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Encyclopedia results for create pricing site

create pricing site

Encyclopedia results for create pricing site

  1. Create

    pp semi indef Create may refer to wiktionary create Create TV network , an American public television network consisting of lifestyle and human interest programming from the libraries of PBS and American Public Television Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program , a proposed improvement to the rail lines in the Chicago area Data Definition Language Create SQL , a statement in SQL Create , a free jazz band iRobot Create , a hobbyist robot based on the iRobot Roomba platform Create New Student Orientation , UBC s Okanagan campus new to UBC student orientation program Create video game Create video game , a 2010 video game published by EA See also Creation disambiguation disambig ...   more details

  1. Create (!)

    thumb right 200px Cover of Create s 2006 full length album A Prospect of Freedom album A Prospect of Freedom In 2004 Create collaborated on releases with Castanets band Castanets and Folk music folk blues vocalist Liz Janes . On December 19, 2004 Create also recorded their first album since 2001 ... in March 2001 the group began teaching their Create Workshops at MacArthur Park in Long Beach, California ... video and audio recordings, live performances and interactive teaching methods. Create has continued ... & Create album Liz Janes & Create 2005 A Prospect of Freedom album A Prospect of Freedom 2006 Also ... Sounds Are Active DEFAULTSORT Create Category American experimental musical groups Category American ...   more details

  1. Pricing

    right A price tag for a product on sale. marketing Wikibooks Marketing Pricing is the process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its products. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost , market place, competition, market condition, and quality of product. Pricing is also a key variable in microeconomic price allocation theory. Pricing is a fundamental aspect of financial modeling ... Ps, the rest being cost center business cost centers . Pricing is the manual or automatic process of applying ... and maintenance but may prevent pricing errors. The needs of the consumer can be converted into demand only if the consumer has the willingness and capacity to buy the product. Thus pricing is very important in marketing. Questions involved in pricing Pricing involves asking questions like How ... starting point for discussions about pricing, however, a better question for a vendor to ask is How ... are the pricing objectives ? Do we use profit maximization profit maximization pricing ? How to set the price? cost plus pricing , demand based or value based pricing , rate of return pricing , or competitor indexing Should there be a single price or multiple pricing? Should prices change in various geographical areas, referred to as zone pricing ? Should there be quantity discounts ? What prices are competitors charging? Do you use a price skimming strategy or a penetration pricing strategy? What image do you want the price to convey? Do you use psychological pricing ? How important are customer ... real time pricing be used? Is price discrimination or yield management appropriate? Are there legal ... already exist for the product category? How flexible can we be in pricing? The more competitive the industry, the less flexibility we have. The price floor is determined by production, costs, and pricing ... like price elasticity and price points Are there transfer pricing considerations? What is the chance ... . Are there joint product pricing considerations? What are the non price costs of purchasing ...   more details

  1. LJ Create

    links http LJ Create s Website http User Community Site for teachers of the Engineering Diploma References Reflist DEFAULTSORT Lj Create Category Companies ...Notability 1 Org date March 2010 Infobox company company name LJ Create Ltd. company logo type Privately ... LJ Create Ltd is a UK based company that produces interactive educational technology for the global market. Currently the company operates in over 60 countries. About LJ Create LJ Create Ltd was established 6 June 1979 ref cite web url http News article.asp?id 203 title Celebrating 30 Years of Success in Education 1979 2009 work LJ Create News accessdate 19 March ... BBC Television News LJ Create 30 years On , BBC1 September 24th 2009. ref ref cite web url http 2009 09 bbc visit lj create 30 years on.html title BBC Visit LJ Create 30 Years On. work LJ Create Blog accessdate 19 March 2010 ref . LJ Create specialises in blended learning solutions ... page.aspx?o 262032 title Jisc Report Swale Skills Centre, Engineering apprentices use LJ Create ... accessdate 19 March 2010 ref . LJ Create produce hardware, software , E learning , learning management ... 2009 ref and curriculum development tools. In addition to hardware and software, LJ Create provides professional development and training services to educators. LJ Create s range of products and services ... of LJ Create in 2006 ref cite web url http News article.asp?id 307 title LJ Group Appoint Charles Clarke, M.P. work LJ Create News accessdate 19 March 2010 ref ref cite news url http ... work Labout Party Website accessdate 19 March 2010 ref . LJ Create was sold to Infinitas Learning ... releases 2012 1 prweb9133315.htm title Infinitas Learning completes the acquisition of LJ Create ...?id 344 title Norwich based LJ Create Ltd is acquired by Infinitas Learning work LJ Create News accessdate 30 January 2012 ref . Company locations LJ Create have their Head Office and product development ...   more details

  1. IRobot Create

    lowercase Image IRobotCreate.jpg thumb This is an unmodified iRobot Create with Command Module the small green attachment . iRobot Create is a hobbyist robot manufactured by iRobot that is based on the Roomba platform and was introduced in 2007. However, iRobot Create is explicitly designed for robotics ... hardware of the Roomba, the Create includes a cargo bay which houses a 25 pin port that can be used for digital and analog input and output. The Create also possesses a serial port through which sensor ... to utilize an external computer in controlling the Create robot. Since the built in serial port supports ... interface server simulators support the iRobot Create. Most notably, the Player Project have long included a device interface for the Roomba , and has recently developed a Create interface in Player 2.1. The Universal Real time Behavior Interface URBI environment also contains a Create interface. The Microsoft Robotics Studio and the Webots simulation environment contain IRobot Create models. Community Image IRobot Create team.jpg thumb A team of iRobot Create robots at the Human Automation Systems ... File Simulation of an iRobot Create in Webots.png thumb Simulation of an iRobot Create in Webots Due to its small size and low cost, the iRobot Create is popular in the robotic research community. In particular, research projects in the area of multi robot networks favors the Create robot. Examples .... http movies create Website Human Automation Systems Laboratory ... Create was given out in parts kits for the International Botball Competition between 2007 and 2009 The iRobot Create is used as the main platform for the Autonomous Robotics course at Brown University . The iRobot Create and a simulator developed in MATLAB are used in the Autonomous Mobile Robots course ... 2591511&cp 2174940 iRobot s Create home page https projects createoi C CreateOI Framework , Open Source C Programming Framework for iRobot Create http emss iRobot ...   more details

  1. Create Synchronicity

    COI date February 2010 Infobox software name Create Synchronicity logo File Create synchronicity logo 128x128.png Create synchronicity logo 128x128 developer Create Software Cl ment Pit Claudel latest ... http Create Synchronicity is a portable, multilingual ... in VB.Net, and released under the GNU General Public License , version 3.0. Development Create Synchronicity was created with the aim of delivering a lightweight ref http create synchronicity ... synchronicity trunk Create 20Synchronicity Release 20notes.txt Release Notes on Create Synchronicity SVN server ref , and has been active since then ref http p create synchronicity ... 2011 ref http current build.html Create Synchronicity latest builds . The port ... . ref . Features Create Synchronicity has both a graphical and a command line interface. The following features are available Customizable backup ref Demo video on http Create Synchronicity ... naming Support for Network NAS Backup Create Synchronicity can be downloaded as a zip file ...&ugn synchronicity Project ranking on Sourceforge ref Performance Create Synchronicity uses its ... viewvc synchronicity trunk Create 20Synchronicity SynchronizeForm.vb?view markup Syncing code on Create Synchronicity SVN server ref , and has been said to be Easy to use, lightweight and fast. ref http 2009 07 create synchronicity free open source files backup software An article by Johnny Karp, editor of the Freeware Mission website, about Create Synchronicity ref . However, since it uses the .Net Framework , Create Synchronicity may be slower ... written in VB.Net , Create Synchronicity does take advantage of the file caching functions of the underlying ... open source create synchronicity synching files harmoniously Software Critics wrote about Create ... two external hard drives, and or if the caching process has not run yet. Create Synchronicity has ...   more details

  1. Cut to Create

    Infobox Company name Cut to Create company logo File Cut to Create Logo.jpg Cut to Create logo 200px type Private company Private slogan Moving Pictures. br Houston, TX based film production company dedicated to creating high quality work and doing good. foundation 2010 Houston, Texas location Houston, Texas industry Film Production br Video Production homepage http http Cut to Create is a Houston, TX based film production company specializing in producing medical related films and business marketing videos. Their 2010 film, Tourette Syndrome Up Close is a critically acclaimed short documentary featuring a camp for children with Tourette Syndrome. Tourette Syndrome Up Close has been nominated for a Remy Award at the 44th Annual WorldFest Film Festival in Houston. ref http indexb.html ref Winners will be named April 15th, 2011. External links http Cut to Create Homepage References reflist http indexb.html Category Companies based in Houston, Texas Category Film production companies of the United States Category Film companies Category Film production companies ...   more details

  1. Create International

    primarysources date May 2010 Infobox Non profit Non profit name Create International Non profit logo Image Cipostcard.jpg 200px Non profit type Evangelical Missions Agency founded date 1987 founder location Australia, India, Thailand origins key people area served focus Unreached Peoples method Various Media revenue endowment num volunteers num employees num members owner Non profit slogan Capturing life, communicating hope homepage http dissolved footnotes Create International is an international Religious ministry Christian ministry of Youth With A Mission that specializes in the production of media tools to communicate the gospel of Jesus Christ to unreached people group s. Create International was formed in 1987 and now has centers in Australia, India, and Thailand. ref http Create International Bot generated title ref Ministry The vision of Create International is to communicate the message of Jesus Christ in ways that people can understand from their cultural and natural language linguistic background, using tools that can be widely circulated. This includes the use of dramatic films, evangelistic artwork, websites, and indigenous music. Create International also produces documentary film documentary style ethnic group people group profiles as well as missionary training video s. As of 2011, Create International has produced films for over 50 different people groups. Evangelistic Films Create International s dramatic evangelistic films are unique due to the level of contextualization represented in each film. Each film is made in a culturally relevant setting whilst remaining faithful to the Bible . In this way they are to communicate the gospel in a way that can be clearly understood by the people group the film represents. Video People Profiles Create International s video people ... Films As part of their training video library, Create International has produced a number of films ...   more details

  1. Create Project

    The Create Project is a web based community focused on communication and sharing between Free and Open Source Creative applications ref cite web title Sharing ideas and resources at url http feature 48874 ref . Initially the project was created by as a space for collaboration between free software creative projects, since then the project has become a full sub project. Create now aims to develop and consolidate shared resources for creative applications ref http wiki FAQ What is the Create Project.27s goal.3F Create Project Goals ref . Several community developed specifications have begun to be developed under the project such as OpenRaster and the Swatches colour file format. ref cite web title Article Explaining the Project url http node 24 ref . Some of the many groups that come together under this project include Blender software Blender , GIMP , Inkscape , Scribus , Audacity , Open Clip Art Library , Open Font Library and the Aiki Framework which produce creative content, one of the major ways these groups come together is through the Libre Graphics Meeting which is hosted by the Create Project. ref cite web title Libre Graphics Meetin 2007 Report url http weblog entry 7450 ref Specifications class wikitable Specification Status Purpose OpenRaster In Development OpenRaster is a raster graphics file format for non final images, the aim is to provide a file format for working images that can be used in many raster graphics applications. http wiki Swatches colour file format Swatches colour file format In Development Aims to provide cross application support for color files. http wiki Unified plug in API ... the create project that would allow users to more easily switch between said applications. http ... free software stub nl Create Project ...   more details

  1. Destroy to Create

    Infobox Album See Wikipedia WikiProject Albums Name Destroy to Create Type studio Artist The Flatliners Cover The Flatliners Destroy To Create Cover art.JPG Released October 4, 2005 Recorded Drive Studios Genre Ska punk Length 44 13 Label Stomp Records , Union Label Group Producer Steve Ego Crusher Rizun Reviews Last album Who Said Ska s Dead? br 2003 This album Destroy to Create br 2005 Next album The Great Awake br 2007 Destroy to Create is the first full length release from The Flatliners . The album was released independently to two sold out shows held at the Caledon East Recreation Centre, where it is said by many in attendance that at one of the shows, due to rental time constraints and a fire alarm the band was unable to complete their set. This venue was also undesirable to be booked again for a long period of time, due to a gazebo outside of the centre being damaged by intoxicated attendees and ended with the band having to pay for the repairs. After signing to Stomp Records, the album was subsequently rereleased on the label. The independently released version features a live recording of Pickin at my brain that is not found on the rerelease. Citation needed date May 2007 Track listing All songs written by The Flatliners. Intro 0 32 Fred s Got Slacks 2 29 There s a Problem 1 56 Public Service Announcement 1 16 Bad News 3 53 My Hands are Tied 2 30 Gullible 3 10 Scumpunch 3 07 I am Abandoned 3 04 Macoretta Boozer 3 17 Broken Bones 3 16 Quality Television 2 54 Do or Die 4 09 Pickin at my Brain 8 34 Personnel Taken from the liner notes. Scott Brigham Guitar Chris Cresswell Guitar and Vocals Jon Darbey Bass Paul Ramirez Drums, Additional Percussion, Assistant Engineer Chris Collins Organs Steve Rizun Producing, Recording, Mixing, Mastering Bobby Bourbon Artwork, Layout ... links DEFAULTSORT Destroy To Create Category 2005 albums Category The Flatliners albums it Destroy to Create ...   more details

  1. Kaga Create

    Infobox Company name KAGA CREATE CO., LTD. br logo type genre fate predecessor Digital Gain Co.,Ltd. successor foundation 1988 06 22 Naxat , 1999 10 18 Digital Gain founder defunct location city Century Tower Tokyo Century Tower , Bunkyo, Tokyo location country Japan location locations area served key people Tomoyasu Kato President of directors industry Video game industry Interactive entertainment , graphic design, web page production, new source production, merchandise development, event promotion products Alien Crush , Devil s Crush , Psychosis video game Psychosis , Super Gomoku Narabe Renju services market cap 10 million yen revenue operating income net income aum assets equity owner num employees 13 as of 2008 03 31 parent Kaga Electronics 100 stake divisions subsid homepage http www.kaga footnotes intl Kaga Create Co.,Ltd. is a Japan based video game developing and publishing division of Kaga Electronics . The company initially released games for the PC Engine known as the TurboGrafx in the USA . It later released titles for a wide array of gaming systems, including the Game Boy , the Super Nintendo Entertainment System , the Dreamcast , the 3DO Interactive Multiplayer 3DO , the PlayStation , the Sega Saturn , and the PC FX . The Virtual Cameraman games for 3DO released in 1995 marked the decline of Naxat Soft after the TurboGrafx. The company s releases stopped around 2005, with recent games primarily being re releases of TurboGrafx titles on the Wii . History Kaga s video game division was founded in 1988 06 22 under the name Naxat . The company ... Digital Gain Co.,Ltd. would be renamed to Kaga Create Co., Ltd., which took effect on 2007 5 ... Inc. References reflist External links http www.kaga news index.html Kaga Create ... Create , http english group group07.html English version http maker ... of Japan Category Video game publishers japan videogame company stub ja ru Kaga Create ...   more details

  1. Media Create

    refimprove date April 2008 nihongo Media Create Kabushiki Gaisha Media Kurieito is a Japanese company that gathers and analyzes data from the digital entertainment industry, specifically focusing on the Japanese console gaming market. Business operations include publishing, market research and consulting. ref http www.m shouhin shoukai english menu.htm working link date January 2012 ref It is a popular website for people interested in learning the latest video game software and hardware sales figures from Japan. Citation needed date January 2008 Weekly sales figures Every Friday Japan Standard Time , the official Japanese website is updated with the top fifty selling video game s of the previous week, as well as hardware sales figures for the Nintendo DS , Nintendo DS Lite , Wii , PlayStation 3 , Sony PSP , PlayStation 2 , Nintendo GameCube , Game Boy Advance , Game Boy Advance SP , Game Boy Micro , Xbox , and Xbox 360 . Sales numbers are only provided for the top ten games on the list, but figures exist for the rest of the games on the list and beyond they must be paid for and subscribed to. The English website only posts the placement rankings of games and the percentage ranking of hardware. However, their English data has not been updated since the beginning of 2006, indicating that their English language services have probably been discontinued or are no longer public. Competition Media Create competes with Enterbrain s Famitsu and MediaWorks publisher MediaWorks Dengeki PlayStation in the market for providing Japanese game sales data. Because there are three different tracking firms, there will always be three different sales numbers for any software and hardware title. Which company to trust is a matter of debate, as none of the three major .... Nintendo cites Media Create sales data during its conferences and presentations. ref cite web ... Create ja ...   more details

  1. Penetration pricing

    unreferenced date May 2009 For other pricing strategies and policies please see here Pricing strategies Penetration pricing is the pricing technique of setting a relatively low initial entry price, often lower than the eventual market price, to attract new customers. The strategy works on the expectation that customers will switch to the new brand because of the lower price. Penetration pricing is most commonly associated with a marketing objective of increasing market share or sales volume, rather than to make profit in the short term. The advantages of penetration pricing to the firm are It can result in fast diffusion business diffusion and adoption. This can achieve high market penetration rates quickly. This can take the competition by surprise, not giving them time to react. It can create goodwill among the early adopters market segment segment . This can create more trade through word of mouth . It creates cost control and cost reduction pressures from the start, leading to greater ... 5 forces analysis . It can create high stock turnover throughout the distribution business distribution channel . This can create critically important enthusiasm and support in the channel. It can be based on profit maximization marginal cost pricing , which is economically efficient. The main disadvantage with penetration pricing is that it establishes long term price expectations for the product ... to eventually raise prices. Some commentators claim that penetration pricing attracts only the switchers ... for the printer itself. Taken to the extreme, penetration pricing becomes predatory pricing , when ... a monopoly . In most countries, predatory pricing is antitrust illegal , although it can be difficult to differentiate illegal predatory pricing from legal penetration pricing. See also pricing marketing microeconomics production, costs, and pricing business model price skimming sales promotion DEFAULTSORT Penetration Pricing Category Pricing Category Marketing de Penetrationsstrategie ...   more details

  1. Congestion pricing

    airports. Congestion pricing or congestion charges is a system of surcharging users of a transport ... toll road toll like road pricing fees, and higher peak charges for public utility utilities , public transport and slots in canal s and airports . This variable pricing strategy regulates demand, making ... theory, which encompasses the congestion pricing concept, postulates that users will be forced to pay for the externalities negative externalities they create, making them conscious of the costs they impose ... Road Pricing Singapore Singapore , and Ecopass Milan , as well as a few smaller towns. Four ... the cordon line area wide congestion pricing, which charges for being inside an area a city center toll ring, with toll collection surrounding the city and corridor or single facility congestion pricing, where access to a lane or a facility is priced. Implementation of congestion pricing has reduced ... pricing is not equitable, places an economic burden on neighboring communities, has a negative ... form of road pricing to reduce congestion is economically viable, although there is disagreement on what form road pricing should take. Economists disagree over how to set tolls, how to cover common costs ... Pricing? The Intellectual History of an Idea month May year 2006 url http issues volume ... of climate change have renewed interest in congestion pricing, as it is considered one of the demand ... Description File TE Pricing EquilibriumCongestion.png thumb right Economic rationale for moving from untolled equilibrium to congestion pricing equilibrium. Congestion pricing is a concept from market economy market economics regarding the use of Free price system pricing mechanisms to charge the users ... behind congestion pricing, the objective of this policy is the use of the price mechanism to make ..., and that they should pay for the additional congestion they create, thus encouraging the redistribution ... transport to public transport. This pricing mechanism has been used in several public utilities ...   more details

  1. Pricing objectives

    Unreferenced date December 2009 Pricing objectives or goals give direction to the whole pricing process. Determining what your objectives are is the first step in pricing. When deciding on pricing objectives you must consider 1 the overall financial, marketing, and strategic objectives of the company 2 the objectives of your product or brand 3 consumer price elasticity of demand price elasticity and price points and 4 the resources you have available. Some of the more common pricing objectives are maximize long run profit maximize short run profit increase sales volume quantity increase monetary sales increase market share obtain a target rate of return on investment ROI obtain a target rate of return on sales stabilize market or stabilize market price an objective to stabilize price means that the marketing manager attempts to keep prices stable in the marketplace and to compete on non price considerations. Stabilization of margin is basically a cost plus approach in which the manager attempts to maintain the same margin regardless of changes in cost. company growth maintain price leadership desensitize customers to price discourage new entrants into the industry match competitors prices encourage the exit of marginal firms from the industry survival avoid government investigation or intervention obtain or maintain the loyalty and enthusiasm of distribution business distributors and other sales personnel enhance the image of the firm, brand , or product business product be perceived as fair by customers and potential customers create interest and excitement about a product discourage competitors from cutting prices use price to make the product visible build store traffic help prepare for the sale of the business harvesting social, ethical, or ideological objectives get competitive advantage DEFAULTSORT Pricing Objectives Category Pricing Category Marketing ca Objectius de la fixaci de preus es Fijaci n de precios ...   more details

  1. Variable pricing

    vehicle, date and time of rental. It is also true when accessing the rental car site through the .com main site. See also Pricing Price discrimination Marketing Yield management Geo marketing ... pricing, called real time pricing , has arisen. In some markets events occur so fast that there is insufficient ... instantly as they occur. A variant of real time pricing is online auction business model such as eBay ... real time pricing because there is a delay built into the eBay system . Traditional auctions are inefficient ..., and increase the average bid price. In addition to these examples of variable pricing in the short term, there are long term pricing practices that could be considered instances of variable pricing. They are price skimming , penetration pricing , and seasonal discount s. Sales are a traditional example of discriminatory pricing. During the holiday season prices are high. Come the new year ... at discounts before the new model year. Discriminatory pricing is not always bad. It helps people ..., J. Dynamic Pricing Strategies for Multi Product Revenue Management Problems. MSOM 2006 . Category Pricing Category Marketing Category Electronic commerce ...   more details

  1. Predatory pricing

    Competition law In business and economics , predatory pricing is the practice of selling a product or service at a very low price, intending to drive competitors out of the market , or create barriers ... could then raise prices above what the market would otherwise bear. In many countries predatory pricing ... pricing rather than legitimate price competition . In any case, competitors may be driven out of the market ... term predatory pricing through sharp discounting reduces profit margins, as would a price war , and will cause Profit economics profits to fall. There are various tests to assess whether the pricing .... Yet businesses may engage in predatory pricing as a longer term strategy. Competitors who are not as financially ... competitive levels to supra competitive pricing . The predator hopes to generate revenues and profits in the future that will more than offset the losses it incurred during the predatory pricing period ... stated that this is not necessary for a finding of predatory pricing. In essence, the predator undergoes ... allowing supra competitive pricing to prevail long enough to dwarf the initial loss. Legal aspects In many countries there are legal restrictions for using this pricing strategy, which may be deemed ... engaging in predatory pricing. The amendments, labelled the Birdsville Amendments after Senator Barnaby ... Predatory pricing laws shock big operators accessdate 2009 03 16 publisher ABC Australia date 2007 10 ... Act, which criminalized predatory pricing, has been repealed. ref http laws eng ... or a competitor. The Competition Bureau has established Predatory Pricing Guidelines defining what is considered to be unreasonably low pricing. United States Predatory pricing practices may result ... hurdles to antitrust claims based on a predatory pricing theory. The Court requires plaintiffs to show a likelihood that the pricing practices will affect not only rivals but also competition in the market ... its investment through supra competitive pricing, then there is no probability of success and the antitrust ...   more details

  1. Pricing schedule

    orphan date February 2009 A pricing schedule is a Function mathematics function that maps the quantity of a Good economics good purchased to the total price paid. Types of pricing schedules Linear pricing schedule Linear Pricing Schedule A pricing schedule in which there is a fixed price per unit, such that where total price paid is represented by T q , quantity is represented by q and price per unit is represented by a constant p , T q pq ref http library glossary bldef linear pricing schedule.htm Linear Pricing Schedule ref Nonlinear Pricing Schedule Nonlinear pricing is a pricing schedule in which quantity and total price are not mapped to each other in a strictly linear fashion ref http cs economicsglossary g nonlinear.htm Nonlinear Pricing ref Affine Pricing An affine pricing schedule consists of both a fixed cost and a cost per unit. Using the same notation as above, T q k pq, where k is a constant cost . ref http cs economicsglossary g affine pricing.htm Affine Pricing ref References reflist Category Financial economics econ stub ...   more details

  1. Rational pricing

    Rational pricing is the assumption in financial economics that asset prices and hence asset pricing models ... away . This assumption is useful in pricing fixed income securities, particularly bonds, and is fundamental to the pricing of derivative instruments. Arbitrage mechanics This section is linked ... income securities Rational pricing is one approach used in pricing fixed rate bond s. Here, each cash ... of its cash flows discounted at the same rate as each ZCB, Rational pricing Assets with identical ... back into line with the price based on ZCBs see Bond valuation Arbitrage free pricing approach Bond valuation Arbitrage free pricing approach The pricing formula is as below, where each cash flow math ... Bond credit rating . Pricing derivatives A derivative finance derivative is an instrument that allows ... Fundamental theorem of arbitrage free pricing Futures This section is linked from Contango In a futures ... rate the Rational pricing An asset with a known future price asset with a known future price , as above ... see Futures contract Pricing futures contract pricing . Any deviation from this equality allows ... pricing models therefore include logic that either locks in or infers this future value both approaches deliver identical results. Methods that lock in future cash flows assume arbitrage free pricing , and those that infer expected value assume Rational pricing Risk neutral valuation risk neutral valuation ... in one period is therefore known, and arbitrage pricing is applicable. The risk neutral approach ... as below, or may be found from the value of the call using put call parity . Arbitrage free pricing ... today. Delta hedging This section is linked from Black Scholes It is possible to create a position ... corresponds to the forward price above Rational pricing An asset with a known future price An asset ... It is possible to create a position consisting of shares and B borrowed at the risk free rate ... Rational pricing Assets with identical cash flows Assets with identical cash flows , in the absence ...   more details

  1. Nonlinear pricing

    Nonlinear pricing is a broad term that covers any kind of price structure in which there is a nonlinear relationship between price and the quantity of goods. An example is affine pricing . References and links http cs economicsglossary g nonlinear.htm Definition on See Also Two part tariff Second degree price discrimination Category Pricing economics stub ...   more details

  1. Road pricing

    for the more specific concept of congestion charges to curb urban traffic demand Congestion pricing Economics sidebar Cleanup article date September 2010 Road pricing is a group of economic policies aimed ... road tolls , GNSS road pricing distance based charges and congestion charges , and these charges ... Iba ez year 1998 title Road Pricing for Congestion Management The Transition from Theory to Policy ... 2012 04 22 See definition of road pricing . ref ref name FHWA Road pricing has two distinct objectives revenue generation, usually for road infrastructure financing, and congestion pricing for Transportation ... a restricted area of a city are typical examples of using road pricing for congestion management purposes. ref name UCB ref name FHWA cite web url http ipd revenue road pricing defined title Road Pricing Overview author Federal Highway Administration FHWA publisher FHWA Innovative Program ... Pricing, Value Pricing, Toll Roads and HOT Lanes publisher date accessdate 2010 12 ... considering nationwide road pricing schemes. Some of these could exploit the new Galileo positioning system Galileo satellite positioning system, though it is possible to arrange road pricing using ... are already underway. The LKW MAUT road pricing scheme began on January 1, 2005. Trucks pay ... similar to existing congestion pricing schemes, its main objective was to reduce air pollution ... accessdate 2009 02 14 language Italian The complete pricing scheme is presented in this article . ref ... congestion pricing scheme and is based on the same Ecopass geographic area. Every vehicle ... has a congestion pricing system, Stockholm congestion tax , ref cite web title Congestion tax in Stockholm ... of using road pricing since the early 1960s, when the Smeed Report considered how to implement congestion ... road pricing schemes on the area, this was despite promises from central government of transport project funding in exchange for the implementation of a road pricing pilot scheme. ref name bbc ...   more details

  1. Martingale pricing

    Martingale pricing is a pricing approach based on the notions of Martingale probability theory martingale and risk neutral measure risk neutrality . The martingale pricing approach is a cornerstone of modern quantitative finance and can be applied to a variety of derivative finance derivatives contracts, e.g. option finance options , Futures contract futures , interest rate derivative s, credit derivatives , etc. In contrast to the Partial differential equation PDE approach to pricing, martingale pricing formulae are in the form of expectations which can be efficiently solved numerically using a Monte Carlo method Monte Carlo approach. As such, Martingale pricing is preferred when valuing highly dimensional contracts such as a basket of options. On the other hand, valuing American option American style contracts is troublesome and requires discretizing the problem making it like a Bermudan option and and only in 2001 Francis Longstaff F. A. Longstaff and Eduardo Schwartz E. S. Schwartz developed a practical Monte Carlo method for pricing American options. ref cite journal last1 Longstaff first1 F.A. first2 E.S. last2 Schwartz url http anderson fin 1 01 accessdate October 8, 2011 title Valuing American options by simulation a simple least squares approach journal Review of Financial Studies volume 14 year 2001 pages 113 148 ref See also Martingale probability theory References Reflist DEFAULTSORT Martingale Pricing Category Finance theories Category Mathematical finance Category Pricing ...   more details

  1. Geographical pricing

    Geographical pricing , in marketing , is the practice of modifying a basic list price based on the geographical location of the buyer. It is intended to reflect the costs of shipping to different locations. There are several types of geographic pricing FOB origin Free on Board origin The shipping cost from the factory or warehouse is paid by the purchaser. Ownership of the goods is transferred to the buyer as soon as it leaves the point of origin. It can be either the buyer or seller that arranges for the transportation. Uniform delivery pricing also called postage stamp pricing The same price is charged to all. Zone pricing Prices increase as shipping distances increase. This is sometimes done by drawing concentric circles on a map with the plant or warehouse at the center and each circle defining the boundary of a price zone. Instead of using circles, irregularly shaped price boundaries ... cost. The term zone pricing can also refer to the practice of setting prices that reflect local competitive .... Citation needed date December 2007 Zone pricing, as practiced in the gasoline industry in the United States, is the pricing of gasoline based on a complex and secret weighting of factors, such as the number ... businesspeople and economists state that gasoline zone pricing merely reflects the costs of doing ... stations, make zone pricing into an excuse to raise gasoline prices virtually at will. Oil industry ... variations outside industry control. Citation needed date December 2007 Basing point pricing Certain ... the same amount. Freight absorption pricing The seller absorbs all or part of the cost of transportation ... promotion al tactic. See also Incoterms Pricing Marketing Geo marketing Distribution business Distribution ... editions valley Zones of Contention in Gasoline Pricing LA Times http gasprices zonePricing.htm Zone Pricing state of Illinois http dailys 04 04 03.html Balance Sheet of Gouging Cato Institute Category International trade Category Marketing Category Pricing ...   more details

  1. Unit pricing

    Unit pricing information printed on supermarket shelf labels price tickets illustrates the quantity of product by a unit of measure price per 100g, price per 100ml . Unit Pricing was originally developed ... pricing, comprehension is richer in content and thus reveals more information compared to awareness ... and Marks 1985 Boya 1987 Mitchell et al. 2003 ref Unit Pricing was implemented into British ... stores to display Unit Pricing information on shelf labels. ref s.51AE, Trade Practices Act ... ref The benefits of Unit Pricing have been widely reported in the literature. It has been argued that Unit Pricing reduces time spent comparing brands, eliminates confusion relating to price calculations ... al. 2000 Mitchell et al. 2003 ref Unit pricing enables the consumers to rationally evaluate the most .... T. Ford. 1983. Unit Pricing Ten Years Later A Replication. Journal of Marketing 47 Winter pp.  118 122. Boya, U. O. 1987. Consumer Usage of Unit Pricing. Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics 11 3 pp.  279 293. Carman, J. M. 1973. A Summary of Empirical Research in Unit Pricing. Journal of Retailing 48 Winter p.  63 72. Houston, M. J. 1972. The Effect of Unit Pricing ..., H. R. and A. R. Maurizi. 1973. The Consumer Economics of Unit Pricing. Journal of Marketing Research 10 August pp.  277 285. Kilbourne, W. E. 1974. A Factorial Experiment on the Impact of Unit Pricing .... M., J. Rothe and C. Slater. 1972. Unit Pricing A Positive Response to Consumerism. European Journal of Marketing 6 4 pp.  223 233. McCullough, D. T. and D. I. Padberg. 1971. Unit Pricing in Supermarkets .... F. and D. A. Aaker. 1979. Unit Pricing Six Years After Introducton. Journal of Retailing 3 Fall pp.  44 57. McGoldrick, P. and H. Marks. 1983. A Case for Unit Pricing? Journal of Retail and Distribution ... Awareness, Understanding and Usage of Unit Pricing. British Journal of Management 14 pp.  .... J. LaPlaca. 1972. What are the Benefits of Unit Pricing? Journal of Marketing 36 July pp.  ...   more details

  1. Employee pricing

    Orphan date February 2009 Employee pricing is a selling strategy launched in 2005 by the auto industry in order to attract customers by using the discounted prices that auto industry employees pay for new cars rather than the sticker price Suggested retail price MSRP . The program was first offered that year by General Motors Corporation General Motors , and later followed by Ford Motors Ford , Chrysler , and some local dealerships. While 2005 was the biggest year for the promotion, it has since been used several times, like during the automotive industry crisis of 2008 to stimulate sales. Chrysler was the most notable of all during this promotion, with its Employee Pricing Plus . Characterized by generous incentives combined with rebates on most Chrysler, Dodge, and Jeep models, Chrysler claims their offer bests those employee discount prices offered by General Motors Corporation General Motors or Ford Motor Company . Lee Iacocca is the celebrity spokesman for the campaign he appears in summer 2005 ads with Jason Alexander , Snoop Dogg , and his granddaughter. According to its TV ads and website, the world s first employee pricing program for customers was instituted by The Brick, a Canadian furniture store. Starting on July 1, 2006, Chrysler reinstituted the Employee Pricing Plus program to run from July 1 to July 31. For the first five days of the program, all Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep dealerships in the United States were open until midnight to support the program, a first in the company s history. The discounted prices however do not impact profits much, as the margins are recovered with higher sales and better contribution to fixed costs. Chrysler is reinstating employee pricing price starting January 26th, 2009. Critics of this strategy have stated that employee pricing ... Employee Pricing Plus Official Website http 2006 06 22 Autos chrysler incentives.reut index.htm CNN Money Article about DaimlerChrysler s Employee Pricing Program for 2006 Category ...   more details

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