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Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India. Located in northeast India, Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Burma in the east and the People's Republic of China in the north.

Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the dawn-lit mountains"[1]. It is also known as "land of the rising sun"[2] ("pradesh" means "state", "territory" or "region") in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. Like other parts of Northeast India, a majority of the people native to the state are of Tibeto-Burman origin. A large and increasing number of migrants have reached Arunachal Pradesh from many other parts of India, although no reliable population count of the migrant population has been conducted, and percentage estimates of total population accordingly vary widely. Part of the famous Ledo Burma Road, which was a lifeline to China during World War II, passes through the eastern part of the state.

The northern border of Arunachal Pradesh follows the McMahon Line, a border delineated in the Simla Accord that was signed by the United Kingdom and Tibet in 1914 but not by China. Both the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) claim the northern portion of Arunachal Pradesh as part of the former provinces of Tibet Area and Xikang (for the ROC), respectively the Tibet Autonomous Region (for the PRC). The PRC often refers to the claimed areas as South Tibet. Itanagar is the capital of the state.



Early history

The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh remains shrouded in mystery. Oral histories possessed to this day by many Arunachali tribes of Tibeto-Burman stock are much richer and point unambiguously to a northern origin in modern-day Tibet. Again corroboration remains difficult. From the point of view of material culture it is clear that most indigenous Arunachali groups align with Burma-area hill tribals, a fact that could either be explainable in terms of a northern Burmese origin or from westward cultural diffusion.

From the same perspective the most unusual Arunachali group by far is the Puroik/Sulung, whose traditional staple food is sago palm and whose primary traditional productive strategy is foraging. While speculatively considered to be a Tibeto-Burman population, the uniqueness of Puroik culture and language may well represent a tenuous reflection of a distant and all but unknown pre-Tibeto-Burman, Tai and Indo-Aryan past.

According to the Arunachal Pradesh Government, the region was mentioned in the Hindu texts Kalika Purana and Mahabharata, and is attested to be the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas, and was where sage Parashuram washed away sins, the sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmaka founded his kingdom and Lord Krishna married his consort Rukmini.[3]

Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Ahom chronicles of the 16th century. The Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet and Bhutan, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, came under the titular control of the Ahom and the Assamese until the annexation of India by the British in 1858. However, most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalization of indigenous administration in 1947.

Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th century Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang are somewhat automatically associated with the ancient history of Arunachal Pradesh, inasmuch as they fall within its modern-day political borders. However, such temples are generally south-facing, never occur more than a few kilometers from the Assam plains area, and are perhaps more likely to have been associated with Assam plains-based rather than indigenous Arunachali populations. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in pre-historical times. Again, however, no evidence directly associates Bhismaknagar with this or any other known culture. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people.The sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang.[4]

Drawing of McMahon line

British map published in 1909 showing the Indo-Tibetan traditional border (eastern section on the top right)
British map published in 1909 showing the Indo-Tibetan traditional border (eastern section on the top right)
In 1913-1914 representatives of China, Tibet and Britain negotiated a treaty in India: the Simla Accord.[5] This treaty's objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet as well as between Outer Tibet and British India. British administrator, Sir Henry McMahon, drew up the McMahon Line as the border between British India and Outer Tibet during the Simla Conference. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, which ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to the British Empire. The Chinese representative had no problems with the border between British India and Outer Tibet, however on the issue of the border between Outer Tibet and Inner Tibet the talks broke down. Thus, the Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out. The Tibetan Government and British Government went ahead with the Simla Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this treaty would not be bestowed on China as long as it stays out of the purview.[6] The Chinese position was that Tibet was not independent from China, so Tibet could not have independently signed treaties, and per the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions, any such agreement was invalid without Chinese assent.[7]

Simla was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention. However, this agreement (Anglo-Russian Convention) was renounced by Russia and Britain jointly in 1921. However, with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet the line had no serious challenges as Tibet had signed the convention, therefore it was forgotten to the extent that no new maps were published until 1935, when civil service officer Olaf Caroe called attention to this issue. The Survey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937. In 1938, the British finally published the Simla Convention as a bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference; in 1938 the Survey of India published a detailed map showing Tawang as part of NEFA. In 1944 Britain established administrations in the area, from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east. Tibet, however, altered its position on the McMahon Line in late 1947 when the Tibetan government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to the Tibetan district (Tawang) south of the McMahon Line.[8] The situation developed further as India became independent and the People's Republic of China was established in 1949. With the China poised to take over Tibet, India unilaterally declared the McMahon Line to be the boundary in November 1950, and forced the last remnants of Tibetan administration out of the Tawang area in 1951.[9][10] The PRC has never recognized the McMahon Line, and claims Tawang on behalf of Tibetans.[11] The 14th Dalai Lama, who led the Tibetan government from 1950 to 1959, was quoted in 2003 as saying that Tawang was "actually part of the Tibetan administration" before the Simla Accord.[12] He clarified his position in 2008, saying that as far as Tibet was concerned "Tawang is part of India".[12] According to the Dalai Lama, "In 1962 during the India-China war, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) already occupied all these areas (Arunachal Pradesh) but they announced a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew, accepting the current international boundary.[13]"

Besides, as early as 1917, The Government of China had also published the Postal map of China , published at Peking in 1917. "It shows the whole northern Boundary of India more or less according to the traditional Indian alignments"[14].

Sino-Indian War

The Postal map of China , 1917 , a Government of China s Official Government publications, published at Peking in 1917. The NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) was created in 1955. The issue was quiet during the next decade or so of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but erupted again during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured most area of Arunachal Pradesh. However, China soon declared victory, voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. The war has resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although in 2007 the state government has shown signs to resume barter trade with Tibet.[15]

After the war

Arunachal Pradesh became a separate state of India in 1986 despite the fact that the dispute over its sovereignty has not been settled with China.

More recently, Arunachal Pradesh has come to face threats from certain insurgent groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), who are believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang and Tirap.[16] There are occasional reports of these groups harassing local people and extorting protection money.[17]


Arunachal Pradesh is famous for its mountainous landscape.
Arunachal Pradesh is famous for its mountainous landscape.
The Himalayas bordering Arunachal Pradesh
The Himalayas bordering Arunachal Pradesh
Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas.

At the lowest elevations, essentially at Arunachal Pradesh's border with Assam, are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the state, including the Himalayan foothills and the Patkai hills, are home to Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests. Toward the northern border with China, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks.

In 2006 Bumla pass in Tawang was opened to traders for the first time in 44 years. Traders from both sides of the pass were permitted to enter each other's territories, in addition to postal workers from each country.

The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from Tibet. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.[18]


The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalayas close to the Tibetan border enjoy an alpine or Tundra climate. Below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a temperate climate. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience humid, sub-tropical climate with hot summers and mild winters.

Arunachal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of annually, most of it between May and September. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak, pine, maple, fir, and juniper; sal (Shorea) and teak are the main economically valuable species.


Arunachal Pradesh is divided into seventeen districts, each administered by a district collector, who sees to the needs of the local people. Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army has a considerable presence due to concerns about Chinese intentions in the region. Special permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh through any of its checkgates on the border with Assam.

Districts of Arunachal Pradesh:

  • Tirap District
  • Changlang District
  • Lohit District
  • Anjaw District
  • Lower Dibang Valley
  • Upper Dibang Valley
  • East Siang
  • West Siang
  • Upper Siang
  • Lower Subansiri
  • Upper Subansiri
  • Kurung Kumey
  • Papum Pare
  • East Kameng
  • West Kameng
  • Tawang District
  • Longding District


The chart below displays the trend of the gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh at market prices estimated by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Gross
1980 1,070
1985 2,690
1990 5,080
1995 11,840
2000 17,830

Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 was estimated at $706 million in current prices. Agriculture primarily drives the economy. Jhum, the local word for a shifting cultivation widely practiced among the tribal groups, is now less practiced. Arunachal Pradesh has close to 61,000 square kilometers of forests, and forest products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation units, and handloom handicrafts. Sawmills and plywood trades are prohibited under law.[19]

Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage of India's untapped hydroelectric power production potential. In 2008, the state government of Arunachal Pradesh signed deals with various Indian companies planning some 42 hydroelectric schemes that will produce electricity in excess of 27,000 MW.[20] Construction of the Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project, which is expected to generate between 10,000 to 12,000 MW, began in April 2009.[21]


Modern-day Arunachal Pradesh is one of the linguistically richest and most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least thirty and possibly as many as fifty distinct languages in addition to innumerable dialects and subdialects thereof. Boundaries between languages very often correlate with tribal divisions - for example, Apatani and Nyishi are both tribally and linguistically distinct - but shifts in tribal identity and alignment over time have also ensured that a certain amount of complication enters into the picture - for example, Galo is and has seemingly always been linguistically distinct from Adi, whereas the earlier tribal alignment of Galo with Adi (i.e., "Adi Gallong") has only recently been essentially dissolved.

The vast majority of languages indigenous to modern-day Arunachal Pradesh belong to the Tibeto-Burman language family. The majority of these in turn belong to a single branch of Tibeto-Burman, namely Tani. Almost all Tani languages are indigenous to central Arunachal Pradesh, including (moving from west to east) Nyishi/Nishi, Apatani, Bangni, Tagin, Hills Miri, Galo, Bokar, Lower Adi (Padam, Pasi, Minyong, and Komkar), Upper Adi (Aashing, Shimong, Karko and Bori), and Milang; only Mising, among Tani languages, is primarily spoken outside Arunachal Pradesh in modern-day Assam, while a handful of northern Tani languages including Bangni and Bokar are also spoken in small numbers in Tibet. Tani languages are noticeably characterized by an overall relative uniformity, suggesting relatively recent origin and dispersal within their present-day area of concentration. Most Tani languages are mutually intelligible with at least one other Tani language, meaning that the area constitutes a dialect chain, as was once found in much of Europe; only Apatani and Milang stand out as relatively unusual in the Tani context. Tani languages are among the better-studied languages of the region. Aka Tribe of West Kameng

To the east of the Tani area lie three virtually undescribed and highly endangered languages of the "Mishmi" group of Tibeto-Burman, Idu, Digaru and Miju. A certain number of speakers of these languages are also found in Tibet. The relationships of these languages, both amongst one another and to other area languages, are as yet uncertain. Further south, one finds the Singpho (Kachin) language, which is primarily spoken by large populations in Burma, and the Nocte and Wancho languages, which show affiliations to certain "Naga" languages spoken to the south in modern-day Nagaland.

To the west and north of the Tani area are found at least one and possibly as many as four Bodic languages, including Dakpa and Tshangla; within modern-day India, these languages go by the cognate but, in usage, distinct designations Monpa and Memba. Most speakers of these languages or closely related Bodic languages are found in neighbouring Bhutan and Tibet, and Monpa and Memba populations remain closely adjacent to these border regions.

Between the Bodic and Tani areas lie a large number of almost completely undescribed and unclassified languages, which, speculatively considered to be Tibeto-Burman, exhibit many unique structural and lexical properties that probably reflect both a long history in the region and a complex history of language contact with neighbouring populations. Among them are Sherdukpen, Bugun, Aka/Hruso, Koro, Miji, Bangru and Puroik/Sulung. The high linguistic significance of all of these languages is belied by the extreme paucity of documentation and description of them, even in view of their highly endangered status. Puroik, in particular, is perhaps one of the most culturally and linguistically unique and significant populations in all of Asia from proto-historical and anthropological-linguistic perspectives, and yet virtually no information of any real reliability regarding their culture or language can be found in print even to this day.

Finally, there is an unknown number of Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal-area origin spoken in modern-day Arunachal Pradesh, including Gurung and Tamang; not classified as "tribal" in the Arunachali context, such languages generally go unrecognized, while their speakers are largely viewed as itinerant "Nepalis". An unknown number of Tibetan dialects are similarly spoken by recent migrants from Tibet, although they are not generally recognized or classified as tribal or indigenous.

Outside of Tibeto-Burman, one finds in Arunachal Pradesh a single representative of the Tai language family, namely the Khamti language, which is closely affiliated to the Shan dialects of northern Burma; seemingly, Khamti is a recent arrival in Arunachal Pradesh whose presence dates from 18th and/or early 19th-century migrations from northern Burma. In addition to these non-Indo-European languages, the Indo-European languages Assamese, Bengali, English, Nepali and especially Hindi are making strong inroads into Arunachal Pradesh. Primarily as a result of the primary education system - in which classes are generally taught by Hindi-speaking immigrant teachers from Bihar and other Hindi-speaking parts of northern India - a large and growing section of the population now speaks a semi-creolized variety of Hindi as its mother tongue. Despite, or perhaps because of, the linguistic diversity of the region, English is the only official language recognized in the state.


Children in Bomdila, Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion, and material culture: the Tibetic area bordering Bhutan in the west, the Tani area in the centre of the state, the Mishmi area to the east of the Tani area, the Tai/Singpho/Tangsa area bordering Burma, and the "Naga" area to the south, which also borders Burma. In between there are transition zones, such as the Aka/Hruso/Miji/Sherdukpen area, which provides a "buffer" of sorts between the Tibetic Buddhist tribes and the animist Tani hill tribes. In addition, there are isolated peoples scattered throughout the state, such as the Sulung.

Within each of these cultural spheres, one finds populations of related tribes speaking related languages and sharing similar traditions. In the Tibetic area, one finds large numbers of Monpa tribespeople, with several subtribes speaking closely related but mutually incomprehensible languages, and also large numbers of Tibetan refugees. Within the Tani area, major tribes include Nishi, which has recently come to be used by many people to encompass Bangni, Tagin and even Hills Miri. Apatani also live among the Nishi, but are distinct. In the centre, one finds predominantly Galo people, with the major sub-groups of Lare and Pugo among others, extending to the Ramo and Pailibo areas (which are close in many ways to Galo). In the east, one finds the Adi, with many subtribes including Padam, Pasi, Minyong, and Bokar, among others. Milang, while also falling within the general "Adi" sphere, are in many ways quite distinct. Moving east, the Idu, Miju and Digaru make up the "Mishmi" cultural-linguistic area, which may or may not form a coherent historical grouping.

Moving southeast, the Tai Khamti are linguistically distinct from their neighbours and culturally distinct from the majority of other Arunachali tribes; they are religiously similar to the Chakmas who have migrated from erstwhile East Pakistan. They follow the same Theraveda sect of Buddhism. The Chakmas consist of the majority of the tribal population. Districts of Lohit, Changlang, Dibang and Papumpare have a considerable number of Chakmas. They speak a linguistic variant derived from Assamese and Bengali. Assam also have a large population of Chakmas who reside in the district of Karbi Anglong, Nagaon and Kachar. They also exhibit considerable convergence with the Singpho and Tangsa tribes of the same area, all of which are also found in Burma. Finally, the Nocte and Wancho exhibit cultural and possibly also linguistic affinities to the tribes of Nagaland, which they border.

In addition, there are large numbers of migrants from diverse areas of India and Bangladesh, who, while legally not entitled to settle permanently, in practice stay indefinitely, progressively altering the traditional demographic makeup of the state. Finally, populations of "Nepalis" (in fact, usually Tibeto-Burman tribespeople whose tribes predominate in areas of Nepal, but who do not have tribal status in India) and Chakmas are distributed in different areas of the state (although reliable figures are hard to come by).

Buddhism is practiced by 13% of the population. Shown here is a statue of the Buddha in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.
Buddhism is practiced by 13% of the population. Shown here is a statue of the Buddha in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.

Literacy has risen in official figures to 66.95% in 2011 from 54.74% in 2001. The literate population is said to number 789,943. Number of literate males are 454,532 (73.69%) and number of literate females are 335,411 (59.57%).[22]

An uncertain but relatively large percentage of Arunachal's population are animist, and follow shamanistic-animistic religious traditions such as Donyi-Polo (in the Tani area) and Rangfrah (further east). A small number of Arunachali peoples have traditionally identified as Hindus, although the number is growing as animist traditions are merged with Hindu traditions. Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng, and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet. Theravada Buddhism is practiced by groups living near the Burmese border. Around 19% of the population are said to be followers of the Christian faith,[23] and this percentage is probably growing due to Christian missionary activities in the area.

According to the 2001 Indian Census, the religions of Arunachal Pradesh break down as follows:[24]

  • Hindu: 379,935 (34.6%)
  • Others (mostly Donyi-Polo): 337,399 (30.7%)
  • Christian: 205,548 (18.7%)
  • Buddhist: 143,028 (13.0%)
  • Muslim: 20,675 (1.9%)
  • Sikh: 1,865 (0.1%)
  • Jain: 216 (


    Switchbacks in the Himalayas The state's airports are located at Daparjio, Ziro, Along, Tezu and Pasighat. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are mostly small and cannot handle many flights. Before being connected by road, they were originally used for the transportation of food. Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai with Dirak,[25] and another highway, which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang.[26]

As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the famous Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal.


The current education system in Arunachal Pradesh is relatively underdeveloped. The state government is expanding the education system in concert with NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra. With this, the state's literacy rate has had a sharp improvement in the recent past through the schools run by the Catholic Diocese of Miao, under the leadership of Bishop George Pallipparambil. The state has 33 schools under his patronage, expanding from Tirap District in the extreme east and Lohit and Changlang Districts in the central part of Arunachal Pradesh. There are nine Government Colleges, affiliated to the Rajiv Gandhi University Central university. The first college, Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, was established in 1964; the college has been recognised by the UGC as a College with Potential For Excellence. The College was awarded B++ by the NAAC.

The state has several reputable schools, colleges, and institutions. There are also trust institutes like Pali Vidyapith run by Buddhists. They teach Pali and Khamti scripts in addition to typical education subjects. Khamti is the only tribe in Arunachal Pradesh that has its own script. Libraries of sciptures are in a number of places in Lohit district, the largest one in Chowkham.

Rajiv Gandhi University (formerly known as Arunachal University) is the premier educational institution, the only university, and North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology the only deemed university in the state. Additionally, there are nine government colleges and four private colleges in different districts, providing students a higher education. NERIST plays an important role in technical and management higher education. The directorate of technical education conducts examinations yearly, so that students who qualify can continue on to higher studies in other states.

The state has two polytechnic institutions: Rajiv Gandhi Government Polytechnic in Itanagar and Tomi Polytechnic College in Basar. The state has only one law college called Arunachal Law Academy,Itanagar Linked edited by Techi Nagga.

Sl. No. Polytechnic colleges Location Established
1 Rajiv Gandhi Govt. Polytechnic Itanagar 2002
2 Tomi Polytechnic College Basar 2006


A view of Tawang Monastery.
A view of Tawang Monastery.
Arunachal Pradesh attracts tourists from many parts of the world. Tourist attractions include Tawang, a beautiful town famous for its Buddhist monastery, Ziro, famous for cultural festivals, the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang district and Sela lake near Bomdila with its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest include Malinithan in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near Roing (the place where Rukmini, Lord Krishna's wife in Hindu mythology, is said to have lived), and Parshuram Kund in Lohit district (which is believed to be the lake where Parshuram washed away his sins). Rafting and trekking are common activities. A visitor's permit from the tourism department is required. Places like Tuting have wonderful, undiscovered scenic beauty. Over the years, the Jawaharlal Nehru Museum, Itanagar has also become an important tourist destination in the state capital [27][28].

The state is rich in wildlife. Perhaps the highest diversity of mammals in India is in Arunachal Pradesh (200+ species).[29] The diversity of birds is also very high, 700+ and is second only to Assam.[30]

State Symbols

State Bird State Flower State Animal State Tree
Hornbill Foxtail Orchid Bos Frontalis Hollong


See also

  • North-East Frontier Agency
  • List of disputed or occupied territories
  • List of people from Arunachal Pradesh
  • Religion in Arunachal Pradesh
  • Cuisine of Arunachal Pradesh
  • Sino-Indian relations
  • List of Indian state trees
  • List of Indian state animals
  • List of Indian state birds
  • List of Indian state flowers


External links

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