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Beauty pageant

A beauty pageant or beauty contest, is a competition that mainly focuses on the physical beauty of its contestants, although such contests often incorporate personality, talent, and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The phrase almost invariably refers only to contests for women and girls; similar events for men or boys are called by other names and are more likely to be bodybuilding contests. Winners of beauty contests are often called beauty queens. Children's beauty pageants mainly focus on beauty, gowns, sportswear modelling, talent, and personal interviews. Adult and teen pageants focus on makeup, hair and gowns, swimsuit modelling, and personal interviews. Possible awards include titles, tiaras or crowns, sashes, savings bonds, and cash prizes.

Contents


History

Lone Star State Selects Beauties for 100 Year Pageant[1]

The first modern American pageant was staged by P. T. Barnum in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down by public protest. He previously held dog, baby, and bird beauty contests. He substituted daguerreotypes for judging, a practice quickly adopted by newspapers. Newspapers held photo beauty contests for many decades: In 1880, the first Bathing Beauty Pageant" took place as part of a summer festival to promote business in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware.

Contests became a regular part of summer beach life, with the most elaborate contests taking place in Atlantic City, New Jersey ( Fall Frolic ) and Galveston, Texas ("Splash Day"), where the events attracted women from many cities and towns.[2]

Universal produced a newsreel of the Texas Centennial Celebration beauty pageant in 1935, which shows models attempting to fit into life-sized cutouts of the Centennial Committee's concept of the "perfect figure."[1]

Purpose

When beauty pageants began, they were viewed as trivial events whose interpretation required no scholarly effort. Miss America, the first pageant of its kind, has made an effort to ensure that it does not appear as a "stereotypical" pageant.

Pageants may be multicultural or racially specific, such as the Miss Chinese International Pageant, Miss Black America or Miss Indian America.

Another stated goal of pageants is promoting self-esteem and public-speaking abilities of the contestants. Winners of these pageants have said that they feel a sense of accomplishment.

Pageants may be aligned with community or social organizations to raise money for charities. The clubs that each contestant supports may be referred to as platforms.

Some pageants award college scholarships, to the winner or multiple runners-up.[3]

Types of pageants

In beauty pageants, there are 3 main types.

  • A glitz pageant typically features the contestants wearing heavier makeup and crystal-embellished attire; often there is a swimwear component, or "outfit of choice" modeling segment. Oftentimes the participants in glitz pageants wear a "flipper". The flipper is essentially a set of "detachable dental veneers" that are placed on top of one's natural teeth. To create a flipper, an impression is made from a special putty which is placed on top of a person's teeth. After the mold has been set, this impression kit is then sent to a dental technician, and made into the slip on veneer.
  • A semi-glitz pageant is somewhat similar to glitz, only certain details may not allowed. For example, contestants may have points taken off if they wear a flipper or hair piece. This criterion is typically mentioned in the pageant rules and guidelines. Often, semi-glitz pageants do not permit the contestants to be artificially tanned. Additionally, there may be restrictions on the amount of make up that is permitted.
  • Natural pageants allow very little or no makeup, no flippers, and limited amounts of embellishments on the gown or dress. Contestants may not wear head pieces, or points will be taken off or the contestants may be disqualified.

International Pageant of Pulchritude

In May 1920 promoter C.E. Barfield of Galveston organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island. The event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions.[2][4][5][6] The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually. The event quickly became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the "International Pageant of Pulchritude."[5] This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants.[6][7][8] It featured contestants from England, Russia, Turkey, and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe."[6][9] The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression (the international competition was revived briefly in Belgium).

Around the globe

Major international contests for women include the yearly Miss World competition (founded by Eric Morley in 1951), Miss Universe (founded in 1952), Miss International (founded in 1960) and Miss Earth (founded in 2001 with environmental awareness as its concern).[10][11] These are considered the "Big Four" pageants, the four largest and most famous international beauty contests.[12][13]

Minor contests, such as the Miss Bondi contest in Australia, are common throughout the world in the summer months. During the 1950s, pageants thrived to promote county fairs and local products. For example, some of Raquel Welch's titles included " Maid of San Diego County", " Maid of California" "Miss Photogenic" and "Miss Contour." Women from around the world participate each year in local competitions for the chance to represent their country's international title.

2002 was a year remarkable for its number of winners from countries with a majority Muslim population. In that year Miss Lebanon, Christina Sawaya won the Miss International pageant, Miss Turkey, Azra Ak n won Miss World, and the original winner of Miss Earth for that year was D ejla Glavovi from Bosnia and Herzegovina (before being replaced by Winfred Omwakwe of Kenya). In 2006, the Muslim nation of Pakistan crowned its first Miss Bikini Universe, Mariyah Moten, which later became a controversy worldwide.

Some beauty pageants have taken a less conventional route in modern times. In 2011, Dirty Beer Hole, a website that is popular among the users of social-media giants Twitter and Facebook, began seeking contestants for its irreverent, yet entertaining, Miss Cheap Beer beauty pageant.[14] Additional online beauty pageants are certain to follow in this trend of online competitions.

Selecting a "beauty queen"

Beauty pageants are generally multi-tiered, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. International pageants involve hundreds, sometimes thousands, of local competitions. In the United States, there is now a commercial beauty pageant industry that organizes thousands of local and regional events for all ages for profit, supported by magazines like The Crown Magazine and Pride of Pageantry.

Criticism

Critics of beauty contests argue that such contests reinforce the idea that girls and women should be valued primarily for their physical appearance, and that this puts tremendous pressure on women to conform to conventional beauty standards by spending time and money on fashion, cosmetics, hair styling and even cosmetic surgery. They claim that this pursuit of physical beauty even encourages some women to diet to the point of harming themselves.[15][16][17]

Some beauty pageants have also been found to be fraudulent. The promoters charge large fees, require additional photos or specific attire that must be purchased from a sponsor, and in some cases award a prize to a confederate within the contest.[18][19]

See also

  • List of beauty contests
  • Bride-show
  • Concours d'Elegance
  • Child beauty pageant
  • Living Dolls: The Making of a Child Beauty Queen

  • Related events for men:
    • Mr. Universe
    • Mr. World
    • Manhunt International
    • Mister International

  • List of beauty contests website :
  • http://www.pageant-gossip.com Pageant Gossip
    • Miss World
    • Miss Universe
    • Miss Asia Pacific
    • Miss Earth
    • Miss International

Notes

References

  1. Sones, Michael. "History of the Beauty Pageant." Beauty Worlds: The Culture of Beauty (2003): n. pag. Web. 4 November 2009.
  2. Liben, Lynn S., Rebecca S. Bigler, Diane N Ruble, Carol Lynn Martin, and Kimberly K. Powlishta. "Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Evaluating Constructs and Pathways." Developmental Course of Gender Differentiation. 67.2 i-183. Print.
  3. Harvey, Adia M. "Becoming Entrepreneurs: Intersections of Race, Class, and Gender at the Black Beauty Salon." Gender and Society. 19.6 (2005): 789-808. Print.
  4. Banet Weiser, Sarah. "The Most Beautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity." (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999)
  5. Wilk, Richard. "The Local and the Global in the Political Economy of Beauty: From Miss Belize to Miss World." Review of International Political Economy. 2.1 (1995): 117-134. Print.
  6. Burgess, Zena, and Phyllis Tharenou. "Women Board Directors: Characteristics of the Few." Journal of Business Ethics. 37.1 (2002): 39-49. Print.
  7. Huffman, Matt L., and Philip N. Cohen. "Occupational Segregation and the Gender Gap in Workplace Authority: National versus Local Labor Markets." Sociological Forum. 19.1 (2004): 121-147. Print.
  8. Ciborra, Claudio U. "The Platform Organization: Recombining Strategies, Structures, and Surprises." Organization Science. 7.2 (1996): 103-118. Print.
  9. Lamsa, Anna-Maija, and Teppo Sintonen. "A Discursive Approach to Understanding Women Leaders in Working Life." Journal of Business Ethics. 34.3/4 (2001): 255-267. Print.
  10. Bell, Myrtle P., Mary E. McLaughlin, and Jennifer M. Sequeira. "Discrimination, Harassment, and the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives as Change Agents." Journal of Business Ethics. 37.1 (2002): 65-76. Print.

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