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Chess in Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan's National men's and women's teams in the European Championship 2007 Chess is one of the most popular types of sport in Azerbaijan. It is led by the Chess Federation of Azerbaijan. On May 5, 2009 Ilham Aliyev, the President of Azerbaijan Chairman of the National Olympic Committee of the Republic signed an order about the State Support of Chess. State Program involves the development of chess in 2009-2014 s.[1]

Contents


History of chess in Azerbaijan

Chess appeared in the territory of modern Azerbaijan approximately in the V-VI centuries. References about chess are met in works of classics of the Persian poetry, such Azerbaijani thinkers as Khaqani and Nizami (XII-XIII centuries), and also in Fuzuli s (XVI century) and others works: writer and philosopher Mirza Fatali Akhundov explained the rules of chess game in his Shatranj game (1864) poem by means of poetry.

Azerbaijan as a member of the USSR

The Chess Organization was created after creation of the Azerbaijan SSR (1920) and the game acquired a mass character. The first publications about chess were published in Bakinskiy Rabochiy newspaper in the early 1920s. In 1923, was held the All-Baku tournament winners of which were Makogonov brothers. In 1924, a conference with participation of Komsomols and labor union set a task of chess propaganda, which was favored by participation of Fedor Duz-Khotimirsky and Nikolai Grigoriev in Baku. After the second half of 1920 s, a group of young and skilled chess-players: Sarychev and Danilov brothers, O.Rostovtsev, N.Doktorskiy, K.Salimkhanov and A.Bilibin appeared. Lectures and sessions of a simultaneous game stimulated a spread of chess in Azerbaijan. On May 2 3, 1929, a match of national teams of Baku and Tbilisi was held on 8 chessboards, in Baku.

In 1934, was held the 1st Men's Championship of Azerbaijan: Selimkanov took the 1st place (by 1935 chairman of the Chess Organization of Azerbaijan); in 1936, was held the 1st Women's Championship (the 1st place-Rojdestvenskaya). A champion of the South Caucasus (1936) became A.Polisskaya (Baku). In 1938, a woman chess school was opened under Baku Chess and Checkers Club.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, there wasn t held any competition, except a match of S.Flor-V.Makogonov (Baku, 1942, not concluded) and a two-circled tournament in June July, 1943 with participation of Flor, D.Bronstein, V.Makogonov, A.Ebralidze and Abramyan: Flor took the 1st place with 5 points from 7. Men's Championships of the Republic are held annually from since 1947.

From 1950 s, began the active development of chess movement in Azerbaijan. Chess circle of Baku Pioneer Palace, created by Abramyan, played an important role in spread of chess among children and youth. Activity of chess sections of such sport unions as Neftchi , Spartak , Nauka , Energiya , Medik , Iskra and others was activated. Successes of V.Makogonov, chess leader of the Republic, also favored the propaganda of chess. Women's championships are also regularly organized since 1960.

In 1950 s, A.Zeynalli, S.Khalilbeyli (the 1st Azerbaijani master on chess) and V.Bagirov (repeated republic champion) became the leaders of the Republic chess-players. Elmar Magerramov, F.Sideifzade, O.Pavlenko, B.Levitas, L.Listengarten, O.Privorotskiy, G.Govashelishvili, L.Guldin, A.Morgulev and R.Korsunskiy won in championships. E.Sardarov, A.Shakhtakhtinskiy, R.Amirkhanov and D.Abakarov participated in competitions successfully.

In 1970-1980 s, advance a number of young chess-players: A.Huseynov (champion of the South Caucasus, 1982), A.Shakarov, A.Velibeyov, S.Suleymanov, K.Askaryan, A.Avshalumov, Kh.Rasulov, S.Guliyev, Jabbarov brothers, G.Gojayev and others. In 1980 s, Garry Kasparov achieved great successes and became the world champion. T.Zatulovskaya, M.Martirosova, N.Avanesova (Karakashyan), A.Tokarjevskaya, A.Gorbuleva, A.Pirbudagova, Kh.Nabiyeva, S.Alasgarova, V.Jebrayilova, N.Agababayan, A.Saakova, E.Aliyeva, A.Sofiyeva (Champion of the USSR among girls, 1986) successfully participated in championships and other competitions. Women's national team of the Republic was the winner of a Sport Contest of the USSR nations (1986).

Besides the chess circle of Baku Palace of Pioneers and Pupils named after Y.Gagarin (including alumni Kasparov, Bagirov, Zatulovskaya, Maharramov and others), such unions as Spartak , Burevestnik , Neftchi , Dinamo and others in rural areas- Mehsul union, which opened chess clubs were also engaged in chess. The 1st Baku Children and Youth Chess School of Azerbaijan (since 1982-Republic sport school of chess of the Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan) was established in 1968. From late 1970s, more than 50 sport schools for children and youth were opened in districts of the Republic. Annual chess festivals of pupils are held since 1982.

In Baku were held great All-union and international competitions: 29th and 49th Men's championships pf the country (1961 1972); 23rd Women's championship (1963); 20th international tournament of the Central Chess Club of the USSR; Baku tournaments. National team of Azerbaijan participated in team championships of the USSR: in 1951-the 5th; 1958-10th; 1960-the 9th; 1952-10th; 1969 and 1972 the 9th; 1981-14th; 1985-the 7th and 8th places. Team of the Republic participated in sport competitions of the USSR nations: in 1959, 1963, 1967 the 9th; 1975 the 11th; 1979 the 13th; 1983 the 11th; 1986 - the 14th (men) and 1st places (women).

Correspondence chess

Correspondence chess competitions are held from the mid 1970 s. In 1976, a commission on correspondence game was established under the Chess Federation of Azerbaijan; 4 championships were held in Azerbaijan (winners L.Voloshin (1974 1975); S.Vdovin (1977 1978); V.Tsaturyan (1981 1983); S.Serebryakov (1984 1985)). Baku citizen P.Atyeshev took the 1st place at the 2nd championship of thye USSR and in correspondence he became the champion of the 3rd Olympiad as a member of the USSR team. Azerbaijani team took the 11th place among 13 teams in the 5th championship of the USSR (in the 6th championship 10-11th places among 17, in 7th championship the 3rd place among 17 teams).

Chess composition

Initial activity of the chess composition in Azerbaijan is connected to A.Gurvich. In 1920 s, problems and endgames of Sarychev brothers were published in Bakinskiy Rabochiy newspaper. In 1970, a Commission on Composition was created under the Chess Federation of Azerbaijan. Its first chairman was master A.Sarychev. The following people won in the championships of Azerbaijan:

  • The 1st (1974) N.Gulamov - twomover, A.Sarychev - endgames;
  • The 2nd (1974 1977) Gulamov - twomover, R.Alovsatzade - threemover, S.Khachaturov - moremover, Sarychev - endgames;
  • The 3rd (open, 1977 1979) V.Melnichenko - twomovement, A.Kalinin - threemover, A.Popandopulo - moremover, Alovsatzade - helpmate, M.Vahidov selfmate;
  • The 4th (1983) Rauf Adigozalzade twomovers and moremovers, Z.Eyvazova threemovers, Sarychev endgames;
  • The 5th (open, 1985) S.Shedey twomovers, V.Kopayev threemovers, Khachaturov moremovers, G.Nadareishvili endgames, A.Pankartyev-helpmate and selfmate.

National team of Azerbaijan took the 8th place in the 8th All-Union Team Championship of Chess Compositors (1972 1973), the 9th place in the 9th (1975 1976), 4th place in the 10th (1977 1978), 8th place in the 11th (1981 1982) and 7th place in the 12th (1984 1985).

A number of composers achieved success in the All-Union and international contests: Sarychev (endgames) the 2nd place in Olympiad in Leipzig (1961) and the 1st place in international contests of such magazines as New statesman (1961, 1977), Shakkelet (1970), Ceskoslovenski schah (1977); B.Baday (endgames) the first place in a contest of Shahmati v SSSR (1961) magazine and in a contest to A.Kubbel; Khachaturov the 1st place in thematic contest of moremoves (1973); e.Yusupov he 1st place in a contest of the Roman magazine Revista Romine de shah (1976); Rauf Adigozalzade and Vahidov (twomovers) the 1st place in international contests of Student newspaper (Yugoslavia; 1979 1980) and others; A.Zygalov the 1st place in international contests of Tem-64 (France;1979) magazine and in Hungary (1982).

Published books

The first chess books Iqra v shahmati (Chess game) (1982) and Nachalniy kurs shahmatnoy iqri (Essentials of chess game) (1932) by R.Safarova. Course of chess lections M.Eyve (1936) and Chess codex of the USSR (1938) were also published in Azerbaijani. From March, 1981 a biweekly attachment called Chess was published in the Republican newspaper Sport in Russian and Azerbaijani languages. Regular chess headings were published in Kommunist , Bakinskiy rabochiy , Vishka newspapers and in district newspapers. Television organizes programs called Chess club and Schools of chess coaches two times in a month.

Chess and Azerbaijani literature

Chess took an important place in Azerbaijani literature. A German professor Meier gave explanation to Azerbaijani poetess Mahsati Genjevi s rubai about chess, in a book called Beautiful Mahsati published in 1963, in Wiesbaden.

Khagani Shirvani, master of word of the XI-XII centuries, in his work called Tohfatul Iraqeyn writes that connection of rooks in chess enables threat and it is very dangerous for enemy. Chess motifs are also reflected in works of the great classic Azerbaijani literature - Nizami Ganjavi. A frequent tracing of chess game are in all poems included to Khamse. Haji Ali Tebrizi, living in the XIV century, could play chess without looking, simultaneously with four players. He gained a name of the first chess-player, becoming the winner among all strongest chess-players not only in his country and also in the whole empire of Timur. In his Leyli and Majnun poem Fuzuli, giving a deep meaning to formation of chess figures and comparing Mejnun with himself wrote that despite Majnun lived in the more earlier historical period there is always a pawn in the world of love, while he is (Fuzuli) the king and despite that the pawn stands in front of the king he prefers to be the pawn and Majnun, who came to life earlier is just a pawn standing in front of the king.

Azerbaijan's national team of men

Men's team of Azerbaijan President of Azerbaijan Chess Federation - Elman Rustamov and President of the World Chess Federation FIDE Kirsan Ilyumzhinov

The National team of Azerbaijan became the third team in the history of chess, which won a match against the combined team of the world. The first similar game was held in 1970, in Belgrade, where the combined tam of the USSR wan the combined team of the world with a score of 20,5:19,5. The Soviet chess-players repeated their achievement in 1984, but this time in London, winning the compound team of the world with a score of 21:19. But in 2002, in Moscow, during the third meeting, compound team of Russia yielded to the world grand, where also played Azerbaijani grandmaster Teymur Rajabov with a score of 48:52.

On October 30, 2009 Men s Compound Chess Team of Azerbaijan became a champion of Team championship of Europe in a Serb city Novi Sad.[2] Vugar Gashimov brought victory to the team, after a long struggle with Dani l Stellwagen. The other three parts finished in a draw. As a result Azerbaijan gained 15 points and outrun Russia with 1 point, winning the world title.

International chess competitions in Baku

Baku Grand-Prix 2008

The first series of Grand Prix of 2008-2009 s, held in Baku from April 20 to May 6, 2008. Category was 19th. Middle rate of participants 2717. The following people became winners:

  • Vugar Hashimov, Azerbaijan
  • Wang Yue, PRC
  • Magnus Carlsen, Norway

Cup of the President of Azerbaijan

The participants of the tournament on the stage of "Uns" theatre Teymur Rajabov A meeting of Azerbaijan s National team against the World s Compound team in which the guests won with a score of 21,5-10,5, was held from May 7 to 9, 2009, on the stage of Uns theatre in Baku and was held under the President s Cup dedicated to the memory of Heydar Aliyev.[3][4] Structures of the teams were the following:

Women s Chess Tournament Baku-2007

Women s Chess Tournament Baku 2007 was held in 2007, in Baku, with participation of such famous chess-players as Antoaneta Stefanova from Bulgaria ex-champion of the world, Kateryna Lahno from Ukraine twice champion of Europe, Monika So ko from Poland winner of team championship of Europe in 2005 and others.

References

Literature

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