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Encyclopedia results for Noise mitigation

Noise mitigation





Encyclopedia results for Noise mitigation

  1. Noise mitigation

    Noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise pollution . The main areas of noise mitigation or abatement are transportation noise control, architecture architectural design, and industrial noise occupational noise control. Roadway noise and aircraft noise are the most pervasive sources of environmental noise worldwide, and little change has been effected in source control in these areas ... Noise barrier Noise control Noise mitigation Noise health effects Noise regulation Noise, vibration ... noise control is really a subset of interior architectural control of noise, with emphasis upon ... stations. Sound masking is the active addition of noise to reduce the annoyance of certain sounds the opposite of soundproofing . Roadways Main Noise barrier File Hybridsilver.JPG thumb left This hybrid ... 60 km h. Source control in roadway noise has provided little reduction in vehicle noise, except for the development ... fifty percent to have a major impact on noise source reduction of city streets. Citation needed date April 2011 Highway noise is little affected by automobile type, since those effects are aerodynamic and tire tyre noise related. Other contributions to reduction of noise at the source are improved ..., and local vehicle regulation of muffler unmuffled vehicles. The most fertile areas for roadway noise mitigation are in urban planning decisions, roadway design, noise barrier design, ref Benz Kotzen and Colin English, Environmental Noise Barriers A Guide to Their Visual and Acoustic Design , Spon Press ... miles per hour of speed. At the lowest speeds, braking and engine acceleration noise dominates. Selection ... , Houston light rail system 1982 , and the Portland, Oregon Beaverton light rail line 1983 . Noise ... atmospheric sound propagation is unfavorable to any noise barrier. Aircraft Main Aircraft noise File ... approach to London Heathrow Airport , showing proximity to homes As in the case of roadway noise, little progress has been made in quelling aircraft noise at the source, other than elimination of loud ...   more details



  1. Mitigation

    wiktionary mitigation Mitigation may refer to mitigation of global warming in climate science environmental mitigation in public administration also, in particular Mitigation banking The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 disaster mitigation in emergency management also, in particular Flood mitigation Landslide mitigation Hurricane mitigation political risk Political Risk Mitigation mitigation of political risk in political science defense against computer insecurity Mitigation law , the opposite of Aggravation legal concept aggravation in law. Disambig ...   more details



  1. Environmental mitigation

    Environmental mitigation , compensatory mitigation , or mitigation banking , are terms used primarily ... harsh or hostile. Environmental mitigation is typically a part of an environmental crediting system ... credits are bought from mitigation banks which are large mitigation projects established to provide ... resource. Advantages Environmental mitigation and crediting systems are often praised for the following reasons Development friendly Mitigation is a more development friendly alternative to strict ... it. Mitigation industry Mitigation inevitably creates a mitigation industry . By requiring those who impact natural resources to purchase credits, a demand for mitigation credit is formed. Businesses ... regulation assures that credit adequately reflects ecological value, mitigation has the potential ... buyers are typically looking for mitigation credits that are both cheap and the most likely to meet regulatory requirements for creation of credit. Cost burden Mitigation systems place the environmental ... environmental mitigation, costs of alleviating environmental damage caused by development could ... is given greater monetary value under a mitigation system. For instance, land in floodplains may be impractical for commercial or residential development but conductive for mitigation activities ... to be used for mitigation credits. Disadvantages The following are criticisms of environmental mitigation and crediting systems Incorrect allocation and valuation of credits and debits Mitigation ... with environmental impacts or mitigation when allocating debts and credits. Governing bodies are primarily responsible for prescribing the ecological criteria required to attain credits for mitigation ... mitigation work requires buying large amounts of land or putting it in conservation easements. Because of this, mitigation could be seen as contributing to increasing the cost of land. Mitigation can .... Problems with pre existing credit Because mitigation credit can be applied to existing natural resources ...   more details



  1. DDoS mitigation

    DDoS mitigation is a technique for resisting distributed denial of service DDoS attacks on networks attached to the Internet by passing network traffic addressed to the attacked network through high capacity networks with traffic scrubbing filters. DEFAULTSORT DDoS mitigation Category Computer network security Category Computer security Category System administration Internet stub ...   more details



  1. Mitigation banking

    Refimprove date February 2008 Confusing date February 2008 Mitigation banking is the restoration, creation, enhancement, or preservation of a wetland , stream, or habitat conservation area which offsets expected adverse impacts to similar nearby ecosystem s. The goal is to replace the exact function and value of the specific wetland habitats that would be adversely affected by a proposed project. In the United States , the federal government under section 404 of the Clean Water Act as well as many state and local governments, require mitigation for the disturbance or destruction of wetland, stream, or endangered wildlife habitat. Once approved by regulatory agencies the mitigation bank may sell credits to developers whose projects will impact these various ecosystems. Credits are the units ... within the service area of the bank. Credits are evaluated by a Mitigation Bank Review Team. The MBRT processes and permits the Mitigation Bank. They may consist of some or all of the following U.S. Army ... a mitigation bank over other acceptable industry practices. Mitigation banks place a perpetual conservation ... of the task and the enormity of the cost. Mitigation banks provide advantages to on site and small parcel mitigation. By consolidating necessary services to create, maintain, and monitor mitigation banks are able to provide superior services at a lower cost. Consolidating small parcel wetland loss creates larger more sustainable and functional ecosystems. Mitigation banks provide many ... the use of their site. Because mitigation bank credits are created prior to impacts, purchasing credits from a mitigation bank decreases permitting time. The cost is often lower than acceptable alternatives. Regulatory burden and risk is passed from developer to mitigation bank. Regulatory officials favor mitigation banks due to the consolidation of project parcels make monitoring easier for strained ... ref References reflist See also Environmental mitigation Biodiversity banking Category Banking ...   more details



  1. Radon mitigation

    cleanup rewrite date November 2011 Radon mitigation is any process used to reduce radon concentrations in the breathing zones of occupied buildings. Testing ASTM International ASTM E 2121 is a US standard for reducing radon in homes as far as practicable below 4 picocurie s per liter pCi L 148 becquerel ... Recommended Residential Radon Mitigation Standard of Practice publisher United States Environmental ... title ASTM E2121 03 Standard Practice for Installing Radon Mitigation Systems in Existing Low Rise ... National Radon Proficiency Program ref A list of mitigation service providers is available. ref cite web url http www.radongas.org Description of Radon Mitigation Services.html title Residential Mitigation Provider accessdate 2008 02 02 publisher The National Environmental Health Association National Radon Proficiency Program ref Methods of mitigation Because high levels of radon have been ... radon mitigation systems has become a specialized industry in the last two decades. Many states ... radon testing and mitigation systems are not generally mandatory unless specified by the local .... ref cite web url http radon solution.com pg mitigation methods.php title Radon Mitigation Methods ... from entering into the breathing zone. Such ASAPDB technology is often the best radon mitigation choice ... or she performs radon mitigation procedures Air conditioner duct leaks located outside the breathing ... t of 14 F 8 C will dehumidify poorly if at all. In South Florida, most all radon mitigation is performed by use of fixed rate mechanical ventilation. Radon mitigation training in Florida does not include ... risks associated with radon mitigation by mechanical ventilation even though mold may make occupants ... condominiums and apartments, radon mitigation mechanical ventilation systems were installed in a concealed ... into the breathing zone. Such ASAPDB technology is often the best radon mitigation choice for high ... http www.radonplan.us EPA Federal Radon Mitigation Action Plan Category Radon Category Building engineering ...   more details



  1. Fouling mitigation

    mitigation offline, which requires the complete shutdown of key processes for cleaning and online ... plant are due to fouling mitigation in heat exchangers. When offline mitigation requires the use ...   more details



  1. Loss mitigation

    globalize date December 2010 Loss mitigation ref http portal.hud.gov hudportal HUD?src program offices housing sfh nsc lmmltrs Loss Mitigation Policy & Guidance ref is used to describe a third party helping a homeowner, a division within a bank that mitigates the loss of the bank, or a firm that handles the process of negotiation between a homeowner and the homeowner s lender. Loss mitigation works to negotiate Mortgage loan mortgage terms for the homeowner that will prevent foreclosure . These new terms are typically obtained through loan modification, short sale real estate short sale negotiation , short refinance negotiation, deed in lieu of foreclosure , cash for keys negotiation, or a partial claim loan or other loan work out. All of the options serve the same purpose, to stabilize the risk of loss the lender investor is in danger of realizing. Kinds of loss mitigation Loan modification This is a process whereby a homeowner s Mortgage loan mortgage is modified and both lender and homeowner are bound by the new terms. The most common modifications are lowering the interest rate and extending the term to up to 40 years. Reduction in the principal balance, however, is so rare that the Federal ... HUD?src program offices housing sfh nsc faqnsctc FHA NSC Loan Servicing and Loss Mitigation Frequently .... Benefits The most common benefit to the homeowner is the prevention of foreclosure because loss mitigation .... History and causes globalize section USA date December 2010 Loss mitigation has been a tool used ... date June 15, 2007 ref Prior to late 2006, early 2007 Loss Mitigation was a tiny department within ... shows Loss Mitigation was almost nonexistent. The ten year period prior to 2007 spurred rapid .... Loss Mitigation was only needed for extreme cases due to the homeowners ability to repeatedly refinance ... to refinance out of these loans, the only answer for many is default and foreclosure or loss mitigation ... faqlm.cfm HUD.gov Loan Modification Frequently Asked Questions DEFAULTSORT Loss Mitigation Category ...   more details



  1. Mitigation (law)

    Mitigation in law is the principle that a party who has suffered loss from a tort or breach of contract has to take reasonable action to minimize the amount of the loss suffered. As stated by the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal in Redpath Industries Ltd. v. Cisco The ref 1993 CanLII 3025 F.C.A. ref , It is well established that a party who suffers damages as a result of a breach of contract has a duty to mitigate those damages, that is to say that the wrongdoer cannot be called upon to pay for avoidable losses which would result in an increase in the quantum of damages payable to the injured party. The onus on showing a failure to mitigate damages is on the defendant . For example, consider a tenant who signs an agreement to rent a house for a year, but moves out after only one month. The landlord may be able to sue the tenant for breach of contract however the landlord must mitigate damages by making a reasonable attempt to find a replacement tenant for the remainder of the year. The landlord may not simply let the house lie empty for eleven months and then sue the tenant for eleven months rent. The issue of what is reasonable is especially contentious in personal injury cases where the plaintiff refuses medical advice. This can be seen in cases such as Janiak v. Ippolito ref 1985 CanLII 62 S.C.C. ref . References references Category Legal terms Category Civil law common law law term stub ...   more details



  1. Flood mitigation

    Multiple issues cleanup August 2009 expert August 2009 refimprove November 2011 Flood mitigation involves the managing the effects of flooding, such as redirecting flood run off, rather than trying to prevent it altogether. It is management of people, through measures such as evacuation and dry wet proofing properties for example. The prevention of flooding can be studied on a number of levels, individual properties, small communities and whole towns or cities. The costs of protection rise as more people and property are protected. Protection of individual properties See also Flood opening There are systems that property owners purchase and fit to their home to stop water entering their house. These systems work on blocking doors, windows and air vents with boards. Image propert2.jpg thumb right Image propert3.jpg thumb right Protection of communities When more homes, shops and infrastructure are threatened by the effects of flooding, then the benefits of greater protection is worth the additional cost. Temporary Flood Defenses can be constructed relatively quickly in certain locations and provide protection from rising flood waters. Image communit2.jpg thumb right Image communit1.jpg thumb right Rivers running through large urban developments will often have been controlled and channeled. These channels or canals will have a fixed capacity and if flood water flows exceed this capacity then the city will flood. Over time defenses will have been constructed to minimize the effects, and this will generally be through raising the sides of the river channel with embankments, walls or levees. The large number of people and huge value of infrastructure at risk in cities, means that protection works of high cost can be justified. Flood risk management The most effective way of reducing the risk to people and property is through the production of flood risk maps. Most countries in the developed world will have produced maps which show areas prone to flooding events of known ...   more details



  1. Landslide mitigation

    Cleanup date May 2008 Citations missing date May 2008 Landslide mitigation refers to lessening the effect of landslides by constructing various man made projects at slopes vulnerable to landslides. Landslides can be triggered by many often concomitant causes. In addition to shallow erosion or reduction of sheer strength caused by seasonal rainfall, causes triggered by anthropic activities such as adding excessive weight above the slope, digging at mid slope or at the foot of the slope, can also be included. However, often individual phenomena join together to generate instability, also after some time has elapsed, which, other than in well instrumented limited areas, do not allow a reconstruction of the evolution of the occurred landslide. It is therefore pointless, for the purpose of planning landslide hazard mitigation measures, to classify the work as a function of the phenomenon or of more important phenomena, renouncing any attempt to precisely describe all the causes or the conditions which, at different times, contribute to the occurrence of the landslide. Therefore, slope stabilisation methods in rock or in earth, can be collocated into three types of measure Geometric methods, in which the geometry of the hillside is changed in general the slope Hydrogeological methods, in which an attempt is made to lower the groundwater level or to reduce the water content of the material Chemical and mechanical methods, in which attempts are made to increase the shear strength of the unstable mass or to introduce active external forces e.g. anchors, rock or ground nailing or passive e.g. structural wells, piles or reinforced ground to contrast the destabilising forces. The different type of material conditions the engineering solution adopted, although It always comes back, in principle ... Geotechnics Avalanche control , mitigation of a similar disaster type References Reflist Bomhad ... . Landslide types and process. In Landslides Investigation and Mitigation , Transportation Research ...   more details



  1. Noise

    about noise as an unwanted phenomenon Noise disambiguation File Noise Research Program on Hangar Apron ... engine noise in 1967 In common use, the word noise means any unwanted sound . In physics and analog electronics , Noise electronics noise is a mostly unwanted random addition to a Signal electronics signal it is called noise as a generalisation of the acoustic noise static heard when listening to a weak radio transmission with significant electrical noise. Signal noise is heard as acoustic noise if the signal is converted into sound e.g., played through a loudspeaker it manifests as Noise video snow on a television or video image. High noise levels can block, distort, change or interfere ... of other activities. Signal to noise ratio is sometimes used to refer to the ratio of useful to irrelevant information in an exchange. In biology, many different forms of cellular noise exist, where a measurement displays substantial variance around its mean for example, transcriptional noise ... case of thermal noise arises, which sets a fundamental lower limit to what can be measured or signaled ... by simple formulae. In some fields, noise means unwanted information or data that is not relevant to the hypothesis or theory being investigated or tested. Acoustic noise In relation to sound, noise ... to hear wanted sounds, are noise. For example, conversations of other people may be called noise ... countryside, is called noise. Acoustic noise can be anything from quiet but annoying to loud and harmful ... from the source doubling the distance from a noise source reduces its intensity by a factor of four, or 6 dB. Regulation of acoustic noise Main Noise regulation Noise regulation includes statutes ... levels of government. After a watershed passage of the U.S. Noise Control Act of 1972 1 ... rising ambient noise b enforceable numerical source limits on aircraft and motor vehicles or c comprehensive directives to local government. Use in Music Main Noise in music Also Noise music ...   more details



  1. NOiSE

    Mergeto Blame date August 2009 This article is about NOiSE the manga. For other uses, see Noise disambiguation . Infobox animanga Header name NOiSE image File Noisetstomunihei.jpg 230px caption Musubi on top of early silicon creatures ja kanji NOiSE genre Cyberpunk Infobox animanga Print type manga author Tsutomu Nihei publisher Kodansha publisher en flagicon United States Tokyopop publisher other flagicon France Gl nat publisher Gl nat br flagicon Germany Egmont Manga & Anime demographic Seinen manga Seinen magazine Afternoon magazine Afternoon first 2001 last 2001 volumes 1 volume list Infobox animanga Footer nihongo NOiSE Noizu is a one volume manga created by Tsutomu Nihei as a prequel to his ten volume work, Blame . Noise offers some information concerning the Megastructure s origins and initial size, as well as the origins of BLAME characters and structures Silicon Life .28Cyborgs.29 Silicon life . The book also includes Blame , a One shot comics one shot prototype for Blame , which originally debuted in 1995. Plot This story portrays Susono Musubi, a young police officer in a post apocalyptic subterranean city that s thriving with activity, who is investigating recent child abductions. She finds a heavily toned down, sword like Gravitational Beam Emitter as well as other elements that take different forms in the later publication for example, BLAME characters and structures Silicon Life .28Cyborgs.29 Silicon life . References reflist External links ann manga 5158 Blame DEFAULTSORT Noise Category Blame Category Cyberpunk anime and manga Category 2001 manga Category Seinen manga Category Tokyopop titles bg NOiSE de NOiSE fr NOiSE ja NOiSE ...   more details



  1. This Is Noise

    Infobox Album See Wikipedia WikiProject Albums Name This Is Noise Type EP Artist Rise Against Cover 61zGfvGp5yL. SS500 .jpg Released July 3, 2007 br April 7, 2008 small European release small January 15, 2008 UK digital release Recorded Genre Punk rock , hardcore punk Length 9 08 Label Geffen Records Geffen Producer Reviews Last album The Sufferer & the Witness br 2006 This album This Is Noise br 2007 Next album Appeal to Reason br 2008 This Is Noise is the first extended play EP by Rise Against . It was released on July 3, 2007 in Canada, and January 15, 2008 on iTunes by Geffen Records . The EP features 5 songs. ref http www.riseagainst.com news default.aspx nid 12377 Rise Against NEWS This Is Noise EP Bot generated title ref A European track listing was announced on MySpace on March 31, 2008. It contains different artwork and different songs. The release dates were April 7, 2008 for Germany, the UK, Switzerland, and Italy, and April 11, 2008 for Austria. Track listing class wikitable No. Title Length Notes 1 Boy s No Good small Lifetime band Lifetime cover small 1 18 Recorded during The Unraveling tour 2 Fix Me small Black Flag band Black Flag cover small 0 54 From Tony Hawk s American Wasteland soundtrack 3 Obstructed View 2 02 B side from Siren Song of the Counter Culture 4 But Tonight We Dance 2 47 B side from The Sufferer & the Witness 5 Nervous Breakdown small Black Flag cover small 2 07 From the Lords of Dogtown soundtrack European track listing Obstructed View 2 03 But Tonight We Dance 2 48 Like the Angel Live at Warped Tour 2006 3 08 State of the Union Live at Warped Tour 2006 2 39 Everchanging Acoustic 4 21 Minor Threat small Live Minor Threat cover small 1 41 Nervous Breakdown small Black Flag band Black Flag cover small 2 07 References reflist Rise Against Category Rise Against albums Category 2007 EPs Category English language EPs es This Is Noise it This Is Noise ru This Is Noise sk This Is Noise ...   more details



  1. The Noise

    unreferenced date September 2008 Infobox Newspaper name the Noise image caption type Monthly newspaper format Tabloid newspaper format Tabloid foundation 1993 ceased publication price free owners Weavel Inc publisher Charles Seiverd editor Charles Seiverd language English circulation 45,000 headquarters POB 1637 br Flagstaff, Arizona Flagstaff , Arizona AZ 86002 br United States ISSN website http thenoise.us Official website DISPLAYTITLE the Noise the Noise is a monthly newspaper serving the cities of Flagstaff, Arizona Flagstaff , Prescott, Arizona Prescott , Sedona, Arizona Sedona , Cottonwood, Arizona Cottonwood , Jerome, Arizona Jerome , Clarkdale, Arizona Clarkdale , and Winslow, Arizona Winslow in northern Arizona . Founded in 1993 by four high school seniors whose rural hometown s budget cuts lead to the cancellation of the student newspaper, it has since expanded its circulation and editorial to encompass a large swath of northern Arizona. As an independent nonprofit publication, the Noise contains a variety of news , arts , music , poetry , fiction and commentary. It has housed in depth coverage of the controversial issue of snowmaking on the San Francisco Peaks by Arizona Snowbowl and the subsequent appeal from Native Americans in the United States Native American tribes to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals . It has also covered issues such as water rights, education reform, affordable housing, and immigration law. External links http www.thenoise.us Official website arizona newspaper stub DEFAULTSORT Noise Category Newspapers published in Arizona Category Flagstaff, Arizona ...   more details



  1. No Noise

    Infobox Film name Lodge Night image image size caption director Robert F. McGowan producer Hal Roach writer Hal Roach br H. M. Walker narrator starring Joe Cobb br Jackie Condon br Mickey Daniels br Allen Hoskins br Mary Kornman music cinematography editing distributor Path Path Exchange released Film date 1923 9 23 runtime 20 minutes country Film US language Silent film br English intertitles budget No Noise is the 17th Our Gang short subject comedy released. The Our Gang series later known as The Little Rascals was created by Hal Roach in 1922, and continued production until 1944. Plot Mickey Daniels Mickey is in the hospital to have his tonsil s removed. The gang decide to visit him, and end up causing all sorts of disasters. They manage to work their way into both the x ray and operating rooms, among other places. Finally, the gang is subdued after inhaling some powerful nitrous oxide laughing gas . Notes The skeleton chasing the African American gag is repeated years later in the MGM Talkie era. When the television rights for the original silent Path Our Gang comedies were sold to National Telepix and other distributors, several episodes were retitled. This film was released into TV syndication as Mischief Makers in 1960 under the title Operation Tonsils . About two thirds of the original film was included. About two minutes of this film was edited with a film from the Hey Fellas a rival Our Gang series into another Mischief Makers episode under the title Rival Clinic . Cast Mickey Daniels Mickey Ernie Morrison Sunshine Sammy Allen Hoskins Farina Joe Cobb Joe Jackie Condon Jackie Mary Kornman Mary Jack Davis actor Jack Davis Jack Charles A. Bachman Officer Beth Darlington Mickey s Nurse Andy Samuel Lewis De Vore Helen Gilmore Nurse Clara Guiol Nurse Lincoln Stedman Doctor Charles Stevenson Doctor Charley Young Doctor Buster the Dog Dinah the Mule External links IMDb title 0235627 Amg movie 226135 Category 1923 films Category 1920s comedy films Category Hal R ...   more details



  1. Environmental noise

    Environmental noise is the summary of noise from transport , industrial and recreational activities. The definition is pursuant to the directive 2002 49 EC article 10.1. This directive should give a common approach intended to avoid, prevent or reduce the harmful effects of environmental noise. The main target is an integrated Noise mitigation noise management . In the first step the competent authorities in the European member states had to produce strategic noise map s for major road s, railway s, airport s and agglomeration s. The second step is to inform and consult the public. The third step is producing local action plan s to reduce noise. See also Ambience sound recording Noise pollution References http eur lex.europa.eu LexUriServ LexUriServ.do?uri CELEX 52004DC0160 EN HTML Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council concernig Directive 2002 49 EC Category Noise pollution Category Environmentalism Category Acoustics de Umgebungsl rm ...   more details



  1. Noise control

    About the scientific aspects of noise control the anti social concept of noise control Loud music Mergefrom Noise mitigation date October 2009 Noise control is an active or passive means of reducing sound ... in Acoustics Acoustic quieting Architectural acoustics Active noise control Noise mitigation Noise Reduction Coefficient Noise, vibration, and harshness Soundproofing Sound masking Vibration isolation .... Practical and efficient noise control is wholly reliant on an accurate diagnosis of what is causing the noise, which first involves finding the source of noise. Once the source of noise has been found, the focus is reducing the noise at source by engineering means. The most common noise sources ..., etc . Effective noise control focuses on reducing the noise from these sources as close to the source as possible. Noise control for aerodynamic sources include air nozzle quiet air nozzles , silencer pneumatic silencers and Quiet PC Fans quiet fan technology . In architectural acoustics and noise pollution environmental acoustics , noise control refers to the set of practices employed for noise mitigation . Within architectural acoustics these practices include interior sound reverberation reduction, inter room noise transfer mitigation and exterior building skin augmentation. More specific architectural noise control methods include the installation of thicker and or double glazed ... sound, common noise control practices include design of noise barrier s, development and enforcement of noise abatement legal codes and urban design. Types of noise control There are four basic principles of noise control Sound insulation prevent the transmission of noise by the introduction ..., metal etc. Sound absorption a porous material which acts as a noise sponge by converting the sound ... noise casestudies soundsolutions Noise control case studies http www.industrialdeafnesswatch.co.uk category case studies Industrial noise control case studies DEFAULTSORT Noise Control Category Noise ...   more details



  1. Noise (acoustic)

    Acoustic noise is any sound in the acoustic domain, either deliberate music, speech, etc. or unintended. It is important to recognise that the term noise is also used to refer to other, non audible forms, especially in electronics and in the radio radar spectrum. Environmental noise main Noise pollution Environmental noise is the comprehensive study of acoustic phenomena in the human environment which involve unwanted sound. The principal sources of environmental noise are surface motor vehicles, aircraft, trains and industrial sources. These noise sources expose millions of people to noise pollution that creates not only annoyance, but also significant health consequences such as elevated incidence of hearing loss and cardiovascular disease. There are a variety of mitigation strategies and controls available to reduce sound levels including source intensity reduction, land use planning strategies, noise barrier s and sound baffle s, time of day use regimens, vehicle operational controls and architectural acoustics design measures.ankit k Laws governing noise main Noise regulation Environmental noise is governed by laws and standards which set maximum recommended levels of noise for specific land uses, such as residential areas, areas of outstanding natural beauty, or schools. These standards usually specify measurement using a weighting filter , most often A weighting . See also Impulse noise audio Loud music Noise Pollution External links http www.defra.gov.uk environment noise research climate nannexb.htm European noise laws http www.daniel alberts.info Papers AddressingWindTurbineNoise.pdf Addressing Wind Turbine Noise http www.nonoise.org Noise Pollution Clearing House Category Noise pollution Noise acoustic de Ger usch ...   more details



  1. Local Mitigation Strategy

    A Local Mitigation Strategy LMS is a local government plan in the United States , typically at County United States county level, that is designed to reduce or eliminate risks to people and property from natural and man made hazards. Mitigation strategies are supported by state government and federal programs, in line with the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 Disaster Mitigation Act . The need for hazard mitigation has become more recognized over the past few years due to the large number of natural hazards which have occurred in the U.S and the increase in the costs to achieve post disaster recovery. Money spent prior to a hazardous event to reduce the impacts of a disaster can result in substantial savings in life and property following the event. The benefits of implementing a mitigation program usually far outweigh the costs. As a result, the Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA and the states have developed national and state Disaster mitigation Mitigation Strategies and funding is becoming increasingly more available to support hazard mitigation efforts. The advantages of developing a LMS program are numerous including guidance in developing pre and post mitigation plans identifying priority projects and programs for funding and increasing the likelihood of State and Federal funding for pre and post hazard mitigation projects. The mitigation initiatives that a community develops must have their basis in the community s guiding principles on hazard mitigation. The initiatives ... the vulnerability assessment section of the strategy. Finally, mitigation initiatives must accurately ... that local needs are incorporated in the mitigation initiatives. These steps prevent a projects that have no basis in a community s overall vision of hazard mitigation, or in its vulnerability to hazards on the vulnerability assessment, from being proposed. See also Disaster mitigation Other countries Cabinet Office Briefing Rooms UK French red plan External links http www.fema.gov fima FEMA Mitigation ...   more details



  1. Industrial noise

    Industrial noise is usually considered mainly from the point of view of environmental health and safety, rather than nuisance, as sustained exposure can cause permanent hearing damage. Traditionally, occupational noise has been a hazard linked to heavy industries such as ship building and associated only with noise induced hearing loss NIHL . Modern thinking in occupational safety and health identifies noise as hazardous to worker safety and health in many places of employment and by a variety of means. Noise can not only cause hearing impairment at long term exposures of over 85 decibel s dB , known ... by masking hazards and warning signals, and by impeding concentration. Noise also acts synergistically with other hazards to increase the risk of harm to workers. In particular, noise and dangerous ... ear damage. A weighting A weighted measurements are commonly used to determine noise levels that can cause harm to the human ear, and special exposure meters are available that integrate noise over a period ... noise reduction Acoustic quieting is the process of making machinery quieter by damping vibrations to prevent them from reaching the observer. When two identical industrial noise sources are side by side producing a recorded noise at 100 dB A the reduction in noise from shutting off one of the noise sources is about 3 dB resulting in 97 dB A . When one doubles the distance from a noise source the recorded noise level is reduced by 6 dB. This is also called the Rule of 6 . This is based on the fact that the equation to calculate noise attenuation at a distance math d 2 math , knowing the SPL ... to math 20 log 10 2 math which equals 6.02 or approx. 6 See also Earplug Earmuffs Noise health effects Noise control Noise mitigation Noise pollution Noise regulation Protective clothing A weighting ITU R 468 noise weighting Weighting filter Equal loudness contour Safe In Sound Award Excellence ... Category Noise Category Noise pollution Industrial noise Category Occupational safety and health ...   more details



  1. Roadway noise

    roadways and the design of noise mitigation . Partial bans on motor vehicles from urban areas have ... designs, traffic operations and noise mitigation strategies in an arbitrary setting. Later model ... setback and pavement types. The outcome was a compromise that involved substantial mitigation of noise ... design with transit element and extensive noise mitigation was agreed to. Later cases have occurred ... Noise barrier for a deeper insight to roadway noise mitigation using physical barriers Active noise ...File SaoPaulo PrestesMaia.jpg thumb 300px right Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of noise pollution environmental noise . Pictured S o Paulo , Brazil. Roadway noise is the collective sound energy emanating from motor vehicle s. In the USA it contributes more to environmental noise exposure ref Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session ref than any other noise source, and is constituted chiefly of engine , tire , aerodynamic ... noise is expected to contribute a proportionately large share of the total societal noise pollution . History File Hongkongroadway.jpg thumb 180px Hong Kong roadway generating noise to adjacent land uses. Roadway noise began to be measured in a widespread manner in the 1960s, when computer model ing of this phenomenon was perfected. After passage of the National Environmental Policy Act and Noise Control Act , ref Public Law No. 92 574, 86 Stat. 1234 1972 Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972 ... levels. ref cite book url http books.google.com books?id uSqaiNbHvxYC&q sweden 22roadway noise 22&dq sweden 22roadway noise 22&pgis 1 title Public hearings on noise abatement and control, Volumes 7 8 page 81 publisher United States. Office of Noise Abatement and Control accessdate 30 November 2010 ref Description of basic variables The intensity of roadway noise is governed by the following variables ... noise is affected significantly by vehicle speeds, since sound energy roughly doubles for each ...   more details



  1. Cognitive bias mitigation

    Cognitive bias mitigation refers to the prevention and reduction of the negative effects of Cognitive ... reasoning errors . There is no coherent, comprehensive theory or practice of Cognitive Bias Mitigation ... Bias Mitigation most address Cognitive Bias Mitigation tacitly rather than explicitly. A long ... of Cognitive Bias Mitigation. This debate contrasts the rational agent rational economic agent standard ... s harassment because the rest of your peers don t. Cognitive Bias Mitigation To Date Few academic and professional disciplines explicitly identify Cognitive Bias Mitigation as a focus of attention ... of Cognitive Bias Mitigation. In most cases this is based on explicit reference to Cognitive biases Cognitive Biases or their mitigation, in others on unstated but self evident applicability. This characterization ... Bias Mitigation can only be achieved by decision makers becoming more like rational agents ... to a theory and practice of Cognitive Bias Mitigation. Game Theory Game Theory , a discipline with roots ... Bias Mitigation can only be achieved by decision makers becoming more like rational agents ... Mitigation, and there is no evidence of peer reviewed work on Cognitive Bias Mitigation in other areas ... in business and trade magazines addressing the notion of Cognitive Bias Mitigation in a limited form ... Business Review, June, 2011. ref . These contributions assert that Cognitive Bias Mitigation is necessary ... to achieve Cognitive Bias Mitigation. Cognitive Psychology Several streams of investigation in this discipline are noteworthy for their possible relevance to a theory of Cognitive Bias Mitigation. One approach to Cognitive Bias Mitigation originally suggested by Daniel Kahneman Kahneman and Amos ... Bias Mitigation protocol when the process is applied with a maximum of diligence, in situations ... advances in Cognitive Bias Mitigation. Originally conceived of by H. A. Simon ref Simon, H. A. 1991 ... of Cognitive Bias Mitigation from this approach is that it addresses mitigation without explicitly ...   more details



  1. Aircraft noise

    , Nr. 51, 14 Dezember 2009, Page 45 de icon ref Noise mitigation programs main Noise mitigation File ...Refimprove date May 2008 Infobox aviation name Aircraft noise image Image Qantas b747 over houses arp.jpg ... , England. Aircraft noise is noise pollution produced by any aircraft or its components, during various ... aircraft produce localized aircraft noise. Image RotorwayExec01.jpg thumb right Helicopter main and tail rotors produce aerodynamic noise. A moving aircraft including the jet engine or Propeller aircraft ... have different noise levels and frequencies. The noise originates from three main sources Aerodynamic noise Engine and other mechanical noise Noise from aircraft systems Aerodynamic noise Aerodynamic noise arises from the airflow around the aircraft fuselage and control surfaces. This type of noise ... aircraft create intense noise from aerodynamic s. Low flying, high speed military aircraft produce especially loud aerodynamic noise. The shape of the nose, windshield or canopy aircraft canopy of an aircraft affects the sound produced. Much of the noise of a propeller aircraft is of aerodynamic origin ... noise. This type of aerodynamic noise is mostly low frequency determined by the rotor speed. Typically noise is generated when flow passes an object on the aircraft, for example the wings or landing gear. There are broadly two main types of airframe noise Bluff Body Noise the alternating ... Noise Research Overview accessdate 2008 07 13 ref Edge Noise when turbulent flow passes the end ... name bluff Engine and other mechanical noise Much of the noise in propeller aircraft comes equally from the propellers and aerodynamics. Helicopter noise is aerodynamically induced noise from the main and tail rotors and mechanically induced noise from the main gearbox and various transmission chains ... and movement of the moving parts. In computer model ling terms noise from a moving aircraft can be treated ... noise during takeoff and climb. However, with advances in noise reduction technologies the airframe ...   more details



  1. Noise pollution

    Noise mitigation Technology to mitigate or remove noise can be applied as follows There are a variety ... landing at London Heathrow Airport Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise may be from the Latin word nausea s , metaphorically meaning disgust or discomfort. ref noise. Dictionary.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. http dictionary.reference.com browse noise accessed March 04, 2012 . ref The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and Transport transportation systems , including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise , and Trains rail noise . ref name Senate Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement ... Engineers. Urban Transportation Division ref Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side by side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood pressure ... disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance ... effects Human health Noise health effects describe problems in both health and behavior. Unwanted sound noise can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance ... variables upon noise annoyance in residential areas , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93 2753 2763 1993 ref ref cite web title Noise Pollution url http www.euro.who.int Noise publisher World Health Organisation ref ref cite news title Road noise link to blood pressure url http ... Karl D. Kryter, The Effects of Noise on Man , Academic Press 1985 ref Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise induced hearing loss . Older males exposed to significant Industrial noise occupational noise demonstrate Statistical significance significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non ...   more details




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