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Encyclopedia results for Keynesian economics

Keynesian economics





Encyclopedia results for Keynesian economics

  1. Keynesian economics

    Economics sidebar Keynesian economics IPAc en icon k e n z i n respell KAYN zee n also called Keynesianism ... on the ideas of 20th century English economist John Maynard Keynes . Advocates of Keynesian economics ... ref The theories forming the basis of Keynesian economics were first presented in The General Theory ... and Keynesian economics Postwar Keynesianism several schools of thought claim his legacy. Keynesian ..., which began in the late 1960s and early 1970s, criticized Keynesian theories, while New Keynesian economics ... School economics Stockholm school economics An intellectual precursor of Keynesian economics was underconsumption ... under the rubric of Keynesian economics , due to Keynes s role in consolidating, elaborating, and popularizing ... the economy. Citation needed date July 2009 Postwar Keynesianism Main Neo Keynesian economics New Keynesian economics Post Keynesian economics Post Keynesians are mentioned here because they trace ... became widely accepted after World War II WWII , and until the early 1970s, Keynesian economics ... called the Golden Age of Capitalism . In terms of policy, the twin tools of post war Keynesian economics ... of Control 1944 and later in The Economics of Employment 1951 . . . . Textbook expositions of Keynesian ... associated with New Keynesian economics one strategy, utilized also as a critique of the notably ... their legacy to Keynes currently exist, the notable ones being Neo Keynesian economics , New Keynesian economics , and Post Keynesian economics . Keynes biographer Robert Skidelsky writes that the post ... keynesian pp. 88 89 ref In the postwar era, Keynesian analysis was combined with neoclassical economics to produce what is generally termed the neoclassical synthesis , yielding Neo Keynesian economics ... war domination by Neo Keynesian economics was broken during the stagflation of the 1970s. There was a lack of consensus among macroeconomists in the 1980s. However, the advent of New Keynesian economics ... models now dominate mainstream economics. Post Keynesian economics Post Keynesian economists ...   more details



  1. Post Keynesian economics

    Keynesian Economics, 27 3 371. ref economics is a Schools of economic thought school of economic ... of the Journal of Post Keynesian Economics in 1978. Prior to 1975, and occasionally in more recent work, Post Keynesian could simply mean economics carried out after 1936, the date ... misrepresented by the two other principal Keynesian schools neo Keynesian economics which was orthodox in the 1950s and 60s and by New Keynesian economics , which together with various strands of neoclassical economics has been dominant in mainstream macroeconomics since the 1980s. Post Keynesian ... The theoretical foundation of Post Keynesian economics is the principle of effective demand , that demand ... in neo Keynesian economics. The positive contribution of Post Keynesian economics ref For a general ... research is published in the Journal of Post Keynesian Economics founded by Sidney Weintraub and Paul ... www.postkeynesian.net Post Keynesian Economics Study Group PKSG . US Kansas City School In America ... macroeconomics, labour economics, regional development and monetary economics. Major Post Keynesian ... Business and economics Keynesian economics Notes Reflist 2 References cite journal last Arestis first Philip title Post Keynesian economics towards coherence journal Cambridge Journal of Economics volume ... last Eichner and Kregel title An Essay on Post Keynesian Theory A New Paradigm in Economics journal ... Geoff title The Structure of Post Keynesian Economics publisher Columbia University Press year 2006 ... last King first J.E. title A history of post Keynesian economics since 1936 year 2002 ISBN 978 1 84064 ..., Steven 2006 . Empirical Post Keynesian Economics Looking at the Real World. M.E. Sharpe. External ... to Post Keynesian Economics Lavoie.pdf Presentation of post keynsian economics Marc Lavoie http ... approaches Category Keynesian economics Category Heterodox economics Category Macroeconomics ...Post Keynesian ref There is semantic dispute as to whether there should be a hyphen between Post and Keynesian ...   more details



  1. Neo-Keynesian economics

    distinguish New Keynesian economics Economics sidebar Neo Keynesian economics is a school of macroeconomics ... wave of Keynesian thinking began with the attempt to give Keynesian macroeconomic reasoning a microeconomic basis. The New Keynesian economics new Keynesian s helped create a new neo classical synthesis ... bears his name, as is generally known as Keynesian economics . The first generation of Keynesians ... Neoclassical synthesis After Keynes, Keynesian analysis was combined with classical economics to produce ... inflation. It was with John Hicks that Keynesian economics produced a clear model economics ... and new classical economics . This produced a policy bind and the collapse of the Keynesian consensus on the economy. New Keynesian economics main New Keynesian economics Through the 1980s Keynesian ... Keynesian economics . The heart of the new Keynesian view rests on microeconomic models that indicate ... of rational expectations to reject Keynesian economics. Most well known is the critique by Robert ... macroeconomics footer Schools of economic thought DEFAULTSORT Neo Keynesian Economics Category Keynesian ... Neo Keynesian economics sv Neo Keynesianism zh ... to interpret and formalize Keynes writings, and to synthesize it with the neo classical economics neo classical models of economics . Their work has become known as the neo classical synthesis , and created the models that formed the core ideas of neo Keynesian economics. These ideas dominated mainstream economics in the post war period, and formed the mainstream of macroeconomic thought in the 1950s ... Keynesian Synthesis work The History of Economic Thought Website publisher The New School accessdate 2009 04 23 ref In the 1970s a series of developments occurred that shook neo Keynesian ... doubt on neo Keynesian theories. The result would be a series of new ideas to bring tools to Keynesian ... research working papers 1998 pdf wp98 5.pdf ref Following the emergence of the new Keynesian ...   more details



  1. New Keynesian economics

    distinguish Neo Keynesian economics Economics sidebar New Keynesian economics is a school of contemporary macroeconomics that strives to provide microfoundations microeconomic foundations for Keynesian economics . It developed partly as a response to criticisms of Keynesian macroeconomics by adherents ... title Coordinating coordination failures in Keynesian models journal Quarterly Journal of Economics ... theories related to or opposed to Keynesian economics Keynesianism have been influential. ref Michael ... neoclassical synthesis to refer to the integration of Keynesian economics with neoclassical economics ... Keynesian economics post Keynesianism of Paul Davidson economist Paul Davidson , which emphasizes ... 2727103 What is New Keynesian Economics? , Journal of Economic Literature . N. Gregory Mankiw, http www.econlib.org library Enc NewKeynesianEconomics.html New Keynesian Economics , from the Concise ... 2008 , http www.dictionaryofeconomics.com article?id pde2008 N000166 New Keynesian Economics , New Palgrave ... Keynesian macroeconomics . macroeconomics footer DEFAULTSORT New Keynesian Economics Category Keynesian ..., methodology, and heterodox approaches Category New Keynesian economics bg ... Keynesian approach to macroeconomics. Like the New Classical approach, New Keynesian macroeconomic ... differ in that New Keynesian analysis usually assumes a variety of market failure s. In particular, New ... why prices and wages can become Sticky economics sticky , which means they do not adjust instantaneously ... in New Keynesian Model macroeconomics models , imply that the economy may fail to attain full employment ... to New Keynesian theory were compiled in 1991 by editors N. Gregory Mankiw and David Romer in New Keynesian Economics , volumes 1 and 2. ref N. Gregory Mankiw and David Romer, eds., 1991 , New Keynesian Economics . Vol. 1 Imperfect competition and sticky prices , MIT Press, ISBN 0 262 63133 4. Vol ... Keynesian macroeconomic effects, and did not yet attempt to construct complete macroeconomic model ...   more details



  1. Keynesian formula

    an economic contraction. In Keynesian economics, increased government spending is thought to raise aggregate demand and increase consumption. Exports In economics, an export is any good or commodity .... See also Aggregate demand Aggregate supply John Maynard Keynes Keynesian economics Supply side economics References gutenberg author id John Maynard Keynes name John Maynard Keynes http cepa.newschool.edu het essays keynes keynesrev.htm The Keynesian Revolution http www.cbo.gov budget budproj.shtml ... economics keynes general theory John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money 1936 Category Keynesian economics ...Merge Aggregate Demand date January 2010 The Keynesian formula is an economic theory developed by the British economist John Maynard Keynes . Keynes argued that the level of output and employment in the economy was determined by aggregate demand or effective demand . In a reversal of Say s Law , Keynes in essence argued that man creates his own supply, up to the limit set by full employment . Adherents ... of this theory. Composition of the Keynesian Formula In scientific notation, the Keynesian Formula consists of the following make up math C I G X M Y GDP math which means consumption economics Consumption Investment Government Spending Export s Import s Gross Domestic Product Consumption In Keynesian economics aggregate consumption is total personal consumption expenditure, i.e., the purchase of currently produced good economics goods and Service economics services out of income, out of savings ... closely related meanings in business management , finance and economics , related to saving or deferring consumption economics consumption . An asset is usually purchased, or equivalently a deposit ... of import. Imports In economics, an import is any good or commodity, brought into one country ... in aggregate demand, thus causing and inward shift in the aggregate demand curve. The Keynesian ...   more details



  1. Keynesian cross

    KeynesianCrossDiagram Keynesian Cross Diagram by Fiona Maclachlan, The Wolfram Demonstrations Project . Category Keynesian economics Category Macroeconomics Category Economics models ru ...Image KeynesianCross 3.png thumb 250px Keynesian cross diagram In the Keynesian cross diagram or 45 degree line diagram , a desired total spending or aggregate expenditure , or aggregate demand curve shown in blue is drawn as a rising line since consumers will have a larger demand with a rise in disposable income , which increases with total national output . This increase is due to the positive relationship between consumption economics consumption and consumers disposable income in the consumption function . Aggregate demand may also rise due to increases in investment due to the accelerator effect , while this rise is reduced if imports and tax revenues rise with income. Equilibrium in this diagram occurs where total demand, AD , equals the total amount of national output, Y , which corresponds to total national income or production . Here, total demand equals Aggregate supply total supply . In the diagram, the economic equilibrium equilibrium level of output and demand is determined where this desired spending curve intersects a line that represents the equality of total income and output AD Y . The intersection gives the equilibrium output, Y . The movement toward equilibrium is mostly via changes in inventories inducing changes in production and income. If current output exceeds the equilibrium, inventories accumulate, encouraging businesses to cut back on production, moving the economy toward equilibrium. Similarly, if the level of production is below the equilibrium, then inventories ... output. The AD Y line does not shift under the definition used here . Assumptions The Keynesian ... demand. ref name Suranovic Suranovic, Steven M. Chapter 50 7 The Keynesian Cross Diagram ... eurmacro tutor c02.html The Keynesian Cross includes an applet that demonstrates the Keynesian ...   more details



  1. List of Post-Keynesian economists

    Orphan date October 2010 Economists who describe themselves or are described as Post Keynesian economics Post Keynesian include colbegin 3 Dean Baker Terry Barker Paul Davidson economist Paul Davidson Alfred Eichner James K. Galbraith Geoff Harcourt John Henry Michael Hudson economist Michael Hudson Nicholas Kaldor Micha Kalecki Steve Keen Jan Kregel Abba P. Lerner Hyman Minsky William Francis Bill Mitchell Basil Moore economist Basil Moore Warren Mosler Luigi Pasinetti Joan Robinson G. L. S. Shackle Robert Skidelsky economist Robert Skidelsky Anthony Thirlwall William Vickrey Sidney Weintraub Steven Fazzari colend Keynesians Category Post Keynesian economists Category Lists of economists Post Keynesian ...   more details



  1. Economics

    Hatnote This article is about the social science. For other uses, see Economics disambiguation . Outline Outline of economics pp semi small yes Economics sidebar Economics is the Social sciences social science that analyzes the Production theory basics production , Distribution economics distribution , and Consumption economics consumption of Good economics and accounting goods and Service economics services . The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek lang grc wikt lang ..., but economists in the latter 19th century suggested economics as a shorter term for economic ... Marshall 1879 . The Economics of Industry , Macmillan, p. http books.google.com books?id wFc4yr9xfqAC ... A focus of the subject is how Agent economics economic agents behave or interact and how economy ... positive economics describing what is and normative economics advocating what ought to be between economic theory and applied economics between Rational choice theory rational and behavioral economics and between mainstream economics more orthodox dealing with the rationality individualism equilibrium nexus and heterodox economics more radical dealing with the institutions history social structure nexus . ref Davis, John B. 2006 . Heterodox Economics, the Fragmentation of the Mainstream, and Embedded Individual Analysis , in Future Directions in Heterodox Economics . Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press. ref Economic analysis may be applied throughout society, as in business economics business , financial economics finance , Health economics health care , and government, but also to such diverse ... LIBRARY Enc Crime.html Crime, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. . Retrieved October 21, 2007. ref education economics education , ref The World Bank 2007 . http go.worldbank.org 78EK1G87M0 Economics of Education. . Retrieved October 21, 2007. ref the Family economics family , Law and economics law , public choice politics , Economics of religion religion , ref Iannaccone, Laurence R. 1998 . Introduction ...   more details



  1. Keynesian beauty contest

    Interest and Money Category Behavioral finance Category Game theory Category Keynesian economics de ...A Keynesian beauty contest is a concept developed by John Maynard Keynes and introduced in Chapter 12 of his work, General Theory of Employment Interest and Money 1936 , to explain market trend price fluctuations in stock equity stock market markets . Overview Keynes described the action of rational agents in a market using an analogy based on a fictional newspaper contest, in which entrants are asked to choose a set of six faces from photographs of women that are the most beautiful . Those who picked the most popular face are then eligible for a prize. A na ve strategy would be to choose the six faces that, in the opinion of the entrant, are the most beautiful. A more sophisticated contest entrant, wishing to maximize the chances of winning a prize, would think about what the majority perception of beauty is, and then make a selection based on some inference from their knowledge of public perceptions. This can be carried one step further to take into account the fact that other entrants would each have their own opinion of what public perceptions are. Thus the strategy can be extended to the next order, and the next, and so on, at each level attempting to predict the eventual outcome of the process based on the reasoning of other rational agent s. blockquote It is not a case of choosing those faces that, to the best of one s judgment, are really the prettiest, nor even those that average opinion genuinely thinks the prettiest. We have reached the third degree where we devote our intelligences to anticipating what average opinion expects the average opinion to be. And there are some, I believe, who practice the fourth, fifth and higher degrees. Keynes, General Theory of Employment Interest and Money, 1936 . blockquote Keynes believed that similar behavior was at work within the stock market . This would have people pricing shares not based on what they think their Intrinsic ...   more details



  1. New Economics

    New Economics may refer to New classical macroeconomics New Keynesian economics disambig Long comment to avoid being listed on short pages ...   more details



  1. Book:Economics

    saved book title Economics subtitle cover image Supply demand right shift demand.svg cover color LightGrey Economics Main article Economics History of economic thought History of economic thought Schools of economic thought Classical economics Marxian economics Neoclassical economics Keynesian economics Post Keynesian economics Chicago school of economics Microeconomics Microeconomics Production possibility frontier Opportunity cost Production theory basics Division of labour Comparative advantage Gains from trade Supply and demand Market failure Government failure Information economics Environmental economics Agricultural economics Theory of the firm Industrial organization Labour economics Financial economics Business economics Managerial economics Public economics Public finance Welfare economics factors of production Macroeconomics Macroeconomics Economic growth Gross domestic product General equilibrium theory Circular flow of income Aggregate supply Aggregate demand Great Depression Unemployment Inflation Monetary policy Money Quantity theory of money History of money Fiscal policy Government spending Regulation National accounts International economics International economics Economic system Economics in practice Mathematical economics Economic methodology Econometrics Game theory Economist Economics and other subjects Law and economics Philosophy and economics Natural resource economics Thermoeconomics Category Wikipedia books on economics Economics ...   more details



  1. Stimulus (economics)

    In economics, stimulus refers to attempts to use monetary policy monetary or fiscal policy or stabilization policy in general to stimulate the economy. Stimulus can also refer to monetary policies like lowering interest rates and quantitative easing . Econ stub Category Economic policy Category Fiscal policy Category Keynesian economics bg sv Stimulans tg rd ...   more details



  1. Economics (textbook)

    &result number 2 Abstract. ref bringing a mix of neoclassical economics and Keynesian economics and helping make this the leading school in mainstream economics in the United States and globally in the second ... economics . ref name skousen Reception Initial reception Economics was the second Keynesian textbook in the United States, following the 1947 The Elements of Economics, by Lorie Tarshis . Like Tarshis s work, Economics was attacked by Conservatism in the United States American conservatives as part ...italic title Economics is an influential introductory textbook by American economists Paul Samuelson ... Publisher s page on the book ref It was the best selling economics textbook for many decades and still ... Citation last Skousen first Mark year 1997 title The Perseverance of Paul Samuelson s Economics ... copies. Economics was written entirely by Samuelson until the 1985 twelfth edition. Newer editions ... its economics textbooks. ref Nasar, Silvia, Hard Act to Follow?, New York Times, March 14, 1995, C1, C8. ref Economics has been called a canonical textbook , and the development of mainstream economic ... title After the Revolution Paul Samuelson and the Textbook Keynesian Model first1 Kerry A. last1 Pearce ... Economics coined the term neoclassical synthesis and popularized the concept, ref Olivier J. Blanchard Blanchard, Olivier Jean 2008 , neoclassical synthesis, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics ... to antiquity. The 1958 text introduced a family tree of economics , which by the 20th century consisted ... economics equal economics with neo classical economics , following Samuelson. Later editions ... business pressuring , and Samuelson was accused of Communism , but in the event Economics proved ... 33 ref Accusations by conservatives of communist sympathies in Economics have continued into the 1980s ... 10 13 work National Review ref See also Principles of Economics Marshall Principles of Economics , a similarly ... on the Textbook Keynesian Revolution God, Man, and Laurie Tarshis at Yale first1 David last1 Colander ...   more details



  1. Mainstream economics

    combines neoclassical methods and Keynesian economics Keynesian approach macroeconomics. ref Olivier J. Blanchard 2008 , neoclassical synthesis, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics , 2nd Edition ... Keynesian economics, for instance. Prior to the development of modern academic economics, the dominant ... Second World War , the school of Keynesian economics gained prominence, which built on the work ... microeconomics. In continental Europe, by contrast, Keynesian economics was rejected, with German ...Economics sidebar Mainstream economics is a term used to refer to widely accepted economics as taught across prominent universities, and in contrast to heterodox economics . It has been associated with neoclassical economics ref David Colander David C. Colander 2000 . Complexity and History of Economic ... major contemporary orthodox schools of economics economic schools of thought are the saltwater and freshwater economics saltwater and freshwater schools . The saltwater schools consist of the universities ..., Chicago, Minnesota and Rochester ref The Saltwater school is associated with Keynesian ideas of government ... to macroeconomics . History Economics has, in modern times, always featured multiple schools of economic ... the current use of the term mainstream economics is specific to the post World War II era, particularly ... school. With the development of modern economics, conventionally given as the late 18th century The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith , British economics developed and became dominated by what is now called the classical economics classical school . From The Wealth of Nations until the Great Depression , the dominant school within the Anglosphere was classical economics, and its successor, neoclassical economics . ref The precise distinction and relationship between classical economics and neoclassical economics is Classical economics Debates on the definition of classical economics ... school of economics in Germany, and throughout the 19th century there were debates in British ...   more details



  1. Leakage (economics)

    In economics , leakage is the non consumption uses of income, including saving, taxes, and imports. In the Keynesian injection leakage or circular flow of income circular flow model, leakages are combined with injections to identify equilibrium aggregate output. The model is best viewed as a circular flow between national income, output, consumption, and factor payments. Savings, taxes, and imports are leaked out of the main flow, reducing the money available in the rest of the economy. ref http www.econplace.com mm5e glossary.html EconPlace ref The simple model of Money creation credit creation assumes all loans borrowed from bank s in a fractional reserve banking system are re deposited to the system. This allows simple calculation of amount of credit created. Therefore, in credit creation, cash leakage refers to the sums of money borrowed from banks but not re deposited. Cash leakage, in this case, lowers the ability of credit creation. ref Ngai, J. et al., Economics and You 5 , Manhattan, Hong Kong, 2005. ref References reflist Category Economics models Category Economics terminology Econ term stub ...   more details



  1. Heterodox economics

    Austrian economics Austrian , Post Keynesian economics Post Keynesian , Marxist economics Marxist , and neo Ricardianism neo Ricardian schools. Solow wrote, In economics, nevertheless, there is usually ...&ref opinion p. WK 9. ref The rise, and absorption into the mainstream of Keynesian economics , which ... of Keynesian and neoclassical economics resulted in a clearly defined mainstream position based ... for a review of post Keynesian economics, see Lavoie 1992 Rochon 1999 . David Colander , an advocate ... Mutualism Neuroeconomics Participatory economics Post Keynesian economics , including Modern Monetary ...Economics sidebar Heterodox economics refers to approaches or to schools of economic thought that are considered outside of mainstream economics and sometimes contrasted by expositors with neoclassical economics . ref Fred E. Foldvary, ed., 1996. Beyond Neoclassical Economics Heterdox Approaches to Economic ... economics fred e foldvary 1001678359?ean 9781858983950 product commentaries 1 B&N.com links . ref ..., that most serious English speaking economists regard Marxist economics as an irrelevant dead end. blockquote ... English language universities. harv Stigler 1988 p 1733 ref Mainstream economics is called Orthodoxy Critical uses orthodox economics by its critics. Heterodox economics is an umbrella term used to cover various approaches, schools, or traditions. These include institutional economics institutional , evolutionary economics evolutionary , Post Keynesian economics post Keynesian , Socialist economics socialist , Marxian economics Marxian , Feminist economics feminist , Austrian School Austrian , Ecological economics ecological , Resource based economy resource based , and social economics among others. ref Frederic S. Lee, 2008. heterodox economics, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics ... T. volume 30 year 2005 title The nature of heterodox economics journal Cambridge Journal of Economics doi 10.1093 cje bei093 url http cas.umkc.edu econ economics faculty wray papers lawson on heterdoxy.pdf ...   more details



  1. Outline of economics

    Keynes Keynes, John Maynard Keynesian economics Knowledge based economy Laissez faire Land economics ... Natural gross domestic product Neoclassical economics Neo classical growth model Neo Keynesian Economics Network effect Network externality New classical economics New Keynesian economics Normal goods ...The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics Economics &ndash analyzes the Production theory basics production , Distribution economics distribution , and Consumption economics consumption of Good economics and accounting goods and Service economics services . It aims to explain how economy economies work and how economic Agent economics agents interact. Nature of economics Economics can be described as all of the following Academic discipline &ndash body of knowledge ... science &ndash field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of human society. Essence of economics Business Economy Finance Trade Branches of economics Subdisciplines of economics Attention economics Behavioural economics Bioeconomics biophysical Bioeconomics Contract theory Development economics Econometrics Economic geography Economic history Economic sociology Education economics Energy economics Entrepreneurial economics Environmental economics Feminist economics Financial economics Green economics Industrial organization Information economics International economics Institutional economics Labor economics Law and economics Managerial economics Mathematical economics Monetary economics Public finance Public economics Real estate economics Regional science Resource economics Socialist economics Welfare economics Methodologies or approaches Behavioural economics Computational economics Econometrics Evolutionary economics Experimental economics Praxeology used by the Austrian School Social psychology Multidisciplinary fields involving economics Constitutional economics Econophysics Neuroeconomics Political economy Socioeconomics Thermoeconomics Transport economics Economics ...   more details



  1. Multiplier (economics)

    sum tax es or proportional tax es . Keynesian multiplier Keynesian economics Keynesian economists ...In economics, a multiplier is a factor of proportionality that measures how much an Endogenous economics endogenous variable changes in response to a change in some exogenous variable. For example, suppose a one unit change in some variable x causes another variable y to change by M units. Then the multiplier is M . Common uses Two multipliers are commonly discussed in introductory macroeconomics . Money multiplier Main Money multiplier See also Fractional reserve banking In monetary macroeconomics and banking, the money multiplier measures how much the money supply increases in response to a change in the monetary base . The multiplier may vary across countries, and will also vary depending on what measures of money are considered. For example, consider Money supply Empirical measures M2 as a measure of the U.S. money supply, and Money supply Empirical measures M0 as a measure of the U.S. monetary base. If a 1 increase in M0 by the Federal Reserve causes M2 to increase by 10, then the money multiplier is 10. Fiscal multipliers Main Fiscal multiplier Multipliers can be calculated to analyze ... Keynesian multiplier formulas measure how much the IS LM IS curve shifts left or right in response to an exogenous change in spending. Opponents of Keynesianism have sometimes argued that Keynesian ... relies on a multiplier mechanism which is based on a simple Keynesian consumption function with a Robertsonian ... economics endogenous variables change in the long run, given a permanent change in one or more ... L tkepohl 2008 , Impulse response function . The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics , 2nd. ed. ref ... precise formulation of interdependent systems in economics and the origin of multiplier theory ... PA117 The origins of the Keynesian revolution , by Robert William Dimand, http books.google.com books?id cYirAAAAIAAJ&pg PA117 p. 117 ref Critiques Economist Robert Barro believes that the Keynesian ...   more details



  1. Classical economics

    & Sraffans, and lectures by Steve Keen on history of economics or been replaced by Keynesian economics in the Keynesian revolution and neoclassical synthesis . Some classical ideas are represented in various schools of heterodox economics , notably Marxian economics Marx being a contemporary of the classical economists and their immediate successors and Austrian economics , which split from neoclassical economics in the late 19th century. Classical theories of growth and development Analyzing the growth ...Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of history of economic thought economic ... the beginning of classical economics. The school was active into the mid 19th century and was followed by neoclassical economics in Britain beginning around 1870, or, in Marx s definition by vulgar political economy from the 1830s. The Debates on the definition of classical economics definition of classical economics is debated , particularly the period 1830 70 and the connection to neoclassical economics. The term classical economics was coined by Karl Marx to refer to Ricardian economics the economics ... and Money , John Maynard Keynes , Chapter 1, http www.marxists.org reference subject economics keynes ... Steven M. Sheffrin title Economics Principles in action publisher Pearson Prentice Hall year ... id isbn 0 13 063085 3 ref Classical economists and their immediate predecessors reoriented economics ... , economic rent rent , and interest economics interest or profits. Modern legacy Classical economics is generally agreed but see section 5 below to have developed into neoclassical economics as the name suggests or to at least be most closely represented in the modern age by neoclassical economics, and many of its ideas remain fundamental in economics. Other ideas, however, have either disappeared .... Ricardo and the Moderns , Quarterly Journal of Economics , V. 91, N. 3 Aug. pp. 351 369 ref Nicholas ... of Economics , V. 73, February and May ref ref Samuelson, Paul A. 1978 The Canonical Classical Model ...   more details



  1. Innovation economics

    , neoclassical economics and Keynesian economics . Historical origins If Adam Smith is the patron saint of classical economics and Keynes of Keynesian economics , it is Joseph Schumpeter who is the patron saint of innovation economics, especially with his classic 1942 book Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy ... , South Korea See also Business cluster Economic development Keynesian economics Knowledge economy ...Economics sidebar Innovation economics is a growing economic doctrine that reformulates conventional economics theory so that knowledge , technology , entrepreneurship , and innovation are positioned at the center .... Innovation economics is based on two fundamental tenets that the central goal of economic policy ... and on economics. For Schumpeter it was evolving institutions, entrepreneur s, and technological ... focused on innovation that was grounded in Schumpeter s ideas has emerged. Innovation economics ... process as understood in industrialization . Hence, innovation economics focused on a theory of economic ... between heterodox economics that emphasized the fragility of conventional assumptions and Mainstream economics orthodox economics that ignored the fragility of such assumptions, innovation economics ... economy. ref Antonelli, C. 2003 . The Economics of Innovation, New Technologies, and Structural ... has emerged in the last decade. Innovation economics emerges on the wage of other schools of thoughts in economics, including new institutional economics , new growth theory , endogenous growth theory , evolutionary economics , neo Schumpeterian economics provides an economic framework that explains and helps support growth in today s knowledge economy . Leading theorists of innovation economics ... is not Capital economics capital accumulation, as claimed by neoclassicalism asserts, but innovative capacity spurred by appropriable knowledge and technological externalities. Economics growth in innovation economics is the end product of knowledge tacit vs. codified regimes and policies allowing for entrepreneurship ...   more details



  1. Neoclassical economics

    neo classical microeconomics and Keynesian economics Keynesian macroeconomics would lead to the neoclassical ... in mainstreaming Keynesian economics. Macroeconomics influenced the neoclassical synthesis from ...refimprove date August 2011 lead too long date August 2011 Economics sidebar Neoclassical economics is a term variously used for approaches to economics focusing on the determination of prices, outputs, and income distribution economics distribution s in markets through supply and demand , often mediated ... economics profit s by cost constrained firms employing available information and factors of production, in accordance with rational choice theory . ref Antonietta Campus 1987 , marginal economics , The New Palgrave A Dictionary of Economics , v. 3, p. 323. ref Neoclassical economics dominates microeconomics, and together with Keynesian economics forms the neoclassical synthesis , which dominates mainstream economics today. ref name Clark Clark, B. 1998 . Principles of political economy A comparative approach . Westport, Connecticut Praeger. ref There have been many critiques of neoclassical economics ... Economics . ref ref Aspromourgos, T. 1986 . On the origins of the term neoclassical . Cambridge Journal of Economics, 10 3 , 265 270. http cje.oxfordjournals.org cgi reprint 10 3 265.pdf ref ... Journal of Economics , 14 2 , 240 269. Term on pg. 261 . ref blockquote It was later used by John ... used to refer to mainstream economics , although it has also been used as an umbrella term encompassing ... excluding institutional economics , various historical school of economics historical schools of economics , and Marxian economics , in addition to various other heterodox economics heterodox approaches to economics . Neoclassical economics is characterized by several assumptions common to many schools of economic thought . There is not a complete agreement on what is meant by neoclassical economics ... by E. Roy Weintraub , neoclassical economics rests on three assumptions, although certain branches ...   more details



  1. Sticky (economics)

    in macroeconomics Sticky prices play an important role in Keynesian , macroeconomic theory, especially in new Keynesian economics new Keynesian thought . Keynesian macroeconomists suggest that markets ... of Wholesale Gasoline Prices. External links http www.economist.com research Economics alphabetic.cfm?TERM STICKY 20PRICES stickyprices Economics A Z Sticky Prices Category Economics terminology Category New Keynesian economics it Vischiosit pl Lepko cen ru vi Gi c ...Sticky , in the social sciences and particularly economics , describes a situation in which a variable is resistant to change. Sticky prices are an important part of macroeconomic theory since they may be used to explain why markets might not reach equilibrium right away. Nominal wages are often said ... economics profit , and when demand decreases they are more likely to hold prices constant, while ..., Journal of Monetary Economics . 12 3 , 383 398. ref In Taylor 1980 , firms change prices every n th ... For Recent U.S. Inflation? The Quarterly Journal of Economics , MIT Press, vol. 123 3 , pages 863 904 ..., The Keynesian model title General competitive analysis publisher North Holland pages series Advanced textbooks in economics volume 12 edition 1980 reprint of 1971 San  Francisco,  CA Holden Day,  Inc. Mathematical economics texts.  6 location Amsterdam isbn 0 444 85497 5 mr 439057 ref ... of equilibrium economics location New York publisher Cambridge University Press series Econometric ... cite book title Money and value A reconsideration of classical and neoclassical monetary economics ... Grandmont series Economic Theory, Econometrics, and Mathematical Economics volume isbn 0122951468 ..., 1987. monetary disequilibrium and market clearing in The New Palgrave A Dictionary of Economics , v. 3, pp. 504 06. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics , 2008, 2nd Edition. Abstracts http ... Economic theory, econometrics, and mathematical economics editor first Ross M. editor last Starr ...   more details



  1. Applied economics

    Applied economics is a term that refers to the application of economic theory and analysis. While not a field of economics, it is typically characterized by the application of economic theory and econometrics to address practical issues in a range of fields including demographic economics , labour economics , business economics , industrial organization , development economics , education economics , health economics , monetary economics , public economics , and economic history . The process often ... Economics published by Edward Elgar . ref This range of approaches is indicative of what Roger ... of applied economics. It is a concept with multiple meanings. ref name backhouse Backhouse, R. and Jeff Biddle 2000 The concept of applied economics a history of ambiguity and multiple meanings , History of Applied Economics 32 annual supplement , 2000. ref Among broad Economic methodology methodological distinctions, one source places it in neither positive economics positive nor normative economics but the art of economics , gloss ed as what most economists do . ref David Colander Colander, David 1992 . Retrospectives The Lost Art of Economics, Journal of Economic Perspectives , 6 3 , pp. 197 ... Origins of the term The origin and meanings of Applied Economics has a long history going back to the writing ... J.N. Keynes was perhaps the first to use the phrase applied economics . He noted that the English .... The Pamphleteer 29 33 47. Reprinted in vol. 1 of The Methodology of Economics Nineteenth Century ... were an integral part of the science of economics J.N Keynes believed in the desirability of the English ... name keynes Indeed it was he who proposed using the phrase applied economics instead of the art of political ... economics noting three different uses ref name keynes in the sense suggested in the text in association ..., planned to organize his main work into volumes on pure, applied, and social economics. Jaff ... the nature of things. Pure economics then involves pure logic. Applied economics involves examining ...   more details



  1. Institutional economics

    Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions .... The American Economic Review. Vol.23. No.2. June 1933. pp.274 277. ref Institutional economics ... continues today as a leading Heterodox economics heterodox approach to economics. ref name Samuels2008 Warren J. Samuels 1987 2008 . institutional economics, The New Palgrave A Dictionary of Economics ...&topicid &result number 2 Abstract. ref A significant variant is the new institutional economics from the later 20th century, which integrates later developments of neoclassical economics into the analysis. Law and economics has been a major theme since the publication of the Legal Foundations of Capitalism by John R. Commons in 1924. Behavioral economics is another hallmark of institutional economics based on what is known about psychology and cognitive science, rather than simple assumptions ... institutional ones. Institutional economics Institutional economics focuses on learning, bounded ... . It was a central part of American economics the first part of the 20th century, including such famous ... Malcolm Rutherford 2008 . institutionalism, old, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics ... in the form of institutionalist political economy is thus an explicit challenge to neoclassical economics , since it is based on the fundamental premise that neoclassicists oppose that economics cannot ... of the American way . Thorstein Veblen wrote in 1898 an article entitled Why is Economics Not an Evolutionary Science ref Veblen, Th. 1898 Why is Economics Not an Evolutionary Science , The Quarterly Journal of Economics , 12 . ref and he became the precursor of current evolutionary economics . John ... his ideas, consolidated in Institutional Economics 1934 was the concept that the economy is a web ... the Texas school of institutional economics. Ayres developed on the ideas of Thorstein Veblen with a dichotomy ... economics throughout the late twentieth century. In The Affluent Society 1958 , Galbraith argues voters ...   more details



  1. Distribution (economics)

    Distribution in economics refers to the way total Output economics output , income, or Wealth Economic ... economics labour , Land economics land , and capital economics capital . ref Paul A. Samuelson and William Nordhaus William D. Nordhaus 2004 . Economics textbook Economics , 18th ed., end Glossary of Terms ..., 1971 . In welfare economics , a level of feasible output production possibilities frontier possibilities is commonly Welfare economics Efficiency between production and consumption distinguished ... economics at a high level of generality. Neoclassical distribution theory In neoclassical economics ... economics The Marginal Revolution neoclassical economists from about 1870 to 1910 . New York Macmillan ... force. ref Frank Hahn F.H. Hahn 2008 . neoclassical growth theory, The New Palgrave A Dictionary of Economics ... of what? Good economics and accounting Goods economics Income Distribution of wealth Wealth Wealth economics Distribution theories Classical distribution theory Classical economics Value theory Classical economics value theory Marxian distribution theory Marxian economics Marx s economic theories Marxian economics Marx s economic theories Value product Neoclassical distribution theory Labour economics Neoclassical microeconomic model Demand Neoclassical microeconomic model of labor market ... economics of distribution Welfare economics Distributive justice Justice economics Social choice ... title The Economics of Discrimination year 1971, 2nd ed. publisher University of Chicago Press .... The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics . 2nd Edition. http www.dictionaryofeconomics.com ... , Stanford Encyclopedia of Economics . Gian Singh Sahota 1978 . Theories of Personal Income Distribution ... Journal of Economics, 121 2 , May, pp. 351 397. Paul A. Samuelson and William Nordhaus William D. Nordhaus 2004 . Economics textbook Economics , 18th ed., ch. 12 How Markets Determine Incomes ch ... 1947 1998 . Some distribution entries from The New Palgrave A Dictionary of Economics 1987 distribution ...   more details




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