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Encyclopedia results for Quad buffering

Quad buffering

Encyclopedia results for Quad buffering

  1. Quad buffering

    refimprove date May 2011 Merge to Multiple buffering date July 2011 Quad buffering is a technology for implementing Stereoscopy stereoscopic frame rendering in computer graphics . For stereoscopic rendering, each eye must receive a separate image. Quad buffering uses double buffering with a front buffer and back buffer for each eye, totaling four buffers Left front buffer Left back buffer Right front buffer Right back buffer Similarly to the v sync in 2D mode, quad buffering allows to swap the front and back buffers for both eyes in sync, allowing the display to seamless work with different rendering frame rates. Quad buffering requires special support by the graphic card and is therefore not available on many low cost models. 3D standards like OpenGL ref http registry doc glspec30.20080811.pdf OpenGL 3.0 Specification, Chapter 4 ref and Direct3D support quad buffering. See also Stereoscopy LC shutter glasses Nvidia 3D Vision HD3D References reflist 2 Category Computer graphics algorithms compu graphics stub ...   more details

  1. Multiple buffering

    to using more than three buffers. Quad buffering Merge from Quad buffering date July 2011 The term Quad buffering is used in stereoscopy stereoscopic implementations, and means the use of double buffering ...refimprove date February 2010 Context date October 2009 In computer science , multiple buffering is the use ... how multiple buffering works is to take a real world example. It is a nice sunny day and you ... buffering. The tap has to be turned off while you process the bucket of water. Now consider ... to double buffering. The tap can be on all the time and does not have to wait while the processing ... and another emptied, then this would be analogous to triple buffering. If this step took long enough ... than streams. In such situations double buffering is often employed. Double buffering Petri net Image Double Buffering Petri Net.png thumb Double Buffering Petri Net The Petri net in the illustration shows how double buffering works. Transitions W1 and W2 represent writing to buffer 1 and 2 respectively ... buffering in computer graphics In computer graphics , double buffering is a technique for drawing ..., known as Page tearing tearing . A software implementation of double buffering has all drawing operations ... with the monitor s raster graphics raster beam in order to avoid tearing. Double buffering necessarily requires more video memory and CPU time than single buffering because of the video memory ... In the page flip method sometimes called ping pong buffering , instead of copying the data, both ... page is called the back buffer . Triple buffering In computer graphics , triple buffering is similar to double buffering but provides a speed improvement. In double buffering the program must ... period could be several milliseconds during which neither buffer can be touched. In triple buffering ... video showdoc.aspx?i 3591&p 1 title Triple Buffering Why We Love It publisher AnandTech ... method of triple buffering available, but is the most prevalent on the Personal computer ...   more details

  1. Quad

    wiktionarypar quad quadri TOCright Quad may refer to Architecture Quadrangle architecture Quadrangle in architecture, e.g., on a university campus Quad, a dormitory room or suite housing four residents Quad Cities , a region which includes the Iowa cities of Bettendorf and Davenport and the Illinois cities of Moline, East Moline, and Rock Island Armaments Quad indicates four guns in a single weapon ... to its Dubbel and Tripel sister styles. Games Quad Damage, a Quake series Quake and Unreal Tournament power up Quad, a type of combined robotic enemy in the Nintendo Gamecube game Metroid Prime 2 Quad more commonly Quads , List of poker hands Four of a kind four of a kind in poker Quad, a Harkonnen attack vehicle from the computer game Dune 2 Quad cannon, an anti air weapon in Command & Conquer Generals International trade The Quadrilateral group of finance ministers Music, theatre and film Quad play Quad play , by Samuel Beckett Quad music , a musical project by Gary Ramon Quad cinema , art house in New York City Quad Electroacoustics , a British manufacturer of electronic amplifiers, tuners ... , a 1973 album by The Who Tenor Drum Multi tenor drums Quad Toms , marching percussion instrument film poster Quad , a film poster in the United Kingdom typically measuring convert 30 x 40 in cm ... John Callahan s Quads , an animated series from Nelvana Quad, a unit of computer storage measurement in the fictional Star Trek universe Derby QUAD , an arts centre in Derby, England The Quad, a part ... David R. Francis Quadrangle Rez Quad University of Alabama Quad Politics In the United Kingdom the informal ... quadrupedalism Quadruped , a creature or mechanism which moves on four legs Quad energy , a unit ... surface, such as a planet QUaD , a telescope located at the South Pole that is designed ... Quadratic Formula , the equation used to solve quadratic equations Society and religion Quad, a derogatory ... University BU Quad , student publication of Boston University started in 2009 Sports Quad, a boat ...   more details

  1. QUaD

    Image 050128quad from crane.jpg right thumb 400px A photograph of the QUaD telescope inside its groundshield taken from a crane above the telescope. QUaD , ref cite journal author QUaD collaboration title First season QUaD CMB temperature and polarization power spectra year 2007 arxiv 0705.2359v1 ref an acronym for QUEST at DASI , is a ground based CMB cosmic microwave backrground CMB Polarization waves polarization experiment located at the South Pole . QUEST Q and U E xtragalactic S ub mm T elescope was the original name attributed to the bolometer detector instrument, while Degree Angular Scale Interferometer DASI is a famous CMB interferometry experiment credited with the first detection of CMB polarization. QUaD uses the existing DASI mechanical infrastructure but replaces the DASI interferometric array with a bolometer detector at the end of a Cassegrain reflector cassegrain optical system. TOC See also Cosmic microwave background radiation Cosmic microwave background experiments References Reflist External links http schurch quad.html http quad CMB experiments coord 90 00 S 139 16 W display title Category Submillimetre telescopes Category Radio telescopes Category Cosmic microwave background experiments Category Astronomy in the Antarctic observatory stub it QUaD no QUaD ...   more details

  1. Buffering agent

    , the pH would change from 7 to 11. Examples Agriculture Monopotassium phosphate MKP is an example of a buffering ... potassium nutrient. In humans Buffering agents in humans, functioning in acid base homeostasis , are extracellular ...   more details

  1. Humidity buffering

    Unreferenced date December 2009 Humidity buffering refers to the ability of materials to moderate changes in relative humidity by absorbing and desorbing water vapour from surrounding air. This is also referred to as moisture buffering . The phenomenon has long been exploited for preserving items from damage that could be caused by either excessively moist or dry conditions. Examples 1. Cigars are usually kept in a wooden box called a humidor . A pan of water is placed in the humidor so that the wood will absorb water vapor at close to 100 Relative Humidity . It is then used to store the cigars at fairly constant relative humidity, between 45 50 . 2. Silica Gel is widely used in the opposite way, as a desiccant to buffer relative humidity inside museum display cases, packaged clothing, electronics and anything that might be damaged by condensation. Recently, there has been an interest in the field of building science and architecture in using humidity buffering as a passive indoor climate control, thus reducing the need for air conditioning and Ventilation architecture ventilation . br See also Desiccant Humectant DEFAULTSORT Humidity Buffering Category Atmospheric thermodynamics Category Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning ...   more details

  1. Z-buffering

    Image Z buffer.svg thumb Z buffer data In computer graphics , z buffering is the management of image depth coordinates in three dimensional 3 D graphics, usually done in hardware, sometimes in software . It is one solution to the visibility problem , which is the problem of deciding which elements of a rendered scene are visible, and which are hidden. The painter s algorithm is another common solution which, though less efficient, can also handle non opaque scene elements. Z buffering is also known as depth buffering . When an object is rendered, the depth of a generated pixel z coordinate is stored in a Buffer computer science buffer the z buffer or depth buffer . This buffer is usually arranged as a two dimensional array x y with one element for each screen pixel. If another object of the scene must be rendered in the same pixel, the method compares the two depths and chooses the one closer to the observer. The chosen depth is then saved to the z buffer, replacing the old one. In the end, the z buffer will allow the method to correctly reproduce the usual depth perception a close object hides a farther one. This is called z culling . The granularity of a z buffer has a great influence on the scene quality a 16 bit z buffer can result in Artifact observational artifact s called z ... to appear as objects become more distant. A variation on z buffering which results in more evenly distributed precision is called w buffering see W buffer below . At the start of a new scene, the z ... cost of z buffering, such as lossless compression computer resources to compress decompress ... surfaces is costly. It is a direct consequence of z buffering, where the depth of each pixel candidate ..., texturing or pixel shaders are the main Bottleneck engineering bottlenecks . While z buffering ... in fillrate limited scenes with large amounts of overdraw, but if not combined with z buffering it suffers ... . Computer Graphics 35 4 12 16. DEFAULTSORT Z Buffering Category 3D computer graphics ar ...   more details

  1. Potassium spatial buffering

    Multiple issues notability November 2008 context November 2008 orphan December 2008 unreferenced December 2008 Potassium Spatial Buffering is a mechanism for the regulation of extracellular potassium concentration by astrocyte s. The depolarization of neuron s tends to raise potassium concentration in the extracellular fluid. If a significant rise occurs, it will interfere with neuronal signaling by depolarizing neurons. Astrocytes have large numbers of potassium ion channels facilitating removal of potassium ions from the extracellular fluid. They are taken up at one region of the astrocyte and then distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the cell, and further to its neighbors via gap junction s. This keeps extracellular potassium at levels that prevent interference with normal propagation of an action potential . DEFAULTSORT Potassium Spatial Buffering Category Biology Biology stub ...   more details

  1. Video buffering verifier

    The video buffering verifier VBV is a theoretical MPEG video buffer model used to ensure that an encoded video stream can be correctly buffered and played back at the decoder device. By definition, the VBV shall not overflow nor underflow when its input is a compliant stream, except in the case of low delay. It is therefore important when encoding such a stream that it comply with the VBV requirements. There are two operational modes of VBV Constant Bit rate CBR and Variable Bit rate VBR . The decoder s buffer is filled over time at a constant data rate in the case of CBR, and at a non constant rate in the case of VBR. In both cases, data is removed from the buffer in varying chunks, depending on the actual size of the coded frames. In the H.264 and VC 1 standards, the VBV is replaced with generalized version called Hypothetical Reference Decoder HRD . References http mpeghtml VBV.HTM MPEG Tutorial Video Buffering Verifier Category Film and video technology Category MPEG Compu stub ...   more details

  1. Quad/Graphics

    Infobox company company name Quad Graphics, Inc. company logo File Quad Graphics logo.jpg company type Public company Public NYSE QUAD company slogan Innovative people redefining print foundation 1971 founder Harry V. Quadracci location Sussex, Wisconsin , United States key people Joel Quadracci, President ... File QuadGraphicsPlantUS41.jpg thumb left Quad plant near Lomira, Wisconsin , along U.S. Route 41 Quad Graphics is an United States American printing company, based in Sussex, Wisconsin ... 2010 The company has forty ref name PrintFacilities cite web title Quad Graphics North American print production facilities url http aboutus platform na print production.asp publisher Quad ... throughout Europe , Canada , and Latin America . Quad prints numerous magazines, including BusinessWeek ... People . In 2010, Quad Graphics acquired competitor World Color Press . ref name WCannouncement Cite web url http news quad news detail.asp?NewMessageID 31402 title Quad Graphics To Acquire WorldColor Press Release accessdate 2010 11 01 ref As a result of the acquisition, the number of Quad ... Quad Graphics Completes Acquisition of Worldcolor accessdate 2010 06 07 ref In August 2010, the company ... news quad news detail.asp?NewMessageID 35074 title Quad Graphics Begins Plant Consolidation Phase of Integration Plan accessdate 2010 08 06 ref In November 2010, Quad Graphics, Inc acquired Commercial and Specialty Products Printer HGI Company. ref cite web title Quad Graphics Acquires Commercial and Specialty ... 2010 ref In July 2011, Quad announced an asset swap with the Transcontinental Inc where Quad ... for U.S. export in exchange for seven of Quad Graphics Canadian facilities. ref Cite web url http news quad news detail.asp?NewMessageID 38718 title Quad Graphics to Acquire Mexican Printing ... References reflist External links http Quad Graphics homepage Milwaukee Based Companies ... US company stub Wisconsin stub pt Quad Graphics ...   more details

  1. Quad Electroacoustics

    About the hi fi manufacturer the music project Quad music Infobox company company name QUAD ELECTROACOUSTICS LIMITED company type private limited company logo Image Quad Hifi Logo.png center 225px foundation ... homepage http www.quad www.quad footnotes Quad Electroacoustics is a British ... audio market. The name QUAD is an acronym for Quality Unit Amplifier Domestic , used to describe the QUAD I amplifier. In 1983, when having become known for their QUAD range of products, the Acoustical Manufacturing Co. Ltd changed its name to QUAD Electroacoustics Ltd . In 1995, QUAD Electroacoustics ... whether or not Quad can any longer be considered a truly British hi fi producer. Citation needed date ... File Quad 33 Front.jpg thumb Quad 33 pre amp Image Harumphy.Quad ii.jpg thumb Quad II ... QUAD 22 pre amplifier.html Keith ref control unit was developed and released in 1959. This was a stereo control unit that was designed to be used with a pair of QUAD II mono amplifiers. To complement the QUAD II, the company also produced AM broadcasting AM and FM broadcasting FM ... powered models in 1966 with the professional QUAD 50 monoblock which had a tapped transformer .... Up until 1995 the end of the British QUAD era the number of the power amplifier indicated the total ... br The 500 series was a slight variation Product Range Control Unit Pre Amplifiers QUAD 33 1967 to 1982 120,000 units br QUAD 44 1979 to 1989 40,000 units br QUAD 34 1982 to 1995 41,000 units br QUAD 66 1989 to 1996 12,000 units br QUAD 77 br QUAD 99 Current Dumping Power Amplifiers QUAD 405 1975 to 1982 64,000 units br Quad 405 2 1982 to 1993 100,000 units br Quad 306 1986 to 1995 25,000 units br Quad 606 1986 to 1997 27,700 units br Quad 707 br Quad 909 Other Conventional Power Amplifiers Quad 303 1967 to 1985 94,000 br Quad 77 Integrated Loudspeakers File Quad ESL 57 luidspreker.jpg thumb Quad .... Quad addressed the ESL 57 s limitations to some degree with the ESL 63, introduced in 1981. The newer ...   more details

  1. Quad (music)

    For other uses of the term Quad disambiguation Unreferenced date December 2010 Quad or QUAD was the name of a solo music project by Gary Ramon . During his six year hiatus from Sun Dial , Ramon embarked on an ambitious solo project, Quad, which combined ambient electronica with kraut rock . The result was a pair of self titled album s. The first of these was released on Ramon s own Acme Records in 1997 as a 1000 copy limited edition on 12 clear gramophone record vinyl with a transparent sleeve. The second Quad album was released in 1998 on the Prescription Records Prescription label as a 99 copy limited edition Vinyl record LP . A 1999 United States American re release of the first album on CD and 10 LP on the Man s Ruin label was scheduled, but eventually cancelled. Both albums are now highly sought after collectors items. Citation needed date December 2010 See also Sun Dial External links http discography.html Quad discography on the Sun Dial official website DEFAULTSORT Quad music Category British rock music groups Category Psychedelic musical groups ...   more details

  1. Derby QUAD

    Infobox building name Quad native name former names alternate names image Derby Quad corner.jpg alt caption Quad by Jonathon Gill map type map alt map caption altitude building type Arts centre architectural style structural system cost ren cost location Market Place location town Derby location country England , United Kingdom address Market Place, Derby, DE1 3AS client owner current tenants landlord coordinates start date completion date 2008 inauguration date 26 September 2008 renovation date demolition date destruction date height diameter other dimensions floor count floor area main contractor architect architecture firm Feilden Clegg Bradley structural engineer services engineer civil engineer other designers quantity surveyor awards ren architect ren firm ren str engineer ren serv engineer ren civ engineer ren oth designers ren qty surveyor ren awards url http references Derby QUAD also referred to as QUAD Derby is an arts centre in Derby , United Kingdom , first opened on 26 September 2008. It has a steel and glass design by Bath architects Feilden Clegg Bradley . When it was chosen over competing designs by Derby council cabinet in 2004 it was considered controversial. ref http derby features 2004 03 quad quad chosen.shtml Quad the chosen design , BBC Derby, accessed September 2009 ref QUAD provides an art gallery, two cinemas, artists studios, and a cafe bar. ref http pressnews press detail.php?rid 2&id 1035 Arts ... out , Steve Rose,, accessed September 2009 ref QUAD is a movie theater cinema , art gallery gallery , cafe and workshop space that anyone can use. QUAD connects people and businesses ... and a British Film Institute BFI M diath que which you can use to watch various videos. QUAD runs ... http DerbyQUAD Derby QUAD Twitter coord 52.9232 1.4755 type landmark region GB display title DEFAULTSORT Derby Quad Category Arts centres in England Category Visitor attractions in Derbyshire ...   more details

  1. QUAD (compressor)

    QUAD is a high performance Data compression data compressor based on the LZ algorithms LZ77 and LZ78 LZ77 , LZ77 and LZ78 LZ78 , Lempel Ziv Welch LZW . It s designed to produce small files but still decompress fast and with little memory. QUAD is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License LGPL . External links http Category Archive formats Category Free data compression software Category Lossless compression algorithms storage software stub ...   more details

  1. Quad coup�

    A quad coup is a car body style featuring bi parting side doors &ndash located either on one or both sides of the vehicle. The bi parting doors typically feature a longer front door and a short rear door, without a pillar car pillar in between. The configuration offers the utility of a 4 doors, though the doors operate inter subdependently. The forward door must always be opened before the rear door &ndash which opens in a suicide doors rear hinged fashion &ndash can be opened. Gallery gallery File Mazda rx 8 side both doors open.jpg 2003 2008 Mazda RX 8 quad coup , showing both doors open File Ion1.jpg 2007 Saturn Ion quad coup . File Mazda RX 8 on freeway.jpg 2003 2008 Mazda RX 8 quad coup . gallery See also Coup CarConfig nav Auto stub Category Car body styles lt Kvad kup zh ...   more details

  1. QUAD (cipher)

    Infobox Encryption method name QUAD image caption designers C me Berbain, Henri Gilbert and Jacques Patarin publish date May 28, 2006 at Eurocrypt derived from derived to related to certification key size 80 bits structure multivariate system of quadratic equations cryptanalysis In cryptography , the QUAD ... in mind. Description QUAD relies on the iteration of a randomly chosen multivariate quadratic system ... of n GF q first generated values Q sub 1 sub x ,..., Q sub n sub x QUAD is a modern stream ... of the keystream generation of QUAD is provably reducible to the conjectured intractability of the MQ ... recommend to use a version of QUAD with a 80 bit key, 80 bit IV and an internal state of n 160 ... been produced. At Eurocrypt 2006, speed reports were presented for QUAD instances with 160 bit state ... schemes as well as the QUAD stream cipher studied in part the impact of changing the size of the field ... security theorem for QUAD is valid for the field GF 2 only, and recommended parameters does not achieve to get a contradiction with the proof of security. The authors of QUAD who gave the security theorem acknowledged that a break of QUAD at their suggested parameters does not contradict the proof ... Analysis of Quad and found some of them very insecure. Their paper discusses both theoretical and practical aspects of attacking QUAD and of attacking the underlying hard problem. For example, this paper shows how to use XL Wiedemann to break the GF 256 instance QUAD 256, 20, 20 in approximately ... sup 110 sup to solve an instance of the QUAD 2,160,160 version recommended by the authors of QUAD using ... that will be provably secure would be QUAD 2,320,320 , that is, twice as wide as originally ... of QUAD for more efficient implementations is proposed by Liu et al. see reference Secure PRNGs from Specialized Polynomial Maps over Any F sub q sub . References cite web title QUAD ... fse2007 254.pdf accessdate 2008 03 18 cite web title Analysis of QUAD date 2007 03 03 url http ...   more details

  1. Tom Quad

    Image Christ Church college Quadrangle Oxford UK.JPG thumb 250px View of Tom Quad including Tom Tower . Image Tom Quad, Christ Church 2004 01 21.jpg thumb 250px Winter view of Tom Quad in the snow. The Great Quadrangle , more popularly known as Tom Quad , is one of the quadrangles of Christ Church, Oxford , England . It is the largest college Quadrangle architecture quad in Oxford , measuring 264 by 261 feet. Although it was begun by Cardinal Wolsey , he was unable to complete it. Wolsey planned that it would actually be a cloister , and the supports required for this can be seen at short intervals around the quadrangle. The quad was finished when John Fell clergyman John Fell was Dean. The funds for the building of Tom Quad were found from the suppression of three Norbertine abbeys. It is dominated to the west by Tom Tower , designed by Sir Christopher Wren . On the east side is the entrance to Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford Christ Church Cathedral and at the south east corner is the entrance to the college dining hall . The north contains the homes of the Canon priest canons of Christ Church, and much of the east side is taken up with the Deanery , in which the Dean of the college lives. On the north east side, the quad leads, via Kilcannon, to Peckwater Quadrangle and the college library. In the north west part of the quad is the Junior Common Room JCR . Parts of the quad are still lived in by undergraduates, including the staircase above the Porter s lodge, known as Bachelors Row , to the left of the quadrangle when entered via Tom Gate. Bachelors Row is only inhabited by first year male undergraduates. In the centre of the quad, there is an ornamental pond with a statue of Mercury mythology Mercury . In the past, it was traditional for hearties sporty students to throw aesthetes more artistic students into this pond. Currently, entrance to Mercury carries a heavy fine for undergraduates. The pond also contains a large Koi carp apparently worth a large amount of money ...   more details

  1. Quad-edge

    A quad edge data structure is a computer representation of the topology of a dimension two dimensional or three dimensional CW complex map , that is, a graph theory graph drawn on a closed surface . Overview The quad edge data structure represents simultaneously both the map, its dual graph dual and mirror image. can represent the most general form of a map, admitting vertices and faces of degree 1 and 2. is a variant of the earlier winged edge data structure. The fundamental idea behind the quad edge structure is the recognition that a single edge, in a closed polygonal mesh topology, sits between exactly two faces and exactly two vertices. Thus, it can represent a dual of the graph simply by reversing the convention on what is a vertex and what is a face. Details The quad edge structure gets its name from the general mechanism by which they are stored. A single Edge structure conceptually stores references to up to two faces, two vertices, and 4 edges. The four edges stored are the edges starting with the two vertices that are attached to the two stored faces. Uses Much like winged edge Winged Edge , quad edge structures are used in programs to store the topology of a 2D or 3D polygonal mesh. The mesh itself does not need to be closed in order to form a valid quad edge structure. Using a quad edge structure, iterating through the topology is quite easy. Often, the interface to quad edge topologies is through directed edges. This allows the two vertices to have explicit names start and end , and this gives faces explicit names as well left and right, relative to a person standing on start and looking in the direction of end . The four edges are also given names, based on the vertices ... edge Doubly connected edge list References The quad edge data structure was described in the paper ... links http afs andrew scs cs 15 463 2001 pub src a2 quadedge.html A quad edge implementation in C . http stolfi EXPORT software c 2000 05 04 libquad A quad edge ...   more details

  1. Quad antenna

    Cleanup date February 2008 Image Quad Antenna.png right thumb 210px patent US2537191 Image Quad Antenna.jpg right thumb 210px A quad antenna. The quad antenna is an Antenna radio antenna which is frequently ... to as a Cubical Quad since it will be an approximate cube . History It was developed by Clarence ... must have been answered, for gradually as we worked the vision of a quad shaped antenna gradually ... discharge. End effect , which is inherent with the Yagi, is absent in a quad because its elements have ... than that of a Yagi. Advantages over a Yagi Uda Rigorous testing of the quad antenna, reported in William Orr s authoritative All About Cubical Quad Antennas , and others, have illustrated the following advantages over a Yagi Uda antenna. Higher Gain The 2 element Quad has almost the same gain as a 3 element Yagi Uda about 7.5 dB over a dipole. Likewise, a 3 element Quad has more gain than a 3 element Yagi Uda. However, adding quad elements produces diminishing returns. Quoting from William Orr ..., it would seem... that maximum practical number of parasitic loop elements for the Quad array ... A two element, three band quad, with elements mounted only 35 feet above ground, will give good performance ... Book. Shorter Boom William Orr s book shows a 10 15 20 meter, 2 element Quad with boom length of 6 ... of a multi band Quad are quite low, even when fed with a single feed line . Orr, Pg. 63 Lower Angle ... for a 3 element Quad antenna that is tuned for maximum gain is limited because excursions ... O Antenna Prototype An improvement over the Quad design has been claimed by N8PPQ. In 2008 he introduced ... elements. He claims slightly higher gain over the Quad due to its circular form circles being the shape that the Quad only roughly approximates. Here is his list of reported improvements over the Quad antenna Lower Cost Higher Gain Lighter in Weight Less Wind Ice Loading Easier to Install ... All about Cubical Quad Antennas by William I Orr William I. Orr , ISBN 0933616031, ISBN 9780933616035 ...   more details

  1. Quad bike

    UK centric date November 2011 File Yamaha Kodiak Ultramatic.jpg thumb A Yamaha Quad bike A Quad bike is recognised by UK law as a vehicle with four wheels and a mass of less than 550  kg. ref cite news url http media pdf leaflets inf45.pdf title Your full driving license date 2006 08 18 accessdate 2008 04 16 publisher DVLA Dead link date October 2010 bot H3llBot ref To drive a quad bike on a public road, in the UK, requires a B1 licence as well as tax, insurance and registration. History 19th century Royal Enfield built and sold the first powered quadracycle in 1893. It had many bicycle components, including handle bars. The Royal Enfield resembles a modern All terrain vehicle ATV style quad bike but was designed as a form of Brass Era car horseless carriage for road use ... 20th century In the 1970s Honda started to make trikes and quad bikes based on their motorbikes which became the modern UK quad bike. ref cite web url http hondaatc90 id17.html title ... issues of cars classed as quad bikes are illustrated by the case of the G Wiz REVA . This neighborhood ... has been a major issue with quad bikes due to the high number of deaths and injuries associated with them ... including farmers and quad bike manufacturers, Australia s Heads of Workplace Safety Authorities HWSA ... to reduce the high number of deaths and serious injuries associated with quad bike use. Apart from ... crush protection on the market was the Australian made Quad bar which was vigorously opposed by the industry ... ineffective, but could add to the risk to injury or death. While quad bike safety has mainly focused ... 6eec848e c9d7 41a4 a9d5 fe243eef93f2.pdf Quad Bike Industry Solutions Program Trans Tasman Working Group ref ref http 7.30 content 2011 s3317049.htm How safe are Quad bikes ref ref http ... ref http Quad bar ref ref http news all all 280 fcai moves to de bunk ... Quad Bike At MIT Institute of Design, Pune, Maharashtra, India DEFAULTSORT Quad Bike Category ATVs ...   more details

  1. Bicarbonate buffering system

    The bicarbonate buffering system is an important buffer solution buffer system in the acid base homeostasis of living things, including humans. As a buffer, it tends to maintain a relatively constant blood plasma plasma pH and counteract any force that would alter it. In this system, carbon dioxide CO sub 2 sub combines with water to form carbonic acid H sub 2 sub CO sub 3 sub , which in turn rapidly dissociates to form hydrogen ion and bicarbonate HCO sub 3 sub sup sup as shown in the reactions below. The carbon dioxide carbonic acid equilibrium is catalysis catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase the carbonic acid bicarbonate equilibrium is simple proton dissociation association and needs no catalyst. math rm CO 2 H 2O rightleftarrows H 2CO 3 rightleftarrows HCO 3 H math Any disturbance of the system will be compensated by a shift in the chemical equilibrium according to Le Chatelier s principle . For example, if one attempted to acidify the blood by dumping in an excess of hydrogen ions acidemia , some of those hydrogen ions will associate with bicarbonate, forming carbonic acid, resulting in a smaller net increase of acidity than otherwise. This buffering system becomes an even more powerful regulator of acidity when it is coupled with the body s capacity for respiratory compensation , in which breathing is altered to modify the amount of CO sub 2 sub in circulation. In the above example, increased ventilation would increase the loss of CO sub 2 sub to the atmosphere, driving the equilibria above to the left. The process could continue until the excess acid is all exhalation exhaled . This process is extremely important in the physiology of blood having animals. It manages the many acid base imbalance acid and base imbalances that can be produced by both normal and pathophysiology abnormal physiology . It also affects the handling of carbon dioxide, the constantly ... buffering system ref name Bray1999 http books?id qyHu0Iu XOUC&pg PA556 ...   more details

  1. Quad Helix

    gallery gallery Unreferenced date July 2009 A Quad Helix or quadhelix is an orthodontic appliance for the upper teeth that is cemented in the mouth . It is attached to the Molar tooth molar s by 2 bands and has Two or four active helix spring device springs that widen the arch of the mouth to make room for crowded teeth, or correct a posterior cross bite, where lower teeth are buccal outer than upper teeth. It is usually made from 38 mil stainless steel wire and is primarily indicated in mixed dentition, cleft patients and those that have performed the act of thumbsucking. A variety of this appliance is inserted into attachments that are welded to the bands. In this way the orthodontist can adjust the appliance without removing the bands. medical equipment stub dentistry stub Category Orthodontics Category Dental equipment orthodontology de Headgear fr Quad H lix ...   more details

  1. Quad skates

    Unreferenced date March 2007 Image Figure roller skates.jpg thumb right 200px Example of quad skate. The four wheeled turning roller skates roller skate , or quad skate , with four wheel s set in two side by side pairs, was first designed in 1863 in New York City by James Leonard Plimpton in an attempt to improve previous designs. The skate contained a pivoting action using a rubber cushion, and this allowed the skater to skate a curve just by leaning to one side. It was a huge success, so much so that the first public skating rink was opened in 1866 in Newport, Rhode Island with the support of Plimpton. The design of the quad skate allowed easier turns and maneuverability. The quad skate came to dominate the industry for more than a century. Arguably, the most important advance in the realistic use of roller skates as a pleasurable pastime took place in Birmingham, England in 1876 when William Bown patented a design for the wheels of roller skates. Bown s design embodied his effort to keep the two bearing surfaces of an axle , fixed and moving, apart. Bown worked closely with Joseph Henry Hughes , who drew up the patent for a ball or roller bearing race for bicycle and carriage wheels in 1877. Hughes patent included all the elements of an adjustable system. These two men are responsible for modern day roller skate and skateboard wheels, as well as the ball bearing race inclusion in velocipede s later to become motorbike s and automobile s. Another improvement came in 1876, when the toe stop was first patented. This provided skaters with the ability to stop promptly upon tipping the skate onto the toe. Toe stops are still used today on most quad skates and on some types of inline ..., the ancestor of the kingbolt mechanism on modern quad skates. Image 1908 PatinsRoulettes.jpg thumb ... . Turner and Zaidman, 1997 . The design of the quad skate has remained essentially unchanged since .... Popular culture The folk singer Melanie Melanie Safka wrote a song about quad skates called Brand ...   more details

  1. Quad (unit)

    Image USEnFlow02 quads.gif 300px thumb A Sankey diagram using quads. A quad is a unit of energy equal to 10 sup 15 sup a Long and short scales short scale quadrillion BTU , ref cite web url http energy glos.html title Energy Glossary publisher Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign quote QUAD an amount of energy equal to 10 sup 15 sup BTU. ref or 1.055 × 10 sup 18 sup joule s 1.055 exajoules or EJ in SI units. The unit is used by the U.S. Department of Energy in discussing world and national energy budgets. Not just in the US? The World energy consumption global primary energy production in 2004 was 446 quad, equivalent to 471 EJ. ref cite web url http pub international iealf table18.xls title World Consumption of Primary Energy by Energy Type and Selected Country accessdate 2007 05 12 author Energy Information Administration authorlink Energy Information Administration date 2006 07 31 format Microsoft Excel Excel spreadsheet work International Energy Annual 2004 ref Some common types of an energy carrier approximately equal 1 quad are 8,007,000,000 Gallons US of gasoline 293,083,000,000 Kilowatt hours kWh 36,000,000 Tonnes of coal 970,434,000,000 Cubic feet of natural gas 5,996,000,000 UK gallons of diesel oil 25,200,000 Tonnes of oil 252,000,000 tonnes of TNT or five times the energy of the Tsar Bomba nuclear test. References reflist measurement stub Category Units of energy it Quad unit di misura ...   more details

  1. Mob Quad

    File Mob Quad.jpg thumb right Mob Quad in 2005, looking north east Mob Quad is a four sided group of buildings from the 13th and 14th centuries in Merton College, Oxford surrounding a small lawn. It is often claimed to be the oldest quadrangle architecture quadrangle in Oxford , ref For example, see Bott, p.16 ref but Merton s own Front Quad was certainly enclosed earlier ref Martin & Highfield, p.43 ref and the same form was probably developed independently elsewhere. The claim is also disputed by Corpus Christi College, Cambridge which claims that its own Corpus Christi College, Cambridge Buildings Old Court is the oldest structure of its type in either Oxford or Cambridge . The pattern has since been copied at many other colleges and universities worldwide. It was built in three distinct phases. The oldest part is the college s Treasury or muniment Muniment Room that stands above and behind the arch in the north east corner. The roof of this part is strikingly steep and is made of stone in order to protect it and its contents from fire. The steep pitch of the roof is necessary to support the weight of the stone. The present roof was restored with new Purbeck marble Purbeck stone in 1966. The upper floor has always been used to store the college muniments, the ground floor was probably the original bursary . It is not known exactly when the building was completed, but there are references ... Mob Quad from Chapel Tower.jpg thumb Mob Quad in 2003, from Merton College Chapel tower This range ... Savile s rebuilding work which began in 1589. File Merton college mob quad half tone 1910.jpg thumb Mob Quad in 1910, looking north west The origin of the name Mob Quad is obscure. On older plans and accounts the quad is called variously Little Quadrangle, Old Quadrangle, Bachelors Quadrangle that is, Bachelor ... for Mob Quad until the end of the 18th century. ref Highfield 1991, loc. cit. ref It was possibly originally ... Mob Quad in the eighteenth century and at other times journal Postmaster The Merton Record issue October ...   more details

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