It was written 4 August 1431 and the difference in the testament from his fathers wish told that in case Stibor de Beckov would not have a son, all the properties that he personally owned would pas to his daughter Katarina. This however under the condition that she will marry Przemyslaus II, Duke of Cieszyn of the Piast dynasty. In case of his death, Katarina was to marry his brother. If the marriage of Kararina and Duke Przemyslaus II would not result in any hair, all the properties would go back to close family of Scibor of Beckov, as in the testament of his father. By this marriage, Stibor's of Ostoja would have dynastic claims in case of extinction of the Piast Dynasty in the future.[73]

Fighting many wars with Ottoman Empire could not stop Turkish side to grow and take more land in east, west and south. Sigismund found himself in difficult position. He already took a loan from Polish king when signing the Treaty fo Lubovla but the royal coffers was empty since he used every penny in the war against rebellious Venice. Since he could not pay back the loan given by polish King, he lost 16 towns in Spi area to Polish side.[74]

Emperor Sigismund saw his enemies expanding in almost every direction. The Ottoman Empire in the east, Italian republics in south, the Hussite threat in north. However, the pact with Albert II of Germany that was supposed to marry Elisabeth of Bohemia, the daughter and heiress of Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, and the pact with the Clan of Ostoja was protecting north side of the Kingdom. And through marriage between Katarina of Beckov and the Duke Przemyslaw of the Piast dynasty, the Kingdom could count on more support in the battle against Hussite side. It was all set to form powerful coalition. As Albert II would be the successor on the Hungarian throne and the Clan of Ostoja would hold the position in Slovakia and south of Poland together with the Piast dynasty, the focus could then be to stop Ottoman Empire to expand more in west direction.[75]

Stibor of Beckov

Stibor of Beckov the younger's grave monument, Budapest History Museum
Stibor of Beckov the younger's grave monument, Budapest History Museum
His son Stibor of Beckov continued his fathers work and succeeded to extend the land and was also appointed as Lord of rva County including Orava (castle). He was also member of the Order of the Dragon. The son of Stibor's brother Andrzej, also Stibor - was the Bishop of Eger in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Eger. When Sigismund took the nomination from him, he moved back to Poland but never accepting Sigismund decision, calling himself Bishop of Eger to the end of his life. Although he was granted several nominations in Poland and hold several properties, those could never match those properties that he was in charge of in Hungary.[76]

In 1407 Stefan of the Wawrzyniec line of Ostoja moved to Slovakia where Scibor gave him the position as Castellan of Ko ecy. In 1415 he was in charge of whole Trencs n on the behalf of Scibor. He expanded his properties with Ladce, Horn and Doln Ko kovce, Nosice and Milochov which he left to his six sons.

Stibor of Stiboricz died in 1414 and was supposed to rest in his own Chapel inside St. Katarina's Church in Krakow. This was also supposed to be the place to rest for his son. It was also written that both father and son was resting in the Chapel until 1903 when the grave of red marble stone was found in Buda. That was of Stibor Stiboric of Beckov dated to 1431. Lately a grave was found in Sz kesfeh rv r. The grave was broken into pieces because of Turkish side destroyed this place in past. However, it have been established that it was the grave of Stibor of Stiboricz. It was made of same stone, red marmor and when the piece of coat of arms was finally found and there was no doubt. Stibor was granted place beside along Hungarian royalties[77]

Since Stibor of Beckov (died 1434) did not have any heir that could inherit the properties, the testament told that it would be past to closest family, including Beckov Castle that was made as power center of the clan in Slovakia. This Castle was made to be one of the most significant residences of that time, including great paintings, sculptures and chapel that was formed by artist from many different countries.[78] Several testaments have been approved by the Emperor Sigismund and also his wife. Main issue in those was that all the properties of the Stibor's in Slovakia and Hungarian empire would be divided by closest family in case of lack of hair in the line. In that way, the land would stay in family hands.[79] Unfortunately, Stibor of Beckov died suddenly in battle against hussite side and just shortly after the agreement between Emperor Siginsmund, Albert II of Germany and the Piast dynasty have been made. And just few weeks later, peace agreement with the hussite side was signed. It was now up to Katarina to marry Duke Przemyslaw II in accordance to her fathers wish. However, this did not happen as Katarina later married to Lord P l B nffy of Alsolindva. Soon after, Stibor the Bishop of Eger lost his office and the Wawrzyniec loose all their offices and properties including the Castle of Ko ecy (that they received from Stibor of Stiboricz). All this because of their support to the Hussite side. According to the testament, all the land of Ostoja's in Slovakia was to be past to the closest family of Stibor's.

Mikolaj Szarlejski

Since all the lines that where mentioned in the testament was extinct, the one to inherit all the land and properties was Mikolaj Szarlejski. He was son of Mikolaj Bydgoski, Lord castellan of Bydgoszcz and brother of Stibor of Stiboricz. Szarlejski was, at the time of the death of Stibor of Beckov, the Commander of polish forces in Prussia and he was also Voivode of Brzesc-Kujawy. Beside that, he was also Lord of several regalities and all together one of the most powerful and influential Lords in Poland. However, Szarlejski was supporting the Hussite side and was making several hostile raid's on Hungarian properties and strongholds which was not in accordance with the policy of the family. Since the land of Ostoja's in Slovakia was main defense against Hussite side, it would now be in hands of the enemy. In this situation and because Katarina did not marry her Prince of Piast, the Emperor Sigismund gave order to the Hungarian Court to cancel the testament of Stibor of Beckov. The testament was cancelled on 28th of march 1435.[80]

Minding Stibor's loyalty and friendship, Sigismund did not leave Katarina of Beckov without any funds. She received one fourth of the value of all properties in cash. Also, in his last day alive, Sigismund gave Beckov Castle and belongings to P l B nffy under the condition that he will marry Katarina which was also fulfilled. Although Katarina received only 25% of the property value, the sum was gigantic but it did not stay in the Ostoja family.[81]

In 1440 W adys aw III of the Jagiellon dynasty assumed the Hungarian throne and for 4 years he was king of both Poland and Hungary. However, he died in the Battle of Varna and his brother Casimir IV Jagiellon became King of Poland in 1447. Casimir married Elisabeth of Austria (1436 1505), daughter of the late King of Hungary Albert II of Germany and Elisabeth of Bohemia (daughter of Sigismund, the Emperor and King of Hungary). The Jagiellon House challenged the House of Habsburg in Bohemia and Slovakia.

1466
1466

Following the death of Albert II of Germany in 1439 when defending Hungary against Turks, Mikolaj Szarlejski recognized opportunity to regain the land of his family and the Clan in Slovakia. Szarlejski tried to convince Hungarian Royal Council that family properties have been taken in violation of the law. However, Hungarian Lords and Royal Council in Hungary had no intention to give back all of the north defence to their enemy. Then in 1439 Szarlejski decided to raise army against Hungary. With help of the Hussite side, he succeeded to siege several strongholds in the Vah area. Supported by Jan de Jani of Ostoja, the Voivode of Pomerania and Gdansk and several other powerful Lords from the Clan of Ostoja and with support of many friends, the war against Hungarian Empire and Germany was in the beginning successful. Unfortunately, Szarlejski although being in charge of polish forces in Prussia, did not have any significant commanding talent[82] and ironically, both Stibor of Stiboricz and his son Stibor Stiboric of Beckov made great improvements in the fortification of their Castles which made siege of many of them almost impossible. Beckov Castle would later hold siege from Turkish side about 100 years later. As result of that and because the enemy was to strong, military action failed.[83]

The line of Stibor of Stiboricz was extinct, other lines of Stibor's family that derived from Stibor of Stiboricz brothers and that was called Stiborici in Hungaria (the Barons of Hungarian Kingdom)[84] was also extinct. Szarlejski had no heir of his own and his large properties in Poland was past to the Ko cielecki family of Ogo czyk Clan[85] as the daughter of Stibor Jedrzny married Jan Ko cielecki, close friend of Szarlejski. Economic power of Jan de Jani was broken because of all wars with Teutonic knights that he had to pay for himself and all the lines of the Moscic of Stiboricz (Stibor of Stiboricz's father) was extinct. However, other lines of the Clan that still was considered as close family to Stibor's was in position to be the successors of the land in Slovakia in case of death of Szarlejski.

Stibor de Poniec

Malbork (Marienburg), Teutonic Knight stronghold captured by Stibor de Poniec of Ostoja
Malbork (Marienburg), Teutonic Knight stronghold captured by Stibor de Poniec of Ostoja
Stibor's and Mikolaj's great diplomatic work was to be continued by Stibor de Poniec some 50 years later. He raised funds in Gdansk (Danzig) for a campaign against the Teutonic Knights who held Malbork (Marieburg). The Teutonic Knights had financial problems at this time and were in debt to their main defence force of Czech/Moravian mercenaries. Using the money from Gdansk, Stibor de Poniec was able to persuade the mercenaries to leave the stronghold, and he took control of Malbork without a battle; King Casimir IV Jagiellon entered the castle in 1457.[86] This led to the Second Treaty of Thorn, sealed in 1466 by Sibor of Poniec. Furthermore, he negotiated on behalf of the Polish king with Denmark, which had supported the Teutonic Knights, and succeeded in ending a Danish blockade on Polish goods in the Baltic Sea.[57] Other members of the Clan of Ostoja was recognized as great knights in the conflict with Teutonic side, using the art of the sword when needed.

Stefan de Lieskov (Leski) of Wawrzyniec

Stefan de Lieskov (Leski) of Wawrzyniec line had six son's and they would naturally be the main successors of the clan properties. In 1462 Matthias Corvinus of Hungary took all the land from the successors because of their support of the Hussite side. Ko eca together with all the properties was instead given to Mad ar (Magyar) family that was fighting the Hussite's. In 1467, Wawrzyniec and his Hussite friends successfully regained the Ko eca Castle but shortly after lost it again to the Hungarian side. The Mad ar family extinct in 1491 and the Ko eca Castle with belonging properties was given to Z polya family in 1496. At that time the Jagiellon dynasty was kings of both Poland-Lithuanian empire and the Hungarian. In this situation, the Wawrzyniec line was protesting against the Z polya family being in possession of their properties. However, the Z polya family was too powerful and also family related with the Jagiellon side since Barbara Zapolya became Queen of Poland in 1512 and Jan Zapolya (J nos Szapolyai) became King of Hungary in 1526.[87]

Also in Poland Wawrzyniec line, together with other members of the Clan of Ostoja, claimed the property of Szarlejski that past to Ko cielecki's as well as Janski (de Jani) family claimed compensation from the King but also here the resistance was to big and finally they had to give up plans to regain the properties.

Aftermath

The land that Ostoja's once owned and the land that they were in control of made the Clan very powerful and Stibors in Slovakia one of the most powerful families in Europe. Comparing with the Habsburg dynasty, the Clan had good chance to challenge if they would stay united and with the Stibors as leading force in Upper Hungary. However, it was necessary for the Stibors to be related with ruling dynasties or those that have been ruling to be able to claim power in the future. Marriage with prime families of central Europe was not enough. The family needed to be connected with royal blood. Instead of challenging Habsburgs, Stibor of Beckov and the Clan of Ostoja made agreement of cooperation which would benefit both sides. Both side's had equal forces and before Albert II of Germany become king of Hungary, Stibor of Stiboricz successfully challenge Austria, burning down the country to the ground except for Vienna that he left alone.[55]

Lack of heirs that could continue politics of the Clan successfully was also part of the reason of economical problems. While in most countries properties was past to younger lines in the family, in Poland women have same rights to inherit the properties as males. Since all main lines of the Clan suddenly faced lack of males at same time, it were the daughters that inherited the properties and brought them into other families through marriage. As did Katarina when she married Pal Banffy. The Banffy family inherited all the founds given to Katarina by the Emperor Sigismund when giving her 1/4 of all property value in cash. The Beckov castle was in the hands of the Banffy until also this family family extinct and Beckov returned to the Hungarian Crown.[88]

Finally, it was coordinated politics of the Clan of Ostoja that made it powerful. It was also Szarlejski's own politics that in the end ruined family power in Slovakia. Although the Clan supported Poland against Teutonic Knights, they did not support the Jagiellon dynasty in the beginning as the kings of Poland. Clan members staying and living in Poland was however granted power by Jagiellon kings in return for their support. In many cases, the Clan was forced to raise founds from their own treasury in order to defend polish boarders.[89] In the end, it was during the reign of the Jagiellon dynasty, the Clan of Ostoja lost its power and all doubts that the Clan had against those kings from the beginning, become very true. Also in Hungarian history, Jagiellon dynasty have been described as weak and incompetent, which was the result of the politics's of the Lords of Lesser Poland as they was responsible of electing kings that would sign documents in favor of their financial ambitions rather than choosing strong kings with benefit for the kingdom[90]

As main properties in both Slovakia and Poland was finally lost, the economical power was broken and the Clan of Ostoja was outside the politics of Poland for next 100 years,[91] concentrating mostly in increasing their land properties, holding offices on local level. The Union of Lublin in 1569 that created biggest country in Europe, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, did not change anything for the Ostoja s in the beginning.

Commonwealth era

Commonwealth in Europe
Commonwealth in Europe
At the end of 15th and beginning of the 16th century the Commonwealth was the biggest and one of the most powerful countries in Europe. In 1569, the Union of Lublin created a real union of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, replacing the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It encompassed territories from Poland, Lithuania, Prussia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldavia, Podolia, part of Spisz and part of Russia including Smolensk.
Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
The skills needed to expand and secure the borders of the nation were different from what was required when the expansion was completed. When the Union of Lublin was finally signed it also ended a period of 150 years of consolidating new Empire. The new nation needed new kind of administration and the goal was different. The time of brave knights was over and the nobility was now the successors. The Clan organization lost their importance.

Although the Clans always existed, families did not cooperated with each others like in old time. As for the Clan of Ostoja, several[92] families to the original group of Knights and Lords was added through adoption or became incorporated in other way.

Trakai Castle, residence of Sluszka and Unichowski families
Trakai Castle, residence of Sluszka and Unichowski families
The Union of Horod o in 1413 made first step to unify Polish and Lithuanian/ Belarus nobility when 47 most prominent Lithuanian/ Belarus and Ruthuanian families where adopted to 47 Polish clans. Following that, several families from east joined the Clan structure before 1569. In such way, the Lithuanian, Belarus and Russian nobility received same rights as their noble Polish brothers. The structure and the law in the Commonwealth was same in every province and it allowed democratic process to develop. The adoption to Ostoja Clan recommended by the King or by the Senat (Government) had to be approved by the senior lines of Ostoja. Looking at the work of Piekosinski[93] there is a list of adopted families as well as families that received nobility. Only in few cases there are notes including Ostoja's, less than 10 families. All other adoptions to the Clan took place in late medieval time when the Clan tried to regain in power after losing the main senior lines of the Clan. Almost all of those adoptions included powerful knight families or leading nobility in their provinces, including several Prince families. It was the Clan, not the King or Senat that decided who to adopt to the Clan at that time and before 1569.[93]

The administration and structure was same all over but there were some important differences. In Poland noble titles were formally removed by the constitution in 1638 and confirmed in 1641 and 1673 since the nobility was equal according to the law.[94] The titles were in 13th century used during the lifetime but it was common to pas it to next generation although according to the law, all nobility had equal rights and hold equal rank. Looking for influential families in Poland, one have to look for the senatorial position and not the titles that have been given to Poles during the partition time of the Commonwealth. However, in many cases families descending from dynastic tribe leaders like original Ostoja family named Moscic or Stibor, holding prime positions in Poland during medieval times and holding titles like, comes or dux (duke, voivode, count palatine) did never accept this equality system of the Commonwealth and continued to hold their titles, specially when traveling abroad in diplomatic mission. Those families where never equal to simple noblemen or knights but more equal to English peers with the difference that the title was inherit by all members of the family, not only the oldest son like it is in England. All of those old and powerful medieval families that played central role in building polish Empire was part of hereditary High Nobility.[95]. Knights that become part of the Clan of Ostoja in medieval time where never equal to mighty Lords but where in the 14th and 15th century given rights equal to medieval german Baron that origin from knights and in time also become in fuction more like german Freiherr[96].

The Union of Lublin made an exception for the Lithuanian Prince families and therefore the Commonwealth could see several Lithuanian, Russian or Belarus families with titles. Some of those families was very powerful and wealthy. In time of the Commonwealth they expanded their properties to be of such size that there were few families in Europe to match them. They were the Magnates[97] of the Commonwealth.

Magnates of the Commonwealth are often called the aristocracy of the Commonwealth but the definition of what constitutes aristocracy differs from the rest of Europe in that the Magnate families were much more powerful, often comparable to Princes. A good example is the extinct family of Pac[98] that ruled the Duchy of Lithuania in the 17th century. The Pac family had not descended from a Prince, and therefore did not use any title at all. During the partition of the Commonwealth the Pac family received the title of Count. However, when looking at the size of the Pac properties and their position in the Commonwealth, a simple Count title seems not adequate to their power and property size that was far beyond imagination of most of the European Lords.[99]

Properties of some Magnates in the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth
Properties of some Magnates in the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish Magnates 1576-1586
Polish Magnates 1576-1586

Partly in Poland but certainly in Grand Dutchy of Lithuania and Ukraine, almost all important positions was in the hands of the Magnates and it was passed through generations. The only question was which of those about 20 great Magnate families would rule most Voivodeship, Counties and Provinces. The list of those Magnates during the days of the Commonwealth include following families:[99][100]

Princely Houses: Radziwill, Sapieha, Wisniowiecki, Lubomirski, Czartoryski, Ostrogski, Sanguszko. Other Magnat families: Chodkiewicz, Pac, Tyszkiewicz, Zamoyski, Hlebowicz (without any hereditary title), Mniszech, Potocki.

Those families had most significant impact on the politics of the Commonwealth. They chose the candidate for the King and they made sure that the candidate was chosen to serve their interest. The nobility voted for the candidate that Magnates and other aristocracy told them to vote on. The Magnates became the true power in the Commonwealth and the King was, with some few exceptions, only a Marionette of the Magnates in their political game.

Furthermore, there was then some 50-60 influential and very wealthy families and with great family history, sometimes with Prince titles. However, those families did not have same impact on the politics of the Commonwealth, still being considered as Magnats of the Commonwealth. Among them there are most magnificent families like Lanckoronski, Tarnowski, T czy ski, Prince Holszanski, Rzewuski, Gonzaga-Myszkowski or Prince Czertwertynski.[99]

The next 300-400 families (of in total tens of thousands of noble families[101]) counting in power and land possession in the Commonwetlh could more likely be equal to the European aristocracy when referring to counts and barons. Those families should also be included as aristocrats but most publications[102] refer only to titled nobility as the aristocracy which is not in accordance with polish rank system during the time of the Commonwealth. There were many wealthy and influential families that hold several offices in the family like Voivode, Castellan, Bishop or Hetman which gave them a place in the Senat of the Commonwealth. This group hold many great families like Sieniawski, Arciszewski, Ossolinski, Koniecpolski, Prince Giedrojc and finally also many families included in the Clan of Ostoja.[103]

According to the Etymological Dictionary of the Polish Language, "a proper magnate should be able to trace noble ancestors back for many generations and own at least 20 villages or estates. He should also hold a major office in the Commonwealth". By this definition, number of magnates in the Clan of Ostoja is considerable high. Lords like Radziwi , Wi niowiecki or Stibor of Stiboricz that was among richest and most influential Duke's in Europe where much more than local magnates. They ruled a nation, either Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine or Slovakia.

Aristocratic titles given to noble families in the time of partition of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Russian, Prussian and Austrian emperors as well as by Holy Vatican City State cannot be compared with the titles of from medieval times. Those are, except single cases, foreign titles. The constitution of 1921 ( 96) in march, removed all the titles in Poland including the nobility itself. However, the constitution of 1935, did not confirm the paragraph 96 in constitution of 1921. Therefore, families that received or bought titles from foreign Emperors could still legally use them. As the titles where not legally forbidden, the peerage of old families in Poland is also taken to consideration. However, usually when referring to titles in Poland, it is understand as the titles given during the partition.[104]

In this way, families included in the Clan of Ostoja and having origin from medieval time, are all considered as High Nobility.

End of the Commonwealth

Before the Union of Lublin only families have been adopted to the Clan of Ostoja.[4][103][105] Also there were several families to move to the east part of the Commonwealth like for example Unichowski family from the Radom line. There were also more than 50 families[103] that proved to be part of the Clan of Ostoja during the partition time.

Because of almost total domination of the Magnates in all Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Ukraine, it was very difficult to any family from outside to receive nomination of Senator rank. Most of successful Ostoja families in this area was instead in possession of highest ranked offices on local level in their Counties and Voivodeship's such as County Judge of mayor cities, Lord of regality (Starosta) or Lord Chamberlain.[4]

16th century

Bobolice Castle, property of the Kreza family of Ostoja
Bobolice Castle, property of the Kreza family of Ostoja
Micha S dziw j from S dzimir of Ostoja family
Micha S dziw j from S dzimir of Ostoja family
In Poland Ostoja families almost totally disappeared from the political life in the 16th century. Most of the families was owning enough of land to live quite and peaceful life. In most, they were holding offices on the local level mostly to guard their own interests in the County. Notable members of the Clan in that century are to be found in late XVI century. Kacper Karli ski, Lord of Olsztyn, become famous fir his legendary defence of the town in 1587. Maciej Kaw czy ski reformed the printing system in Lithuania. Miko aj Kreza was Rittmeister of the Crown, Micha Maleczkowski was Magnus procurator (Latin for "ruler") of Lesser Poland 1576-1577 and Gabriel S o ski (1520 1598) was architect and Burgrave of Krakow.[106] However, since education was still of importance in the philosophy of the Ostoja families, new generation was upcoming in the end of 16th century holding many inventors. Also, this century saw the Jagiellon dynasty end in 1572, Sigismund II Augustus was the last of this dynasty to rule the Commonwealth. He was followed by Stephen B thory, the Duke of Transylvania, considered one of greatest kings in polish history. The end of Jagiellonian era was a start of new chapter in the history of the Clan of Ostoja.

17th century

Kazimierz Siemiewnowicz of Ostoja, commemorative coin dedicated to the 350th anniversary of Artis Magnae Artilleriae
Kazimierz Siemiewnowicz of Ostoja, commemorative coin dedicated to the 350th anniversary of Artis Magnae Artilleriae
Sluszka Palace in Vilnius
Sluszka Palace in Vilnius
Marcin Szyszkowski of Ostoja 1554-1630, Bishop of Krak w, Prince of Siewierz
Marcin Szyszkowski of Ostoja 1554-1630, Bishop of Krak w, Prince of Siewierz
Kazanowski Palace in Warsaw owned by El bieta S uszka of Ostoja
Kazanowski Palace in Warsaw owned by El bieta S uszka of Ostoja
The 17th century provided much more activity from the Clan. First half of the century was the Golden Age of the Commonwealth. In Lithuania families was fighting for the supremacy of the Grand Duchy which lead to many confrontations. The leading families was Prince Radziwill, Prince Sapieha and Pac.[107] In Volyn, Podole and Ukraine Wisniowiecki family reached the supremacy of the area. Estimated amount of people working for Wisniowiecki on his estates was almost 300.000[108] at that time.

In Lithuania, the Sluszka and Unichowski families of the Clan of Ostoja raised in great power. Krzysztof S uszka became Voivode of Livonia and Aleksander S uszka Castellan of Samogitia and later Voivide of Minsk, then Voivode of Novogrod and ended as Voivode of Trakai in 1647. Samuel Unichowski of Ostoja followed up 40 years later and also became the Voivode of Trakai. Lady El bieta S uszka (1619 1671) was the richest and most powerful Lady of the Commonwealth.[109] She was the Crown Court Marshall and after death of her first husband inherited the Kazanowski Palace in Warsaw. Josef Bogus aw Sluszka (1652 1701) was Hetman and Castellan of Trakai and Vilnius. Dominik Micha S uszka (1655 1713) was the Voivode of Polotsk and finally Aleksander Jozef Unichowski became the Castellan of Samogitia.[4]

Other families in Lithuania that was part of the Clan of Ostoja became very wealthy. Prince Boratynski family joined Clan[110] already in the 16th century and was often holding high military rank, Prince Palecki family also joined at the same time. The Danielewicz family was by adoption included in Pac family and inherit part of their land possessions.[111]

In Poland, the Szyszkowski family of Ostoja became very powerful. Piotr Szyszkowski was the Catellan of Wojno 1643, Marcin Szyszkowski was the Bishop of Krak w and Prince of Siewierz and Miko aj Szyszkowski became the Prince-bishop of Warmia in 1633.[4] Both Prince Miko aj and Prince Marcin had great impact on the politics of the Commonwealth. Following information is mainly taken from polish Wikipedia.

Salomon Rysi ski (1565 1625) was famous writer at the time, Krzysztof Boguszewski was one of the most famous painters and artists of Greater Poland and Stanis aw Bzowski (1567 1637) was member of Dominican Order, friend of reforms, appointed by Vatikan City to write down its history.

Wojciech Gajewski was the Castellan of Rogozin 1631-1641, ukasz Gajewski became Castellan of Santok in 1661, Micha Scibor-Rylski the Castellan of Gostyn in 1685, Miko aj Scibor Marchocki, the Castellan of Malogoski ( arn w) 1697 and Jan Stachurski was leading the army against the Cossac uprising as Major General in 1664.

The most famous clan members in that century were Kazimierz Siemienowicz, General of artillery, military engineer, artillery specialist and the pioneer of rocketry, whose publication was for 200 years used as the main artillery manual in Europe,[112] and and Micha S dziw j (Michael Sendivogius, S dzimir) (1566 1636) , from the S dzimir branch of the Clan, was a famous European alchemist, philosopher and medical doctor. A pioneer of chemistry, he developed ways of purification and creation of various acids, metals and other chemical compounds. He discovered that air is not a single substance and contains a life-giving substance-later called oxygen-170 years before Scheele and Priestley. He correctly identified this 'food of life' with the gas (also oxygen) given off by heating nitre (saltpetre). This substance, the 'central nitre', had a central position in S dziw j's schema of the universe.[113] S dziw j was famous in Europe, and was widely sought after as he declared that he could make gold from quicksilver, which would have been a useful talent. During a demonstration on how to make the gold, in presence of the Emperor Rudolph II, S dziw j was captured and robbed by a German alchemist named Muhlenfels who had conspired with the German prince, Brodowski, to steal S dziw j's secret.

18th century

Otrokov Castle of Scibor-Marchocki family
Otrokov Castle of Scibor-Marchocki family
Palace in Wzdow, property of Ostaszewski family
Palace in Wzdow, property of Ostaszewski family
Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
Adam Ostaszewski,
Adam Ostaszewski, "Leonardo from Wzdow"
Palace in Prusewo, property of Blociszewski family
Palace in Prusewo, property of Blociszewski family
The 18th century provided many changes in the Commonwealth, most significant was choosing incompetent Kings of foreign origin that was mostly interested in fighting personal wars against other Countries.[13] This is the time when total disorder led to total bankruptcy of the state finances, where Magnates cooperated with foreign forces in order to gain even more power. As for the last King Poniatowski, he was paid by Catherine II of Russia, received money from Russian governors and was obliged to report to Russian ambassador Otto Magnus von Stackelberg.[13] He was furthermore richly paid to join the Constitution of Maj 3 but because of his character or rather lack of it, he did not fulfill his promise.[114]

Most families that signed Poniatowski's election, including many Ostoja families, was signing for the Czartoryski family that wanted to make necessary changes in the Commonwealth.[115] However, to support those changes Czartoryski asked for help from Russia, an offer that Russia could not resist.

Except some single cases, the Ostoja families in Lithuania and Poland stayed far away from this political chaos. The King was appointing those that supported his own ambitions, which was the beginning of some new great fortunes. Founds and properties that belonged to the Crown was this century given away to all those that served the King and Russia well. Many new Magnates was created and the order in the Commonwealth at that time looked more like Wild Western. This political disaster ended in Partitions of Poland, 1772 when Prussia, Austria and Russia decided to divide defenseless Commonwealth between them. Poniatowski's reign until 1795 became the darkest chapter in Polish history.[114] The Constitution of May 3, 1791 come far to late. This was the first time that the Commonwealth included Ruthenians and not just Poland and Lithuania. New Commonwealth was to be formed of three nations. Also this intentions came far to late. However, the Constitution of May 3 united families that wanted to make necessary changes and that would serve the nation. In this movement we suddenly see lot of activity from the Ostoja families.[116] Almost all of them supported the movement and in many cases all members of the family joined, women and men. In the first half of the century, the Ostoja families hold many offices and was still prospecting. In the second half of the century, they clearly turned into military commanders and supporters of the resistance, leading Confederations and armies against foreign forces and specially against Russia.

Ignacy cibor Marchocki of Ostoja (1755 1827) created famous "Kingdom of Mi kowce".[117] Marchocki proclaimed his estates an independent state and installed on its borders pillars with the name plates, identifying that this is "The border of Minkowce state". The "Kingdom" hold one town, 18 villages and 4 Castles (one for each season) with some 4200 souls living in the "Kingdom". Marchocki liberated peasants from serfdom, granted them a self-government, established jury (court with jury and court of appeal)), built school, pharmacy, orphanage, churches and monuments, cloth and carriage factories, factory of anis apple oil production, with brickyard, varnish and paint plants, with mulberry trees gardens. Its own paper was manufactured there and lime calcined. He opened his own printing house, where different decrees (like "agreement between the Lord and the peasants"), directions, resolutions and even sermons, later delivered by him in Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. The government of the Kingdom that included Jews, serfs, town citizens, peasants and foreigners.[117] He also employed two doctors within the property. Central body of the State was the County Court as well as Court of Appeal. The main thing in the State was to give all citizens equal legal rights.

All of this was of course reported to Russian Administration that in the beginning was stunned, thinking that it was an act of madness. However, the "Kingdom" was working excellent and the Lord of the Kingdom was getting richer and more famous, buying even more properties and land to expand the "Kingdom". Life inside his estate was considered as heaven comparing to normal life peasants outside the border pillars which would more correctly be referred as hell. Peasants was at that time normally property of the estate that could be sold any time. In the "Kingdom" people was living in wealth and prosperity and Marchocki himself was the most successful administrator of his goods in Russian Empire.[118] This eccentric man was summertime wearing a Roman Toga during official meetings on the property that looked like picture taken from paradise.

In the end, this started to worry Russian administration that gave order to burn down all the printing so this madness would not spread to other provinces. This could cause a revolution because suddenly it was clear that making democracy inside a property was making owners rich and people happy. Soon, every citizen of not noble origin in the area wanted to live in the "Kingdom of Mi kowce". It was a plague that started to spread all over the countryside and infect entire system. To stop this revolution, the Tsar ordered Marchocki captured and imprisoned.[117][118] Following information and source is taken from polish Wikipedia.

Lady Krystyna cibor-Bogus awska (-1783) - was Lady of regality of W g czew by nomination received by the King Poniatowski and Aleksander Scibor Marchocki became the Castellan of Malogoski after Miko aj. Franciszek Gajewski became the Castellan of Konarsk-Kuyavia and Florian Hrebnicki the Uniat Archbishop of Polotsk. Antoni Gajewski (-1775) was Castellan of Naklo, Lord of the regality of czyca and of Ko ciany. His relative Rafa Tadeusz Gajewski (1714 1776) became the Castllan of Rogozin. J zef Jakli ski was then the Castellan of Kamensk/Spicymir 1759-1775.

At the end of the century, J zef Siemo ski, the General adj. of King Poniatowski became supreme commander of Sandomierz uprising initiated by Ko ciuszko and Karol Podgorski escaped the Russian side by joining the Prussian army where he became General Major. Also in other parts of the Commonwealth the resistance against Poniatowski and Russia formed Confederations. Micha W adys aw Lniski was vice Voivode and Marshal of the Contederetion of Bar in Pomerania and Franciszek Ksawery cibor-Bogus awski was Rittmeister of same Confederation. Then Wojciech Marchocki was the Castellan of Sanok County and J zef Andrzej Mikorski the Castellan of Rawa County from 1791.

The Ostaszewski and the Blociszewski of Ostoja families hold many family members that were fighting against forces behind the partition of the Commonwealth. Of them, Tadeusz B ociszewski was General Major and Micha Ostaszewski (1720 1816) was one of main initiators of the Confederation of Bar in Subcarpathian Voivodeship. Tomasz Ostaszewski was helping the Confederation in his position as the Bishop of Plock. Finally, Antoni Baranowski of Ostoja was awarded and apponited as General Major of Royal Army by Tadeusz Ko ciuszko. Baranowski participated as the head of the division in the Battle of Maciejowice. Subsequently remained off-duty, in 1812 he organized lev e en masse in Lublin and Siedlce.

National resurgence

General Bronislaw Bohatyrowicz, died in Katy
General Bronislaw Bohatyrowicz, died in Katy
General Zbigniew Scibor-Rylski, participated in Warsaw Uprising, 1944
General Zbigniew Scibor-Rylski, participated in Warsaw Uprising, 1944

19th century

In the 19th century the conditions and structure changed once again since the Commonwealth was not existing anymore and the land was occupied. It was the time of the boom for the nationalism and it was also the century of Adam Mickiewicz, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Fr d ric Chopin and many others. This century shows also many Ostoja families as wealthy aristocrats[110] holding Palaces, Manor houses and big properties not only in Poland and Lithuania but also in other European countries. This is also the century when the Ostoja families became once again very active and participated in every political action but this time against ruling authorities.[119]

During the 19th century the nobility of the Commonwealth raised once again to fight those that occupied their Country. In history books this century is marked with major Uprisings against Prussia, Russia and Austria and also with the Napoleonic Wars. However, between those most known events, there was more than 100 smaller military actions to be remembered. In all those wars, big and small, we see almost all of the Ostoja families participating and in many cases in commanding position.[120]

As many others, Ostoja families was punished for participating in Uprisings and other military actions and lost their properties as they were confiscated. According to Norman Davis, the consequences of the January Uprising in 1863 in Russian part of the Commonwealth was deportation of 80.000 people to Siberia or other working camps. Confiscated properties of Ostoja families where given to those families that was loyal to Russia, Austria or Prussia. In such way, several families gained in power during the partition, receiving high offices, nominations and lot of land. They were also given noble titles of Baron or Count or even Prince for their support and service. But Ostoja's was not only good at fighting the enemy. Families kept part of their properties, Manor houses and Palaces outside the conflict and war to be able to support refugies, wonded and those in need. They acted both openly against foreign forces and in conspiracy using same successful tactics as families did in the time of Stibor of Stiboricz. Following information is taken from articles in polish Wikipedia.

Adam Ostaszewki of Ostoja (1860 1934) was a pioneer of polish aviation constructing several aircraft's. Ostaszewski hold doctor degree in philosophy and law. He was furthermore writer, poet and translator of poetry from all over the world as he knew some 20 languages. He worked with astronomy, made sculptures, painted and was also interested in several different fields like optics, physics, electricity and magnetism, history, archeology, chemistry, botanic, zoology and many others. This remarkable man was often called "Leonardo from Wzdow".

Kacper Kotkowski (1814 1875) was catholic priest, head and commissar of the Sandomierz uprising while Stanis aw B ociszewski received the Order of Virtuti Militari for his patriotic fight as an officer against Russian forces. Jan Czeczot was famous poet and ethnographer in Belarus. In Russia, Andrzej Miklaszewski was Actual State Councillor (e.g., Marshall and General - Table of Ranks) and in his position being able to help many families, saving them from exile in Siberia. In the mean time, Jan Kazimierz Ordyniec was owner and publisher of "Dziennik Warszawski" was heating up the resistance with articles. In the end, he was forced to emigrate and joned famous society at H tel Lambert in Paris.

Spirydion Ostaszewski (1797 1875) was writing down polish legends which was important for the cause and fight for the liberty of Poland. He participated in November Uprising 1830-1831 and helped many families returning from Siberia to settle down in west part of Ukraine. In the mean time, Teofil Wojciech Ostaszewski initiated first program against Serfdom. He was also the Marshal of Brzostowo County. ukasz Solecki was Bishop of Przemy l and professor of the Lviv University, Jan Aleksander Kar owicz became well known ethnographer, linguist, documenting the folklore while Mieczys aw Kar owicz was composer of several symphonies and poems. Zygmunt Czechowicz was one of the initiators of the uprising of the Belarus Nation.

Ladies Emma and Maria A. from Ostaszewski branch of Ostoja (1831 1912 and 1851 1918) where both devoted social activists and patriots. They raised founds for helping wonded and poor during the time of uprisings. Lady Karolina Wojnarowska (1814 1858) born Rylska was author writing under the pseudonym Karol Nowowiejski.

20th century to 1945

Between the First and Second World Wars, several Ostoja families were still in possession of many castles and manor houses. Despite Ostoja involvement in all military actions and uprisings. This show that the strategy was still to keep few family members out of the Uprisings and military actions to preserve some economical ground for the future of the family.

Also here we can find almost all Ostoja families fighting. From the end of the 18th century to the end of World War II, many army Generals was from the Ostoja Clan and there were several great Colonels, Majors and Captains that the Clan contributed with.[121] Almost all men from the Ostoja Clan was holding the officer rank, even if they were poets or artists. Some of them was fighting in Polish Army (Armia Krajowa), some of them left Russian Camps and Siberia to join the Anders Army, others joined the British Royal Air Force and some helped to break the Enigma machine ciphers.

Hipotit Brodowicz and Adam Mokrzecki reached the rank of General Major in the army, the later widely decorated for commanding troups in Polish Soviet War between 1919-1921. Stefan Mokrzecki was also a general in the Polish army serving country well. Witold cibor-Rylski (1871 1926) was officer that emigrated to the USA in 1898 but came back to Poland in 1914 to help the Country in World War I holding the rank of Colonel. He was serving Poland through the Polish-Soviet War and left for United States after the campagne. His service for Poland was widely recognized and he also finally received the rank of General from President August Zaleski.

W odzimierz Zag rski (1882 1927) was a general in the Polish army. During the years of 1914 1916 he was a chief of staff of Polish Legions. Since November 1918 in Polish Armed Forces. As former intelligence officer, he accused J zef Pi sudski for being spy in favour of Austria. Outside the military service, W adys aw Chotkowski (1843 1926) was a professor and head of Jagiellonian University and another Adam Ostaszewski was President of Plock to year 1934.

A room in Ostoya Palace of today, property of Rylski family
A room in Ostoya Palace of today, property of Rylski family
Adam Hrebnicki-Doktorowicz (1857 1941) was a professor in agriculture development, founder of Institute in Ukraine and Karzimierz Zag rski (1883 1944) was widely recognized adventurer-pioneer, photographer.

Bronis aw Bohatyrewicz (1870 1940) was a general in the Polish army, died in Katyn. General Zbigniew cibor Rylski (born 1917) succeeded to survive World War II and his wife, Zofia Rylska was during the war a master spy under the cover name of Marle Springer. Her information led to localization and destruction of German battleship Tirpitz. In the mean time, Stanislaw Danielewicz was working with Enigma machineciphers breaking. Karola Uniechowska(1904 1955) was voluntary medical doctor during World War II, she also participated in the Battle of Monte Cassino while Zofia Uniechowska (1909 1993) - achieved Order of Virtuti Militari for conspiracy against Nazi government in Poland. Stefan cibor-Bogus awski (1897 1978) was richly awarded Colonel, also for his decisive actions in the Battle of Monte Cassino.

Stanis aw Chrostowski (1897 1947) was a professor and artist and Maxim Rylski (1895 1969) became a famous poet in Ukraine. There is a park and institution named after him in Kiev, there are also three stautes of him in this town in memory for his great contribution to the people of Ukraine. Another Hrebnicki, Stanis aw Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki (1888 1974) was decorated professor in geology.

Wac aw Krzywiec (1908 1956) was a famous warship komandor with the destroyer, ORP B yskawica. He was falsely accused by the communist regime in Poland after World War II, and was sent to prison after a famous trial, dying shortly after release. The S o ski brothers served in the RAF as pilots and officers, all three dying in the course of duty. Zbigniew Rylski, a major in the Polish army, was widely decorated for many important sabotage actions during World War II.

Zygmund Ignacy Rylski (1898 1945) - legendary Major Ha cza, later advanced to rang of Colonel. One of most devoted and widely decorated officers during World War II. Lady Izabela Zieli ska born Ostaszewska year 1910 have experience of 101 years of past changes and many wars. Being musician, she was decorated with medal of Gloria Artis in 2011. Marcelina Antonina Scibor-Kotkowska of Ostoja was the mother of Witold Gombrowicz.

Late 20th and 21st centuries

Handmade doors entering the Ostoya Palace of today owned by Rylski family
Handmade doors entering the Ostoya Palace of today owned by Rylski family
After World War II, many Ostoja were treated as enemies of the state, and many chose exile, emigrating internationally. Some stayed in Poland, or returned from France, England, Scotland or where they had been placed on military service during WW II. With the exception of the Ostaszewski Palace in Krak w, communist governments in Poland, Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine confiscated all Ostoja property. After the fall of communism, none of these properties have been returned and no compensation has been given. Most of the old familiy properties were burned down by fighting armies during WW I, WW II and during Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1921. The existing Ostoya Palace around Rzeszow taken care by Rylski branch of Ostoja is an exception.

Antoni Uniechowski (1903 1976) was widely recognized painter in Poland, known for his drawings. Aleksander cibor-Rylski (1928 1983) was poet, writer and film director and Tadeusz S dzimir (1894 1989) was worldwide known inventor. His name has been given to revolutionary methods of processing steel and metals used in every industrialized nation of the world. In 1990 Poland's large steel plant in Krak w (formerly the Lenin Steelworks) was renamed to Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks.

Joseph Stanislaus Ostoja-Kotkowski (1922 1994) was famous artist that worked with photography, film-making, theater, design, fabric design, murals, kinetic and static sculpture, stained glass, vitreous enamel murals, op-collages, computer graphics and also laser art. He was a pioneer regarding laser kinetics and "sound and image".

Tadeusz Ostaszewski (1918 2003) was professor of fine arts in University of Krakow, Adam Koz owiecki (1911 2007) was Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Lusaka in Zambia, Andrzej Zag rski (1926 2007) was devoted officer of Armia Krajowa that wrote over 250 publications about polish underground resistance and Kazimierz Tumi owicz (1932 2008) was creator of Siberian association of remembrance and social worker in Greater Poland. Andrzej Ostoja-Owsiany (1931 2008) was Senator in Poland after the fall of the communism.

Notable members

Notable members[122][123][124][125] of the Clan of Ostoja:

Ladies of Ostoja

  • Lady Halina de Krepy (1270) - Daughter of Castellan Piotr Krepy. For the defense of Sandomierz
  • Lady Marianna cibor-Marchocka (1603 1652) - Author writing prose
  • Lady El bieta S uszka (1619 1671) - Lady of great power in Commonwealth
  • Lady Krystyna cibor-Bogus awska (-1783) - Lady of regality of W g czew, nomination received by the King Poniatowski.
  • Lady Karolina Wojnarowska (1814 1858) born Rylski - author writing under the pseudonym Karol Nowowiejski
  • Lady Emma Ostaszewska (1831 1912) - Social activist, patriot
  • Lady Maria A. Ostaszewska (1851 1918) - Social activist, patriot
  • Lady Karola Uniechowska(1904 1955) - Voluntary, medical doctor during WWII, participated in the Battle of Monte Cassino
  • Lady Zofia Uniechowska (1909 1993) - achieved Virtuti Militari for conspiracy against Nazi government in Poland
  • Lady Zofia Rylski - master spy during WWII as "Marie Springer", her information led to localization and destruction of German Battleship Tirpitz
  • Lady Izabela Zieli ska born Ostaszewska 1910 - musician, decorated with medal of Gloria Artis 2011
  • Lady Maja Ostaszewska (born 1972) - theater and film actress. Best Actress Award at the Polish Film Festival held in Gdynia in 1998

Lords and Knights of Ostoja

  • Mo cic de Magni Kozmin - Voivode of Poznan 1242-1252
  • Piotr de Krepy - Castellan of Sandomierz 1270
  • J drzej of Ostoja - Castellan of Poznan 1343
  • Mo cic de Stiboricz - Voivode of Gniewkowo 1353, father of Stibor o Stiboricz
  • Jakusz de Blociszewo - Voivode of Lwow 1370
  • Abel Biel de Bleszno - Burgrave of Wielun 1376, Lord of regality of Inowroc aw and Krzepice. Chamberlain of Wielun. Powerful, wealthy knight who declared his belief that he was a Lord that only God commands. Along with many Ostojas, he supported Prince Wladyslaw Opolczyk in 1373. The Bleszno castle stronghold is probably his creation.
  • Stibor de Radzimin - Bishop of Plock 1390
  • Mikolaj Bydgoski - Castellan of Bydgoszcz, Hungarian Baron 1400, brother of Stibor of Stiboricz, Lord of Kazza
  • Jan Rokosz - Judge of Krakow 1400, brother of Rokossius, powerful Knight. Jan is reputed to have participated in 26 battles, all of them victorious
  • Stibor of Stiboricz (1348 1414) - Lord of Slovakia, ruler of Transylvania, Bratislava, Lord on 31 castles, one of richest and most powerful Magnates in Europe
  • Moscic de Staszow - Castellan of Poznan 1413
  • Piotr of Ostoja - Burgrave of Krakow, Scourge of Teutonic Knights, personal Chamberlain to the Queen of Poland, Zofia (wife of Ladislaus Jogaila) and her child, Casimir
  • Swietos aw I owiecki - Castellan of Karzec 1415
  • Andrzej Podczaszy - Voivode of Trencs n, Hungarian Baron
  • Stibor de minori Stiboric - Archbishop of Eger
  • Rokossius (Rokosz) Che mski - Bishop of Kamianets-Podilskyi 1378-1398
  • Wawrzyniec of Ostoja - Landlord of Ciechanow and Plonsk, Lord of Bogurzyn, Kuchary, Dobrsko, Malu yn, Niechodzin, Wierzbica, Dzyrdzynek and Nyechadzyno, castles and economic buildings.
  • Mikolaj B ociszewski - Castellan of Sanok 1403, Lord of Poznan 1417, one of the most trusted Lords of King Jogaila
  • Stibor de Beckov (-1434) - Lord of Slovakian Counties, Lord of Orava, Magnate, son of Stibor of Stiboricz, owner of half of western Slovakia, properties in Poland, Morawia and Germany.
  • Piotr Che mski - Burgrave of Krakow 1418, Castellan of Po aniec 1434, received the town of Lembark from King Jogaila, one of Kings most trusted Knights, was in charge of educating Fredrich von Brandenburg
  • Jan Che mski - Castellan of Po aniec 1451
  • Piotr Gajewski of Ostoja - Castellan of Kalisz 1456
  • Piotr Franczoch de Lopuszna - Voivode of Sanok 1456
  • Mikolaj Biel de Jerzykowo - Castellan of Ostrow
  • Piotr Stibor de Poniec (-1471) - Lord of the regality of Greater Poland 1460 and of Marieburg (Malbork), Diplomat
  • Marcin Poniecki (1448 1498) - Son of Piotr Stibor, the first poets writing in polish language
  • Jan Ja ski de Turze - Voivode of Pomerania and Gdansk 1454, Lod of regality of Tczew, Starogard Gda ski, Nowe County and Kiszewskie
  • Miko aj Szarlejski (1400 1457) - Voivode of Inowroc aw, Voivode of Kujawy and Brze Kujawski, Lord of Bydgoszcz, Supreme Commander of polish army in Prussia, Lord of Tuchola County, Brodnica County, Lord of regality in Gniewkowo. Member of the Prussian Confederation, son of Mikolaj Bydgoski"
  • Piotr de Chotkowo (Kotkowski) - Bishop of Plock 1480-1497
  • Marcorius de Magni Solec (Solecki) - Bishop of Sardyensk 1499
  • Maciej Kaw czy ski (-1572) - Editor, making reforms in Lithuania
  • Miko aj Kreza (-1574) Rittmeister of the Crown
  • Micha Maleczkowski - Magnus procurator of Lesser Poland 1576-1577
  • Kacper Karli ski (-1590) - Lord of regality of Olsztyn 1563-1587, famous for defence of Olsztyn in 1587
  • Gabriel S o ski (1520 1598) - Architect, Burgrave of Krakowa
  • Krzysztof S uszka - (-1619) Voivode of Livonia (Wendenski), brother of Aleksander, Voivode of Trakai
  • Salomon Rysi ski (1565 1625) Famous writer
  • Micha S dziw j (Michael Sendivogius, S dzimir) (1566 1636) - famous European alchemist, philosopher, medical doctor
  • Marcin Szyszkowski (1554 1630) - Bishop of Krak w, Prince of Siewierz
  • Wojciech Gajewski - Castellan of Rogozin 1631-1641
  • Piotr Szyszkowski - Castellan of Wojno 1643
  • Miko aj Szyszkowski (1590 1643) - Prince-bishop of Warmia from 1633
  • Krzysztof Boguszewski (-1635) - painter, artist of Greater Poland
  • Stanis aw Bzowski (1567 1637) member of Dominican Order, friend of reforms, appointed by Vatikan City to write down its history.
  • Aleksander S uszka (1580 1647) - Castellan of Samogitia, Voivode of Minsk (-1638), Novogrod (-1642), Trakai(-1647)
  • Pawe Danielewicz, Judge of Vilnius 1648, Marshal of the Lithuanian Court of Justice, Lord of regality of Intursk
  • ukasz Gajewski - Castellan of Santok 1661
  • Jan Stachurski - General major 1664
  • Kazimierz Siemienowicz (1600 1651) - General of Artillery
  • Micha Scibor-Rylski - Castellan of Gostyn 1685
  • Bogus aw Aleksander Unichowski (-1700) - Voivode of Trakai 1696, Marshal of the Lithuanian Tribunal 1687
  • Miko aj Scibor Marchocki - Castellan of Malogoski ( arn w) 1697
  • Josef Bogus aw Sluszka (1652 1701) - Hetman, Castellan of Trakai and Vilnius
  • Dominik Micha S uszka (1655 1713) - Voivode of Polotsk
  • Aleksander Jozef Unichowski (-1725) - Castellan of Samogitia (Zmudz)
  • Aleksander Scibor Marchocki (-1737) - Castellan of Malogoski
  • Franciszek Gajewski (Castellan)) (1675 1753) - Castellan of konarsk-kuyavia
  • Florian Hrebnicki (1684-1762) - Archbishop of Polotsk
  • Antoni Gajewski (-1775) - Castellan of Naklo, Lord of the regality of czyca and of Ko ciany
  • Rafa Tadeusz Gajewski (1714 1776)- Castllan of Rogozin
  • J zef Jakli ski - Castellan of Kamensk/Spicymir 1759-1775
  • J zef Siemo ski - General adj. of King Poniatowski, supreeme commander of Sandomierz uprising iniciated by Ko ciuszko
  • Karol Podgorski (-1781)- Major General in Prussian army
  • Micha W adys aw Lniski (1723 1777) - vice Voivode and Marshal of the Contederetion of Bar in Pomerania
  • Wojciech Marchocki (-1788) - Castellan of Sanok
  • J zef Andrzej Mikorski - Castellan in Rawy from 1791
  • Franciszek Ksawery cibor-Bogus awski (1713-1796) - Rittmeister of the Confederation of Bar
  • Tadeusz B ociszewski (-1803) Major General
  • Micha Ostaszewski (1720-1816) - one of main initiators of the Confederation of Bar in Subcarpathian Voivodeship
  • Tomasz Ostaszewski(1746-1817) - Bishop of Plock
  • Antoni Baranowski (general) (1760 1821) Major General
  • J zef Siemo ski general adj. of King Poniatowski
  • Ignacy cibor Marchocki (1755 1827) - "Kingdom of Mi kowce"
  • Jan Czeczot (1796 1847) - Poet, ethnographer
  • Andrzej Miklaszewski - Actual State Councillor (eg. Marshall and General - Table of Ranks) of Russia 1863
  • Jan Kazimierz Ordyniec (1797 1863) - great patriot, publisher of "Dziennik Warszawski"
  • Spirydion Ostaszewski (1797 1875) - for writing down polish legends
  • Kacper Kotkowski (1814 1875) - catholic priest, head and commissar of the Sandomierz uprising
  • Stanis aw B ociszewski (1804 1888) - Officer, great patriot, Virtuti Militari
  • Teofil Wojciech Ostaszewski (1807-1889) - initiated first program against Serfdom, Marshal of Brzostowo County
  • ukasz Solecki (1827 1900) - Bishop of Przemy l, Professor of the Lviv University
  • Jan Aleksander Kar owicz (1836 1903) - Ethnographer, linguist, folklore
  • Mieczys aw Kar owicz (1876 1909) Composer of several symphonies and poems
  • Zygmunt Czechowicz (1831 1907) - One of the initiators of the uprising of the Belarus Nation
  • Hipotit Brodowicz - Major General WCR
  • Stanis aw Ostaszewski (1862 1915) Inventor, promotor of new technology
  • Adam Mokrzecki (1856 1921) - Major General in Russian army, General in polish army
  • Rudolf Starzewski Famous chief editor of "Czasu", described by Wyspia ski in "Wedding"
  • Adam Mokrzecki (1856 1921) - Major General in russian and later in polish army
  • Stefan Mokrzecki (1862 1932) - General in russian and later inpolish army
  • Witold cibor-Rylski (1871 1926) - General
  • W adys aw Chotkowski (1843 1926) Professor and head of Jagiellonian University
  • W odzimierz Zag rski (1882 1927) - General
  • Adam Ostaszewski (1860 1934) - Inventor, Pioneer
  • Adam Ostaszewski (1866-1934) - President of Plock
  • Bronis aw Bohatyrewicz (1870 1940) - General
  • Adam Hrebnicki-Doktorowicz (1857 1941) Professor in agriculture development, founder if Institute.
  • Karzimierz Zag rski (1883 1944) - Adventurer-Pioneer
  • Zygmund Ignacy Rylski (1898-1945) - legendary Major Ha cza, later advanced to rang of Colonel.
  • Stanis aw Chrostowski (1897 1947) - Professor, artist
  • Wac aw Krzywiec (1908 1956) famous komandor of the legendary ORP B yskawica warship
  • Maxim Rylski, (1895-1969) - famous poet in Ukraine
  • Stanis aw Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki (1888 1974) - Professor in geology, decorated.
  • Antoni Uniechowski (1903 1976)- Famous painter, drawings
  • Stefan cibor-Bogus awski (1897-1978) - Colonel, richly awarded, also for contributing in the Battle of Monte Cassino
  • Bronis aw He czy ski (1890 1978) - Professor in law, Oxford University, minister
  • Aleksander cibor-Rylski (1928-1983) - poet, writer and film director
  • Tadeusz S dzimir (1894 1989) - World wide known inventor
  • J zef Stanis aw Ostoja-Kotkowski (1922 1994) - Artist

Stanislaw Ostoja-Kotkowski, pioneer
Stanislaw Ostoja-Kotkowski, pioneer

  • Tadeusz Ostaszewski (1918 2003) - Professor of fine arts, Krakow University
  • Adam Koz owiecki (1911 2007) - Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Lusaka in Zambia.
  • Andrzej Zag rski (1926 2007) - devoted officer in Armia Krajowa, wrote over 250 publications about polish underground resistance
  • Kazimierz Tumi owicz (1932 2008) great patriot, creator of Siberian association of remembrance, social worker in Greater Poland
  • Andrzej Ostoja-Owsiany (1931-2008) - Senator of Poland after the fall of communism
  • Zbigniew cibor Rylski (born 1917) - General
  • Zbigniew Rylski (born 1923) - widely decorated patriot, General of polish army
  • Eustachy Rylski (born 1944) - widely recognized drama and prose writer

See also

  • Treaty of Lubowla
  • Nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary
  • Stibor of Stiboricz
  • Rulers of Transylvania
  • List of castles in Slovakia
  • Second Peace of Thorn
  • Beckov Castle
  • Malbork Castle
  • Szlachta
  • Union of Horod o
  • Magnate
  • Union of Lublin
  • Sejm of the Republic of Poland
  • Offices in the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth
  • Polish Hussars
  • Polish heraldry
  • Polish clans
  • Battle of Lw w (1918)
  • November Uprising
  • January Uprising
  • Ko ciuszko Uprising
  • Ostoja coat of arms

References

Sources

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  • Piotr Nalecz-Malachowski, Zbior nazwisk szlachty, Lublin 1805, reprint Biblioteka narodowa w Warszawie 1985, (nr. sygn. List of ruleBN80204)
  • M. Cetwi ski i M. Derwich, Herby, legendy, dawne mity, Wroc aw 1987
  • K. Jasi ski: Rodow d pierwszych Piast w, Pozna : 2004, pp. 185 187. ISBN 83-7063-409-5.
  • Franciszek Ksawery Piekosinski, Heraldyka polska wiekow srednich [Polish Heraldry of the Middle Ages], Cracow, 1899
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  • Bartosz Parpocki, Herby Rycerstwa Polskiego, Krakow 1584, Kazimierz Jozef Turowski edition, Krakow 1858, Nakladem Wydawnictwa Bibliteki Polskiej
  • Norman Davies, Bo e igrzysko, t. I, Wydawnictwo ZNAK, Krak w 1987, ISBN 83-7006-052-8
  • Oswald Balzer was in favor of 1086 as the year of birth, in bases of the records of the oldest Polish source: Roczniki wi tokrzyskie and Rocznik kapitulny krakowski; O. Balzer: Genealogia Piast w
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  • Sandomierz.pl, oficialny serwis miasta Sandomierza, historia-sandomierskie legendy
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  • Severyn Uruski "Rodzina. Herbarz Szlachty Polskiej", Warszawa 1904-1917
  • Kasper Niesiecki, "Herbarz Polski" Leipzig, 1839 1846
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External links

pl:Ostoja (herb szlachecki)






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